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Chapter 11 : Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000

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Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter deals with the kind of transport which is activated by metabolic energy, with solutes crossing membranes against their own gradient of electrochemical potential. In the 1940-50s, evidence of active transport of ions, amino acids, and glycosides was also reported for bacteria and for human erythrocytes. 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) inhibits active transport as it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, mediating proton conductance across the inner membrane of the mitochondria. By the mid-1970s, proton symport was established as a means by which some substrates enter certain bacteria. Indeed, the concentration of certain amino acids and sugars by various mammalian and bacterial cells had been shown to depend on the coupling of transport to the flow of specifications, such as Na, K, or H. Although most of the research on metabolite transport into yeasts has been done with , there has been a good deal of work on transport into several other species, especially during the 1970-80s. A glucose-repressible carrier was described in 1975 for as taking up succinate, L-malate, fumarate, and 2-oxoglutarate by active transport. The occurrence of active transport of solutes into cells, with the energy being supplied by metabolism, was established in the 1930s by work on plant roots. At about the same time, the concentration of solutes by animal cells was also observed. However, biochemists generally failed to think of transport as a metabolic activity until Jacques Monod and his colleagues laid the foundations of membrane transport as an important part of metabolic studies in the 1950s.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11

Key Concept Ranking

Basic Amino Acids
0.57528096
Sulfur Amino Acids
0.57528096
Amino Sugars
0.4265161
0.57528096
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 11.1
FIGURE 11.1

Time course of accumulation of TEG in cells of at 30°C (1639). Cells were grown in nutrient medium containing 0.1 M TEG, washed, and suspended in the same nutrient medium with TEG replaced by 0.1 M acetate (pH 5.8). [S]TEG was added at zero time, and samples containing 1 to 2 mg of yeast were filtered, washed, and counted.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
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Image of FIGURE 11.2
FIGURE 11.2

Structure of maltotriose.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
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Image of FIGURE 11.3
FIGURE 11.3

Peter Mitchell’s diagram, published in 1963, “of cyclic coupling between the electron-translocation system, thought to be present in the plasma-membrane of . . . and an H-galactoside system which . . . may translocate galactosides into the cell” (1499). Courtesy of Cambridge University Press.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
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Image of FIGURE 11.4
FIGURE 11.4

Diagram of proton symport coupled to a proton pump, which is driven by hydrolysis of ATP. S denotes a solute, such as a sugar, that is taken up with one or more equivalents of protons. Energy for the ejection of protons is supplied by the hydrolysis of ATP. Based on a diagram by Eddy (515).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
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Image of FIGURE 11.5
FIGURE 11.5

Marcelle Grenson (1925–1999). Courtesy of Bruno André.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
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Image of FIGURE 11.6
FIGURE 11.6

Wiemken’s procedure for separating vacuoles by flotation in isotonic density gradients at 0 to 4°C in 10 mM citric acid adjusted to pH 6.8 with 0.6 M -glucitol (A) or with 0.6 M sucrose (B). Centrifugation was for 50 min at 5,000 × . , intact spheroplasts; o, vacuoles; •, lipid granules; hatching indicates soluble fraction (2336). Reprinted with permission.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
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Image of FIGURE 11.7
FIGURE 11.7

β-Fructosidase, but α-glucosidase, hydrolyzes the trisaccharide raffinose, liberating fructose; sucrose, a double glycoside (both β-fructoside and α-glucoside), may be hydrolyzed by a β-fructosidase or an α-glucosidase. Figure reproduced from reference 78.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 11.1

The carriers for the uptake of amino acids (by , unless otherwise specified): chronology of findings, 1949 to 2001

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
Generic image for table
TABLE 11.2

Notes on genes of amino acid transport

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11
Generic image for table
TABLE 11.3

Transport in various species: some reports

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Metabolite Uptake by Active Transport, 1925 to 2000, p 183-201. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch11

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