Chapter 2 : An Introduction to the Medically Important Species

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An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, Page 1 of 2

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In recent years DNA sequence-based methods have helped to confirm taxonomic relationships within the genus and have been used to confirm that both sexual and nonsexual species are ascomycetes. Molecular methods have shown that many of the medically important species belong to a phylogenetic subgroup known as the CTG clade, a group of largely commensal yeast species that translate CTG as serine instead of leucine. Most women suffer from vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) at least once in life, with as many as 8% experiencing regular recurrent infections. VVC is primarily caused by , while is the second most common cause of this infection. species are an important component of the normal flora of the human oral cavity, and if given the opportunity, these can overgrow and cause oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the mid-1990s has led to a marked decrease in the incidence of OPC in HIV-infected individuals. In general, the majority of isolates are fully susceptible to all major classes of antifungal agents, including the azoles, echinocandins, and polyenes. is frequently isolated from physical surfaces in the hospital environment, making it unique among species. The remaining species associated with human disease are only rarely detected, and therefore relatively little is known about the etiology or the epidemiology of the diseases they cause.

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2

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Candida parapsilosis
Candida albicans
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Phylogenetic tree showing the relationships between yeasts of the CTG clade and other pathogenic species. The tree is based on alignment of the amino acid sequences of the genes encoding enolase (Eno1p) from each species. Alignments were generated using MUSCLE using the default settings. Phylogenetic relationships were inferred with PHYML. Numbers at each node represent bootstrap values and indicate the number of times the arrangement shown occurred in 100 replicate trees. The bar under the tree represents a genetic distance of 5%. doi:10.1128/9781555817176.ch2.f1

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
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Image of FIGURE 2

Photomicrographs showing the different growth morphologies of yeast cells (A), pseudohyphae (B), hyphae (C), and chlamydospores (D; one example is indicated by an arrow). doi:10.1128/9781555817176.ch2.f2

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
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Generic image for table

Medically relevant species

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
Generic image for table

Major risk factors for mucosal infections

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2
Generic image for table

Major risk factors for IC

Citation: Moran G, Coleman D, Sullivan D. 2012. An Introduction to the Medically Important Species, p 11-25. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch2

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