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Chapter 4 : Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950

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Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter gives a coherent account of the gradual and uneven emergence of understanding of yeast cytology. Indeed, although the vacuole is usually the largest organelle in a yeast cell, Guilliermond was absolutely right: for many years, the identities of the yeast vacuole and nucleus were confused by a number of authors. The vacuole, it is now known, is bounded by a single membrane, the tonoplast, and acts as a lysosome, particularly for nonspecific intracellular proteolysis. The ascospores (the products of meiotic cell division) had long been known to exist in certain yeasts and other fungi, but their sexual significance was not understood. In 1891, Hansen published a paper on ascospore germination in , , and . Certain specialized yeast cells, ballistoconidia and chlamydospores, were clearly described at the end of the 19th century, but studies on yeast dimorphism have been done mostly in the 20th century. Since 1950, the existence and characteristics of most organelles of yeasts, such as mitochondria, Golgi apparatus, and endoplasmic reticulum, have been established largely by the use of phase-contrast and electron microscopy, as well by advances in biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4

Key Concept Ranking

Cell Structures and Organelles
0.66734594
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.53482604
Nuclear Membrane
0.5325506
Spindle Pole Bodies
0.47441185
0.66734594
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 4.1
FIGURE 4.1

Marie Antoine Alexandre Guilliermond (1876–1945). From Le Laboratoire de Cryptogamie, Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, with kind permission.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.2
FIGURE 4.2

Frans Alfons (Franciscus Alphonsius Ignatius Maria) Janssens (1863–1924). Courtesy of G. L. Hennebert; from the Archives of the Botany Unit, Faculty of Sciences, Catholic University of Louvain.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.3
FIGURE 4.3

Drawing of cells of , from Janssens and Leblanc in 1898 (996).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.4
FIGURE 4.4

Budding cells of , showing the vacuole and nucleus with a dark nucleolus, in a typical position near the vacuole, and a pale chromatin area traversed by a spindle fiber. Helly fixation, acid fuchsin staining; bar, 5 µm. Courtesy of Carl Robinow.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.5
FIGURE 4.5

Guilliermond’s drawings, made in 1914, of meiosis in an ascus of , showing the spindle fiber and spindle pole bodies (798, Fig. 5–7).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.6
FIGURE 4.6

Robinow’s phase-contrast photomicrographs of two successive stages of mitosis in , showing spindle fibers; bar, 5 µm. Courtesy of Carl Robinow.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.7
FIGURE 4.7

Lindegren’s illustration of mitosis in the yeast cell, published in 1946 (1286, Fig. 5).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.8
FIGURE 4.8

Diagrams of the yeast cell, published between 1910 and 1969. (A) From Wager and Peniston of 1910: 1, nucleolus; 2, peripheral layer of chromatin; 3, chromatin patch on one side of nucleolus; 4, nuclear vacuole; 5, central volutin granule in the vacuole; 6, chromatin network; 7, granules of fatty substance; 8, volutin granules; 9, glycogen granules (2264, p. 76). (B) Figure 1 of Lindegren’s paper of 1952 (1279). (C) From Matile, Moor, and Robinow of 1969, that is, after the application of phase-contrast and electron microscopy: ER, endoplasmic reticulum; F, filament; G, Golgi apparatus; L, lipid granule (spherosome); M, mitochondrion; Mt, thread-like mitochondrion; N, nucleus; Nc, centriolar plaque; Nm, nuclear membrane; Nn, nucleolus; Pi, invagination; Pl, plasmalemma; V, vacuole; Vp, polymetaphosphate granule; W, cell wall; Ws, bud scar (1409, p. 221).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.9
FIGURE 4.9

Hansen’s drawings, published in 1891, of budding of ascospores. (A) in beer wort–gelatin at ~20°C; bar, 10 µm. and are derived from spores which, for 3 weeks, have been subjected to very strong desiccation. In all the other series, young fresh spores have been used; times are from the beginning of the experiment. , three spores joined together; ′, after 19 h, ″, after 22 h, ‴, after 30 h; , cell containing four spores, two behind the other two; ′, the same, 18 h later, after budding has begun. , development of four spores over 11 h, with cell containing four spores. , three spores budding over 25 h. to ′‴, development from spores after 7.5 hours (′), 8.5 hours (″), 11 hours (‴), 20 hours (′‴), and 50 hours (″‴). and , two asci and spore development for 25 h. , two spores in ascus fuse. (B) grown in beer wort; spores were obtained by transfer to plaster of Paris (CaSO). The series of budding spores are shown as in panel A, with each series showing fusion quite clearly. Panels A and B are from Fig. 3 and 5, respectively, of reference 840. Courtesy of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.10
FIGURE 4.10

Barker’s 1901 drawings of ascospore formation by (72, Plate 46). The cells were fixed with Rath’s solution (2230) (picric acid + PtCl + acetic acid) and stained with Flemming’s triple stain (safranin, gentian violet and orange G in clove oil). , ovoid cell; , cell with developing tube; to , two cells conjoined; to , formation of ascospores.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.11
FIGURE 4.11

Guilliermond’s drawings of isogamy in , stained with Heidenhain’s hematoxylin. (Planche VII, Fig. 1 to 27 of Guilliermond’s 1902 thesis for his doctorate [792].)

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.12
FIGURE 4.12

Guilliermond’s 1905 drawing of germination of ascospores of (793, Fig. 6).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.13
FIGURE 4.13

Three of Winge’s bespoke chambers for micromanipulation, one mounted on a microscope slide: Fig. 1 in reference 2364. Courtesy of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.14
FIGURE 4.14

Ballistoconidia of , photographed by Fischer and Brebeck in 1894 (619). The yeast was cultured in beer wort for 60 h; a smear was stained and observed under a microscope, using a 2-mm Zeiss apochromatic objective.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.15
FIGURE 4.15

Drawings by Kluyver and van Niel of the formation (Fig. 8 in reference 1081) and discharge (Fig. 9) of ballistoconidia (“kidney-shaped cells” []) of (1081).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.16
FIGURE 4.16

Semidiagrammatic drawings by Buller and Macrae of the production of three ballistoconidia successively on a single sterigma by Incubation was at about 24°C. Numbers 1 to 8 represent stages in the development of a sterigma and the first ballistoconidium; after beginning its development, a sterigma became fully formed in 30 to 50 min, when a ballistoconidium began to develop at its tip (no. 3). Development of a ballistoconidium from its beginning to full size took about 30 min; it was then discharged. Just before discharge, a drop of liquid appeared at the point of attachment of the ballistoconidium and over 3 to 5 seconds the size of the drop increased to about that of the ballistoconidium (no. 6 and 7). The drop and ballistoconidium were shot away together for a vertical or horizontal distance of about 0.1 mm. Numbers 9 to 12 represent stages in the development of the second ballistoconidium, and numbers 13 to 16 represent stages in the development of the third ballistoconidium (229, Fig. 90).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.17
FIGURE 4.17

Drawing of two chlamydospores of , published by Roux and Linossier in 1890 (1872, Fig. 5).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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Image of FIGURE 4.18
FIGURE 4.18

Filamentous growths of (A and B), (C), and (D). Drawings by Harmanna Diddens and Jacomina Lodder (456).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 4.1

Some findings of yeast cytology, 1879–1951

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1890 to 1950, p 41-59. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch4

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