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Chapter 12 : The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000

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The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter provides an account of some of the early works on yeasts which laid the foundations for several major developments in genetics as a whole. Much of the pioneer and totally academic work on yeast genetics was done at the Carlsberg Laboratory in Copenhagen between 1935 and 1955, largely by the Danish geneticist Øjvind Winge, who can reasonably be regarded as the founder of yeast genetics. In 1939, Winge and Laustsen confirmed Guilliermond’s earlier suggestion that is heterothallic. Working with , in 1933, Lindegren had suggested that the frequency of crossing-over between a gene and its centromere was a measure of their distance apart on the linkage map. It should be mentioned here that in 1985, electrophoretic karyotyping showed that has a haploid number of 16 chromosomes, and this was confirmed later. In the absence of sexual reproduction, genetic mapping begun in the early 1980s, by fusing spheroplasts, so that recombination analyses became practicable. Work on the cell cycle in and has enormously increased the understanding of how cell growth is controlled and, hence, has provided information which will assist in developing the medical control of human cancers. The genetic tractability of and its nonpathogenic character have made it attractive for elucidating cellular biochemistry and facilitating the molecular analysis of genes which cause diseases. It is used for testing antifungal products and other new drugs.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

DNA Synthesis
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Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis
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Genetic Recombination
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 12.1
FIGURE 12.1

Øjvind Winge (1886–1964) in 1956. Detail from a photograph by Janne Woldbye.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.2
FIGURE 12.2

Jan Šatava (1878–1938). Courtesy of Alena Čejková.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.3
FIGURE 12.3

Carl Lindegren (1896–1987).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.4
FIGURE 12.4

Winge’s technique for isolating all four spores from an ascus of . (A) Needle point and an ascus containing four spores; (B) thin needle placed across the ascus, pressing it against the cover glass in order to divide it; (C) ascospores lying in pairs either side of the needle; (D) each spore pulled into a separate droplet of brewer’s wort. Reproduced from reference 2369, courtesy of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.5
FIGURE 12.5

(A) Diploid, budding cells of . (B) Haploid cells of the same yeast. Bar, 10 μm. Reproduced from 1937 photomicrographs of Winge and Laustsen (2369), courtesy of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.6
FIGURE 12.6

Four different forms of diploid giant colony of . These colonies, grown for 23 days on a medium of wort plus 10% gelatin, illustrate the kind of differences that gave evidence of genetic segregations. Bar, 100 mm. Reproduced from 1937 photographs of Winge and Laustsen (2369), courtesy of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.7
FIGURE 12.7

Diagram showing the behavior of a tetrad of as described in 1939 by Winge and Laustsen (2372). Ascospores A and B fuse to form a diploid zygote which buds and forms a growing colony of large cells. Ascospores C and D do not conjugate, but form haploid daughter cells; those from C are elongate and stop budding after two or three divisions, whereas the daughter cells from D are small and continue growth to form a haploid colony.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.8
FIGURE 12.8

Diagram of two kinds of segregation in the asci of , heterozygous for genes and . When the ascospores were germinated separately, so that they were homozygous for each gene, the following was found: allowed normal growth; was lethal, giving a few long cells only; those with were long; those with were short. From Winge and Laustsen (2372), courtesy of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.9
FIGURE 12.9

Lindegren’s basis for concluding that is heterothallic. “Intact 4-spored ascus produces diploid cells almost immediately. Isolated single ascospores produce micro-colonies containing numerous haploid cells; copulation is delayed and diploid cells appear later. Four-spored asci are much rarer on gypsum from single ascospore colonies than from intact ascus colonies; many single ascospore cultures do not sporulate at all. [Gypsum is CaSO·2HO, often used as a medium favoring ascospore formation (1323, p. 15).] Colonies that appear when cultures are plated on agar show uniformity in the case of intact asci, but great variability in the case of the single ascospore cultures. The ascospores produced by single ascospore cultures are generally non-viable while the ascospores from intact ascus cultures are highly viable” (1285, p. 408).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.10
FIGURE 12.10

Winge’s summary, published in 1956, of the genes involved in the utilization of the trisaccharide raffinose (2380). The genes were renamed genes and were found to encode invertase (β-fructofuranosidase); melibiase is an α-galactosidase; was changed to , a series of genes of the galactose pathway (“galactozymase”) (see Chapter 8). Reprinted with permission.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.11
FIGURE 12.11

Gene conversion compared with crossing-over between two genetically distinct homologous chromosomes. In gene conversion, part (b and b′) of the DNA, designated by lowercase letters, was copied to the DNA designated by capitals (A, B, and C). In crossing-over, two strands exchange parts (c,c′ and C,C′).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.12
FIGURE 12.12

Four ways in which ascospores of a homothallic can form diploid cells: fusion of (a) a pair of ascospores, (b) two vegetative cells from different ascospores, (c) two vegetative cells from the same ascospore, and (d) one ascospore forming a diploid, homozygous colony. Diagram modified from one of Ephrussi (574), which was based on observations of Winge and Laustsen (2373).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.13
FIGURE 12.13

Ephrussi’s . Wild-type colonies of baker’s yeast on a solid medium; the arrow indicates a single small mutant colony (574). Figure 11a from by Boris Ephrussi, 1953 (574); by permission of Oxford University Press, Inc.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.14
FIGURE 12.14

Piotr Slonimski (1922–2009). Courtesy of André Goffeau.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.15
FIGURE 12.15

Linear arrangement of ascospores in . Part of a drawing by Leupold, published in 1950 (1249). Courtesy of the Carlsberg Laboratory, Copenhagen.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.16
FIGURE 12.16

Leupold’s map of the linkage group of the mating type of , published in 1958 (1252). (Top) Loci linked with the mating-type region; , , , , , , and are loci involved in synthesizing histidine, leucine, methionine, and adenine; , indicate the + mating-type region. (Bottom) Recombination frequencies, expressed as numbers of recombinants per 10 ascospores, determined in an analysis of 928 tetrads from various crosses, involving three to seven markers at a time.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.17
FIGURE 12.17

Hartwell’s diagram, published in 1970 (876), of the effects of his first, temperature-sensitive, mutants of after moving to the restrictive temperature of 36°C. Cells begin on the innermost line at the point corresponding to their stage of budding at the time of the temperature shift. The mutants are shown progressing clockwise, passing through the stage at which the wild-type gene acts (open box), and accumulate at the stage indicated by the closed box. Courtesy of Lee Hartwell.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.18
FIGURE 12.18

Summary of the events of the cell cycle of and the role of 14 genes, identified by Nurse and his colleagues and published in 1976. Reproduced from reference 1625 with permission.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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Image of FIGURE 12.19
FIGURE 12.19

A simple comparison of the cell cycles of (left) and (right). Phases: G1, cells increase in size; S, daughter cell forms (splitting in , budding in ); G2, between DNA synthesis and mitosis, cell grows; M, mitosis occurs.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 12.1

Chronology of Winge’s research on sugar utilization by yeasts

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
Generic image for table
TABLE 12.2

The genes of

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
Generic image for table
TABLE 12.3

Mating types of

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12
Generic image for table
TABLE 12.4

Genetic basis of some killer factors in yeasts

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. The Foundations of Yeast Genetics, 1918 to 2000, p 202-226. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch12

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