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Chapter 5 : Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990

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Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter summarizes selected and somewhat disparate advances made in yeast cytology after about 1950. Northcote and Horne disintegrated their baker’s yeast mechanically, and after centrifuging, mounted the cell wall fraction in polyvinyl formal films. The yeast walls proved to be stratified: after acid hydrolysis, chromatography showed that the outer layer was mainly mannan-protein; the walls contained 29% glucan and 31% mannan, previously reported for yeast cell walls as 13% protein and 8.5% lipid . It was in 1956 that Necas described the formation of some protoplasts or spheroplasts amongst spontaneously autolyzing . In 1989, Hartwell emphasized the relevance of this work on the cell cycle for the prevention of mammalian cancers. Chromosome behaviour in meiosis is well characterized from cytological and genetic descriptions but little is known of the underlying molecular mechanisms, largely because no one experimental system has been developed to support an integrated application of modern cytological, genetic, and molecular biological methods. A thorough account of the amount of work published on yeast cytology in the last 50 or so years would occupy several volumes; in addition, no account has been given here of advances made since 1990, which involve such innovations as the green fluorescent protein reporter system, confocal microscopy, and flow cytometric analysis.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5

Key Concept Ranking

Plasma Membrane
0.89417046
Cellular Processes
0.861053
Endoplasmic Reticulum
0.57647175
Golgi Apparatus
0.5720712
0.89417046
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 5.1
FIGURE 5.1

The nucleus in a freeze-etched cell of , showing pores in the nuclear envelope: an electron micrograph published by Moor in 1966 (1527). © H. Moor, 1966. Originally published in 153–155, 1966.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.2
FIGURE 5.2

Moor’s diagram of the four processes of his method of freeze-etching. , the yeast is frozen to –100°C; thereafter, under high vacuum: , the upper part is cut off with a supercooled knife; , ice is removed by sublimation; , the projecting material is shadowed with a carbon arc (1526, ). Reproduced by permission from reference 1526.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.3
FIGURE 5.3

Electron micrograph by Bacon and his colleagues of bud scar chitin residues of , after dissolving away mannan and glucan and shadowing with nickel-palladium (51, Plate 1b). Reproduced from reference 51 with permission.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.4
FIGURE 5.4

Bud and birth scars of . First described by Cagniard-Latour in 1836 (259), they were rediscovered by Barton in 1950. (A) One of Barton’s photomicrographs: a, birth scar; b, first bud scar. Photographed using mercury violet illumination, with an Ilford 601 filter. Reproduced from reference 103 with permission. (B) Bud scars on an electron micrograph by Bartholomew and Mittwer, published in 1953 (102). (C) Many bud scars on a single cell, shown using fluorescence microscopy, stained with primulin by Streiblová in 1970 (2086). (D) Scanning electron micrograph showing birth scar (top left) and bud scar (below); courtesy of Masako Osumi.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.5
FIGURE 5.5

Diagram of a hypothetical structure of the yeast cell wall, published by Kidby and Davies in 1970. Phosphoric diester links are represented by –P–. Reproduced from reference 1056 with permission.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.6
FIGURE 5.6

Centripetal formation of the septum in cell division of , described by Johnson and his colleagues in 1973. The primary septum is labeled AR (annular rudiment) in panels d and e; the secondary septum becomes the scar plug, which is the new end of the cell; in panel f, FS is a fission scar and SP the scar plug (1010, Fig. 1).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.7
FIGURE 5.7

Electron micrograph by Kenji Tanaka of part of a cell of , prepared by freeze substitution (see reference 1659); vesicles are arrayed on either side of a microfilament bundle associated with ingrowing septum. Micrograph kindly supplied by Carl Robinow.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.8
FIGURE 5.8

Cabib’s diagrammatic scheme of budding of , published in 1982 (256). The inset (top left) depicts a tentative structure of the cell wall, magnified. Panels A through G represent bud formation and separation. Chitin is shown in black, and the plasma membrane is shown as a dotted line. SP, septal primordia; PS, primary septum; SS, secondary septa; B Sc, bud scar.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.9
FIGURE 5.9

Hartwell’s diagram of the sequence of events in the cell division cycle of , published in 1974 (875). IDS, initiation of DNA synthesis; BE, bud emergence; DS, DNA synthesis; NM, nuclear migration; mND, nuclear division; IND, late stage of nuclear division; CK, cytokinesis (i.e., division of cytoplasm); CS, cell separation. Timings: G, interval between previous cytokinesis and initiation of DNA synthesis; S, period of DNA synthesis; G, time between DNA synthesis and the onset of mitosis; M, period of mitosis. Reprinted from reference 875 with permission from AAAS.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.10
FIGURE 5.10

Sketches of the course of mitosis in (1430). Reproduced with permission from .

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.11
FIGURE 5.11

Photomicrographs showing chromosomes of . (a and b) Resting nuclei with a coiled, deeply stained chromosome in the nucleolus; (c to e) segregation of two sets of three chromosomes at anaphase of mitosis. The nucleolar chromosome is longer, thicker, and more heavily stained than its two partners. The thin line of stain in panel e above the large straight chromosome corresponds to the edge of the now elongated nucleolus. Staining was with HCl-Giemsa. Bar, 5 µm. Courtesy of Carl Robinow.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.12
FIGURE 5.12

Electron micrograph by Goetsch and Byers (1982) of pachytene chromosomes released by lysis of a spheroplast of on an aqueous surface and spread on a plastic film for electron microscopy. A single quadrivalent is shown after enzymic removal of the chromatin. Arrowheads indicate chiasmata; bar, 1 µm. Reproduced from reference 729.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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Image of FIGURE 5.13
FIGURE 5.13

vacuoles containing accumulated -adenosylmethionine, the yeast having been grown in medium containing 10 m M -methionine. The image is a UV photomicrograph taken at 265 nm. The vacuoles appear dark because -adenosylmethionine absorbs UV light. Some cells, grown without methionine, have translucent vacuoles. Reproduced from reference 1916 with permission. © 1965 University of Chicago.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 5.1

Chronology of some major events in yeast cytology, 1950 to 1990

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5
Generic image for table
TABLE 5.2

Some genes and shapes of cells of

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Yeast Cytology, 1950 to 1990, p 60-75. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch5

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