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Chapter 8 : Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960

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Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Most of the work which explained the general phenomenon of enzymic adaptation was done by studying the microbial utilization of lactose and d-galactose, both of which have long been relatively easy to obtain and purify. This chapter concentrates on the utilization of these two sugars. Three different lines of research have provided the basis for understanding adaptations by yeasts and other microbes. The first was the work on galactose utilization by yeasts, published by Frédéric Dienert in 1899 and 1900. Second, the remarkable adaptive pathway of d-galactose catabolism by yeasts was worked out by Luis Leloir and his colleagues between 1948 and 1952. Finally, in the 1950s and 1960s, Jacques Monod, François Jacob, André Lwoff , and their confrères explained microbial adaptations largely in terms of induction and repression of enzyme synthesis, regulated by a complex of genes. By the late 1940s, the fermentation of galactose by yeasts had become the most thoroughly studied system of enzymic adaptation. Georges Cohen and Monod argued that the entry of organic substrates into microbial cells is mediated by more or less selective permeation systems, which they proceeded to characterize. During the 1950s, Monod and his colleagues isolated many mutants from . In 1956, their seminal findings were published, which led them to the concept of "permeases". The genetic regulatory mechanism of , acting on the GAL genes which encode the enzymes of galactose utilization, has been the most intensively studied and has become the best-understood genetical regulatory mechanism in any eukaryote.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8

Key Concept Ranking

Nucleic Acid Constituents
0.46095803
Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate
0.43204182
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
0.4072465
0.46095803
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 8.1
FIGURE 8.1

Frédéric Dienert (1874–1948). Photograph from , vol. 3, 1948. Reproduced courtesy of the Secrétaire perpétuel, Académie d’Agriculture de France.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.2
FIGURE 8.2

Luis Leloir (1906–1987). Courtesy of the University of Buenos Aires.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.3
FIGURE 8.3

Rates of hydrolysis of ONPG by living cells of . Upper plot, wild type; lower plot, cryptic (“permeaseless”) mutant. Ordinates on the left apply to the upper plot; those on the right apply to the lower plot. Results of Cohen, Monod, and L. A. Herzenberg (351).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.4
FIGURE 8.4

The galactose pathway, from reference 78. Note that phosphoglucomutase is now EC 5.4.2.7 (2301).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.5
FIGURE 8.5

The change in configuration at C-4 between -galactose 1-phosphate and -glucose 1-phosphate achieved in the Leloir pathway.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.6
FIGURE 8.6

Uridine 5′-diphospho-α--glucopyranose (UDP-glucose) and uridine 5′-diphospho-α--galactopyranose (UDP-galactose).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.7
FIGURE 8.7

The points of enzymic attack on uridine diphosphoglucose, as illustrated by Kalckar and his colleagues in 1953. Reprinted from reference 1562 with permission of the publisher.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.8
FIGURE 8.8

Regulation of the galactose pathway in . Symbols: arrow, gene encodes; line with oval at end, stimulates activity; line with vertical bar at end, inhibits activity; *, repressed by -glucose.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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Image of FIGURE 8.9
FIGURE 8.9

Enzymes of the galactose pathway in and the genes encoding them. The enzymes are galactokinase (encoded by ), UDP-glucose-hexose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (encoded by ), UDP-glucose 4-epimerase (encoded by ), and phosphoglucomutase (encoded by ). Modified from reference 1013.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 8.1

Selected publications arranged chronologically on enzymic “adaptation” of yeasts

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 8.2

Terminology of enzymic adaptation, proposed in 1953 by Monod’s group

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 8.3

Two enzymes with α--glucosidase activities formed by a strain of when grown on maltose

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 8.4

Some mutant genes of involved in glucose repression and derepression

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 8.5

Enzymes of the galactose pathway

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8
Generic image for table
TABLE 8.6

Galactose pathway genes of

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Enzymic Adaptation and Regulation, 1900 to 1960, p 116-134. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch8

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