1887

Chapter 13 : Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000

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Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter mainly focuses on the two major pathogenic yeast species, namely, , the most widespread yeast pathogen, and , which is probably the most lethal of the yeast pathogens. The study of chlamydospores goes back a long way, with Grawitz describing in 1877 how these cells in develop from hyphae, germinate, and give rise to more hyphae. Cells enveloped by capsules of polysaccharide have long been known to be characteristic of yeasts of the genus and thought to be important for the virulence of in addition to its ability to grow at 37°C, which is crucial for its pathogenicity; other species do not grow at that temperature. Serologically active polysaccharides from microbes had been known ever since 1927, when Dorothea Smith described the capsular substance of . In this paper she showed that there is a close association between the production of specific polysaccharides, the capsular material, and the virulence of the bacterium. The scientific interest in pathogens is likely to lie primarily in their detailed differences from similar organisms which are not pathogenic. This circumscription has been offset to some extent by the greater ease with which financial support has been available for work on pathogens rather than purely academic research.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13

Key Concept Ranking

Candida albicans
0.95977014
Candida tropicalis
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0.95977014
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 13.1
FIGURE 13.1

Fredrik Theodor Berg (1806–1887) in 1843 (drawing by Maria Röhl). Courtesy of S. G. Norvenius.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.2
FIGURE 13.2

Charles-Philippe Robin (1821–1885); portrait reproduced from Robin’s obituary by Gabriel Pouchet (1764).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.3
FIGURE 13.3

The first published illustrations of () : the thrush fungus (). Plate I from Charles Robin’s publication of 1853 (1829). Figures 3 and 5 show epithelial fragments affected by thrush with round cells of and its filaments bearing characteristic ball-like clusters of blastoconidia (Fig. 3 and 5).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.4
FIGURE 13.4

Drawings by Burchardt, published in 1864, showing filamentous growths of the thrush fungus, (234). (1) Branched hypha with lateral branches () and round, terminal chlamydospores (probably) (). (2) Branched hypha with lateral branch in the region of a septum (), blastoconidia (), and round, terminal chlamydospores (). (3) Filament with one oval, budding blastoconidium () and terminal, round chlamydospore (). (4) Hypha with branch in septal region (), blastoconidia (), and terminal, round chlamydospore (). (5) Beginning of formation of filament from isolated cell, observed under the microscope for 3 days (, , and ). There are striking similarities between these images and the excellent photomicrographs published in 2004 by Peter Sudbery and his colleagues (2096). As the available print of Burchardt’s drawings was faint, the contrast has been increased with Photoshop.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.5
FIGURE 13.5

Systemic candidiasis: drawings by Parrot, published in 1877 (1682, Plate VII). (Top) Section through wall of stomach attacked by thrush fungus; (bottom) cells of can be seen in the epithelial digestive mucosa, the yeast’s filaments penetrating deeply into submucosal and muscular strata. A, peritoneum; B, muscular layer; C, cellular layer (); V, vessel occluded by clot; m, submucosa; g, gastric glands filled with cells.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.6
FIGURE 13.6

Germ tubes of , formed from individual yeast-like cells, incubated in bovine serum for 3 h at 37°C. Photomicrograph published by Mackenzie in 1962 (1365). Note that photomicrographs of germ tubes of had been included in Donald Mackenzie’s Ph.D. thesis in 1958 (1364).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.7
FIGURE 13.7

dimorphism affected by changes in both temperature and pH (illustration from Shepherd and his colleagues, published in 1985 [1971]). (a) Budding cells are transferred to fresh medium of the same composition; (b) starvation gives high yield of germ tubes (1970); (c) germ tube formation is favored at 37°C and pH 6.5 (2016); (d and e) budding is favored below 28°C (1229).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.8
FIGURE 13.8

Drawing by John Bennett, published in 1844, of filament and budding cells of a “cryptogamic plant” from the lung of a man who died of a pulmonary disorder (136).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.9
FIGURE 13.9

Scanning electron micrograph showing hyphae of growing on the upper surface of a membrane filter placed on serum-containing agar. The membrane has pores 5 μm in diameter, some of which are penetrated by the filaments. Bar, 20 μm. Reproduced from reference 1976.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.10
FIGURE 13.10

