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Chapter 7 : The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960

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The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter on main respiratory pathway covers the history of research on both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and the cytochrome system. The first account of the TCA cycle came after the elucidation of the part played by cytochromes in respiration, but the account of the research on the cytochromes is here given second because, in terms of physiology, the activity of the cytochromes depends on the TCA cycle. The concept of free energy produced by intracellular oxidations depended on the early findings in thermodynamics, and in the second half of the same century, Moritz Traube did much to develop the idea of intracellular oxidations in relation to respiration and fermentation. Establishing the TCA cycle as the main pathway of carbohydrate oxidation in yeasts had to wait another 20 years. The impermeable nature of the plasma membrane and the lack, in , of carriers which take succinate and other intermediates of the cycle into the cytosol, were the chief obstacles for realizing that the TCA cycle operates in yeasts, just as it does in plants and animals.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7

Key Concept Ranking

Baker's Yeast
0.56064224
Carbon monoxide
0.48015457
Chemicals
0.45338756
Carbon Dioxide
0.41087228
0.56064224
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 7.1
FIGURE 7.1

Location of anaerobic and aerobic pathways. Modified from reference 1773.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.2
FIGURE 7.2

Pathways of cellular respiration. Modified from Lehninger’s illustration published in 1975 with permission (1236).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.3
FIGURE 7.3

Anaerobic and aerobic pathways of sugar catabolism in yeasts.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.4
FIGURE 7.4

Von Szent-Györgyi’s scheme proposed in the mid-1930s for the hydrogen-carrying catalytic role of succinate and fuma-rate in oxidizing carbohydrate. Diagram from reference 61. Courtesy of Cambridge University Press.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.5
FIGURE 7.5

Hans Adolf Krebs (1900–1981). Courtesy of Gil Hardy.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.6
FIGURE 7.6

The first published diagram of Krebs’s citric acid (TCA) cycle. From reference 1132.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.7
FIGURE 7.7

The TCA cycle as described in 1950 (1123).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.8
FIGURE 7.8

The TCA cycle as described in the 1990s (see any modern biochemistry book). White numbers in black circles indicate enzymes: (1) citrate synthase; (2 and 3) aconitate hydratase (aconitase); (4) isocitrate dehydrogenase; (5) oxoglutarate dehydrogenase; (6) succinate-CoA ligase; (7) succinate dehydrogenase; (8) fumarate hydratase; (9) malate dehydrogenase.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.9
FIGURE 7.9

A Thunberg tube for studying oxidation under anaerobic conditions. The tubes, about 10 cm long, have hollow ground-glass stoppers and side arms. With the biological material in the tube plus methylene blue and substrate in the stopper, air is removed by a vacuum pump via the side arm. The greased stopper is turned so that the hole in its wall is no longer opposite the opening of the side arm. Then the substrate can be added by inverting the tube.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.10
FIGURE 7.10

David Keilin (1887–1963) using his microspectroscope. From reference 1042. Courtesy of Cambridge University Press.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.11
FIGURE 7.11

Rack with six Thunberg tubes for cytochrome oxidase reaction under various gas mixtures. Three tubes are exposed to light, while the other three are kept dark under a box (1040, Fig. 3). Courtesy of the Royal Society.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.12
FIGURE 7.12

Diagram of Keilin’s 1930 summary of the roles of cytochrome and cytochrome oxidase in the respiratory pathway. Based on a diagram in reference 61.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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Image of FIGURE 7.13
FIGURE 7.13

Schematic representation of absorption spectra of the cytochrome components of anaerobically grown baker’s yeast, before and after aeration, and of aerobically grown baker’s yeast. Reproduced from reference 1042, p. 273. Courtesy of Cambridge University Press.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 7.1

Chronology of work on the TCA cycle in yeasts

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.2

Isotope distribution in citrate and succinate from baker’s yeast incubated with [2-C]acetate for 25 min

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7
Generic image for table
TABLE 7.3

Results of Keilin’s experiments on the effect of carbon monoxide on cytochrome oxidase (indophenol oxidase) in baker’s yeast cells, using methylene blue in gassed Thunberg tubes

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Main Respiratory Pathway, 1920 to 1960, p 98-115. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch7

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