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Chapter 6 : The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950

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The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter on fermentation pathway during the period 1900 to 1950, records how the metabolic pathway of alcoholic fermentation was gradually revealed during the first half of the 20th century and provides chronological summary of the metabolic pathway. During the first half of the 20th century, the role of phosphates in glycolysis was studied extensively and the course and nature of alcoholic fermentation by yeasts and of lactic acid production by muscles were thus uncovered. This research provided the key to understand other metabolic processes, including the energy-transforming machinery of living cells. The first account of the formation of ATP, produced at the expense of energy derived from glycolysis, was published in 1934 when Jacob Karol Parnas, Pawel Ostern, and Thaddeus Mann reported the transfer of phosphate from phosphoglycerate to the adenylic acid system in muscle and Karl Lohmann and Otto Fritz Meyerhof discovered phosphoenolpyruvate. Although this chapter names only some of the many research workers and lists merely a few of the relevant publications, it summarizes the enormous amount of research on glycolysis carried out in the first half of the 20th century. The intricate and labyrinthine story of elucidating the fermentation pathway is complicated by the involvement of two systems, alcoholic fermentation by yeasts and lactic acid fermentation by muscles.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6

Key Concept Ranking

Lactic Acid Fermentation
0.62532103
Alcoholic Fermentation
0.5300542
0.62532103
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 6.1
FIGURE 6.1

The glycolytic pathway. Each reaction of the pathway is given a letter for reference in the text. Note: Because one molecule of -fructose 1,6-bisphosphate yields two molecules of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (reactions D and E), thereafter there are two molecules of each catabolite for each molecule of -glucose phosphorylated.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.2
FIGURE 6.2

Path of carbon atoms in the conversion of glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide. Each carbon atom of a glucose molecule is numbered to show its fate during fermentation.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.3
FIGURE 6.3

The catabolism of pyruvate to ethanol by yeasts or to lactic acid by muscle.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.4
FIGURE 6.4

Arthur Harden (1865–1940) in 1929. © National Portrait Gallery, London.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.5
FIGURE 6.5

Otto Fritz Meyerhof (1884–1951) in 1922. Courtesy of Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin-Dahlem.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.6
FIGURE 6.6

Carl Neuberg (1877–1956). Courtesy of Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck- Gesellschaft, Berlin-Dahlem.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.7
FIGURE 6.7

Otto Heinrich Warburg (1883–1970). Courtesy of Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Berlin-Dahlem.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.8
FIGURE 6.8

The Warburg manometer. The narrow-bore U-tube (T) is calibrated in millimeters. The bottom of the tube is attached to a rubber reservoir (R), and the screw clamp squeezes the reservoir and thereby adjusts the level of the liquid in the tube. The left arm of the tube is open at the top; the right arm has a side arm (S) to which a glass vessel can be attached by means of a ground joint. At the top of the right arm is a tap, by which the vessel can be closed or opened. The manometer is mounted on a board which can be attached to a shaking apparatus (1127).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.9
FIGURE 6.9

Neuberg’s modification of the fermentation pathway by which glycerol is produced. A summary of the fermentation pathway is given; the pathway modified by adding sulfite is shown on a gray background.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.10
FIGURE 6.10

Oppenheimer’s scheme for the fermentation pathway, published in 1926 (1645, p. 428–462).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.11
FIGURE 6.11

Pathway of pyruvate formation suggested by Embden in 1933 (543).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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Image of FIGURE 6.12
FIGURE 6.12

Interconversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate by fructose-bisphosphate aldolase.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 6.1

Chronological summary of the elucidation of glycolysis in yeast and muscle

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
Generic image for table
TABLE 6.2

Approximate dates of recognition of intermediates of the fermentation pathway

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
Generic image for table
TABLE 6.3

Nomenclature of the two nicotinamide coenzymes: various names given to Harden and Young’s and Warburg and Christian’s coenzymes

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6
Generic image for table
TABLE 6.4

The enzymes of the pathway from -glucose to ethanol and the reactions they catalyze

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Fermentation Pathway, 1900 to 1950, p 76-97. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch6

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