Chlamydospores of . (A and B) Chlamydospore formed terminally on a hypha; (C and D) germinating chlamydospore. Panel D shows the chlamydospore budding; such budding had been photomicrographed previously by a Japanese group in 1956 (1507). Panels A to D are from references 1745, 1872, 2261, and 992, respectively.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.11
FIGURE 13.11

Electron micrograph of section of a young chlamydospore of , published by Miller and her colleagues in 1974 (1488). cw, thick cell wall; m, mitochondria; l, lipoid inclusion; o, membrane-bound organelle. Bar, 1.0 μm.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.12
FIGURE 13.12

Electron micrograph of part of a section of a “mature” chlamydospore of , published by Miller and her colleagues in 1974 (1488). cw, cell wall layers; cm, plasma membrane; l, lipoid inclusion; o, membrane-bound organelle. Bar, 1.0 μm.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.13
FIGURE 13.13

Otto Busse’s drawings, published in 1895, of the cells of . These cells had been isolated from various lesions in a 31-year-old woman. Figures 11 and 12 show the encapsulated cells (245). Busse’s excellent illustrations of these yeast cells stained in situ in a section of part of the tibia and lung are reproduced in Chapter 3.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.14
FIGURE 13.14

Drawing of cells of by Ferdinand Curtis in 1896, showing large encapsulated cells in IV_1 to IV6 (392).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.15
FIGURE 13.15

Drawing, published by Arthur Henrici in 1930, of a section through the meninges (membranes enveloping the central nervous system) infected with , the cells of which vary in size and are surrounded by thick capsules (905, p. 228).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.16
FIGURE 13.16

Benham’s illustrations of from 1934 (A to C) (133, p. 387) and 1935 (D to F) (134, p. 264). A, a colony; B, budding cells (those on shaded background in India ink mount); C, thick-walled cells surrounded by a capsule; D, as B; E, also as B, but thick-walled cells with capsule too; F, cells with capsules in tissue from an inoculated rat. (A through C) From 387 (1934). Copyright © 1934 American Medical Association. All rights reserved. (D through F) Courtesy of the University of Chicago Press.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.17
FIGURE 13.17

Inhibition of phagocytosis in vitro of noncapsulated mutants of by suspensions of capsular material. Results published in 1968 (233).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.18
FIGURE 13.18

Pathway of the oxidation of tyrosine to melanin: a simplified diagram (1246).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.19
FIGURE 13.19

Shadomy’s photomicrographs of clamp connections of , published in 1970 (1966).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.20
FIGURE 13.20

() : Kwon-Chung’s illustration in 1975 of basidia with terminal basidiospores (1174). Reprinted from with permission. © The Mycological Society of America.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.21
FIGURE 13.21

() : Kwon-Chung’s illustration in 1980 of nuclear migration in the formation of basidiospores at the apex of each basidium (1177, p. 421). © The Mycological Society of America.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.22
FIGURE 13.22

() : Kwon-Chung’s illustration in 1984 of the life cycle (1181, p. 475).

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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Image of FIGURE 13.23
FIGURE 13.23

Increase in numbers of publications concerning in the second half of the 20th century. The numbers of publications for each 5-year period were taken from PubMed. Note that (i) transplanting organs clinically, employing long-term immunosuppression, took off after 1962 when azathioprine, 6-(3-methyl-5-nitroimidazol-4-yl) sulfanyl-7H-purine, was used to prevent rejection (1561, p. 1445), and (ii) the early history of the AIDS epidemic is given in reference 958.

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
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References

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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 13.1

Some reports of species other than and () as pathogens

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 13.2

Some of the earlier reports of different places of infection by

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 13.3

Chronology of some 19th century research on

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 13.4

Names given in 1937 and in 1940 to “” species isolated clinically by Donald Martin and his colleagues

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 13.5

Chronicle of the nomenclature and identification of before World War II

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 13.6

Explanations of some names in recent use for yeasts of the group

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13
Generic image for table
TABLE 13.7

The group: summary

Citation: Barnett J, Barnett L. 2011. Medical Yeasts, 1800 to 2000, p 227-253. In Yeast Research. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817152.ch13

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