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Chapter 10 : Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000

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Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter on metabolite transport by facilitated diffusion describes some of the history of studying how molecules move across cell membranes, particularly yeast membranes. In discussing how substances both enter and leave yeast cells, it is necessary to consider the structures through which the substances must pass, namely, the cell wall and the plasma membrane, as well as intracellular membranes. Steveninck and Rothstein suggested that while uptake involves sugar phosphorylation, when glycolysis is prevented by iodoacetate, sugar uptake occurs by facilitated diffusion. The results of pulse-labeling experiments indicated that uptake of galactose by baker’s yeast was adaptive and probably involved entry of the free sugar and its accumulation to diffusion equilibrium. The following three independent findings were consistent with this conclusion. First, the high-affinity mode of galactose uptake was found to depend on the presence of galactokinase. Second, from pulse-labeling studies of glucose uptake by a wild-type yeast, via a carrier of low K, Kotyk published convincing evidence that free sugar in the intracellular pool was labeled first. Finally, the route with a high K, in a kinaseless yeast strain, conformed to the established pattern of a facilitated diffusion pathway. The results suggest that high-affinity glucose transport is not necessarily dependent on the presence of glucose-phosphorylating enzymes. Apparent low-affinity uptake kinetics can arise as a consequence of an insufficient rate of removal of intracellular free glucose by phosphorylation.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10

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Figures

Image of FIGURE 10.1
FIGURE 10.1

Drawings by Swellengrebel, published in 1905 (2114), using a camera lucida and Leitz microscope with 2-mm oil immersion objective. Fig. 1, pressed yeast plasmolyzed in glycerol; Fig. 2, schematic sketch of the course of plasmolysis with vacuolar changes.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.2
FIGURE 10.2

Edward Joseph Conway (1894–1968). Courtesy of University College Dublin.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.3
FIGURE 10.3

Penetration by solutes of various molecular mass into cell walls of (O, results of Gerhardt and Judge in 1964 [711]; , results of Scherrer and her colleagues in 1974 [1910]) and (×, the very similar results reported by Cope in 1980 [372]).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.4
FIGURE 10.4

Alberto Sols (1917–1989). Courtesy of Carlos Gancedo.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.5
FIGURE 10.5

pH activity curves for sucrose hydrolysis by invertase solutions (Δ) and by suspensions of intact (O). © Wilkes and Palmer 1932. Originally published in 233–242 (2343).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.6
FIGURE 10.6

pH activity curves for maltose fermentation by baker’s yeast (A) and α-glucosidase activity (B). Based on a figure published by Hestrin in 1948 (913).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.7
FIGURE 10.7

Interference with the fermentation of β-fructosides by extracellular trapping of hexoses. Warburg manometers were used, and the reaction vessels contained phosphate buffer (pH 5.5), hexokinase, fructoside, and yeast. ○ and ●, sucrose and ; Δ and ▲, sucrose and ; ■ and □, raffinose and . The arrows indicate when ATP was tipped from the side arm into the second vessel of each series, represented by the solid symbols. Figure published by Sols and De la Fuente in 1961 (2020). Reproduced courtesy of Nakladatelství Academia.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.8
FIGURE 10.8

In deadapting to maltose, becomes cryptic for α-glucosidase (results of Robertson and Halvorson published in 1957). Maltose-grown yeast was incubated with 0.17 M glucose, and samples were taken at intervals; fermentation of maltose or glucose (as indicated) was measured manometrically; α-glucosidase activity was assayed with phenyl α--glucoside. Redrawn from reference 1826.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.9
FIGURE 10.9

Transport of -sorbose by baker’s yeast, as described by Cirillo in 1961. Uptake in the absence of glucose (curve 1) when glucose was added at arrow A (curve 3) is shown; sorbose efflux when glucose was added at arrow B is shown by curve 2. Redrawn from reference 338. Reproduced courtesy of Nakladatelství Academia.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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Image of FIGURE 10.10
FIGURE 10.10

Theories of the mechanism of facilitated diffusion, based on illustrations by Cirillo, published in 1961 (337). 1 and 2 represent the membrane-carrier hypothesis, in which substrate (S) combines with carrier (C) at the outer surface of the cell to form a carrier-substrate complex (CS). In 1, the CS complex is formed either side of the membrane and the carrier is at a fixed place in the membrane. In 2, carrier and CS are mobile, reaching the inner surface of the membrane, where the substrate is released. In A, the donor reacts only from one side while the acceptor reacts from the other side. B represents a scheme in which the carrier (C) requires an energy-dependent activation.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Transport by Facilitated Diffusion, 1900 to 2000, p 167-182. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch10
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References

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