1887

Chapter 12 : Vaccines and Passive Immunity against Candidiasis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Vaccines and Passive Immunity against Candidiasis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap12-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the rationale for and latest advances in development of passive and active immunization against invasive candidal infections. The major form of immunosuppression that predisposes to development of disseminated candidiasis is a defect in innate phagocytic activity. Treatment with antibiotics is the most promising risk factor to identify a high attack rate of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) as a basis for enrollment into clinical trials of an active vaccine. Development of a vaccine for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS is complicated by the host immunosuppression and by the fact that effective immune reconstitution therapy is now available for most patients. The majority of patients at risk for disseminated candidiasis are those undergoing emergent or elective gastrointestinal or cardiac surgery, those with central venous catheters, those receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, or in general those patients receiving their care in intensive care units, including both civilian and military trauma patients receiving abdominal, chest, or burn wounds. Passive immunization strategy focusing on β- glucan has been based upon raising protective antibodies by actively vaccinating with β-glucan conjugated to a carrier protein. To determine the potential for an Als3-based vaccine, the recombinant N terminus of Als3p (rAls3p-N) was expressed in and purified by Ni-agarose affinity purification, in the same manner as described for rAls1p-N. The concept of niche vaccination of acutely at-risk patients or patients in restricted geographical areas is a new idea in vaccinology.

Citation: Spellberg B, Fu Y, Ibrahim A. 2012. Vaccines and Passive Immunity against Candidiasis, p 171-184. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

Transforming Growth Factor beta
0.40996358
0.40996358
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817176.ch12
1. Alonso-Valle, H.,, O. Acha,, J. D. Garcia-Palomo,, C. Farinas-Alvarez,, C. Fernandez-Mazarrasa, and, M. C. Farinas. 2003. Candidemia in a tertiary care hospital: epidemiology and factors influencing mortality. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22:254257.
2. Anaissie, E. J.,, J. H. Rex,, O. Uzun, and, S. Vartivarian. 1998. Predictors of adverse outcome in cancer patients with candidemia. Am. J. Med. 104:238245.
3. Anastos, K.,, L. A. Kalish,, H. Palacio,, C. A. Benson,, R. Delapenha,, K. Chirgwin,, L. Stonis, and, E. E. Telzak. 1999. Prevalence of and risk factors for tuberculin positivity and skin test anergy in HIV-1-infected and uninfected at-risk women. Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr. 21:141147.
4. Arnow, P. M.,, E. M. Quimosing, and, M. Beach. 1993. Consequences of intravascular catheter sepsis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:778784.
5. Arrowood, J. R.,, and M. S. Hayney. 2002. Immunization recommendations for adults with cancer. Ann. Pharmacother. 36:12191229.
6. Band, J. D.,, D. W. Fraser, and, G. Ajello. 1984. Prevention of Hemophilus influenzae type b disease. JAMA 251:23812386.
7. Bardare, M.,, L. Armenio,, L. Businco,, G. Cavagni,, M. De Martino,, M. Duse,, M. Masi,, V. Monafo,, M. C. Pietrogrande,, P. Tovo, et al. 1990. Screening for delayed-hyper-sensitivity in Italian children: multicentric study by multitest skin testing. Eur. J. Pediatr. 150:3739.
8. Bernstein, J. M.,, H. S. Faden, and, P. L. Ogra. 1991. Nasopharyngeal colonization by nontypeable Hemophilus influenzae in children: the effect of serum bactericidal antibody. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg. 105:406410.
9. Black, S.,, H. Shinefield,, B. Fireman,, E. Lewis,, P. Ray,, J. R. Hansen,, L. Elvin,, K. M. Ensor,, J. Hackell,, G. Siber,, F. Malinoski,, D. Madore,, I. Chang,, R. Kohberger,, W. Watson,, R. Austrian, and, K. Edwards for the Northern California Kaiser Permanente Vaccine Study Center Group. 2000. Efficacy, safety and immunogenicity of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:187195.
10. Bluestein, D.,, C. Rutledge, and, L. Lumsden. 1991. Predicting the occurrence of antibiotic-induced candidal vaginitis (AICV). Fam. Pract. Res. J. 11:319326.
11. Boken, D. J.,, S. A. Chartrand,, R. V. Goering,, R. Kruger, and, C. J. Harrison. 1995. Colonization with penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in a child-care center. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 14:879884.
12. Boken, D. J.,, S. A. Chartrand,, E. S. Moland, and, R. V. Goering. 1996. Colonization with penicillin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in urban and rural child-care centers. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15:667672.
13. Bolan, G.,, C. V. Broome,, R. R. Facklam,, B. D. Plikaytis,, D. W. Fraser, and, W. F. Schlech III. 1986. Pneumococcal vaccine efficacy in selected populations in the United States. Ann. Intern. Med. 104:16.
14. Buhl, R. 2006. Local oropharyngeal side effects of inhaled corticosteroids in patients with asthma. Allergy 61:518526.
15. Caesar-TonThat, T. C.,, and J. E. Cutler. 1997. A monoclonal antibody to Candida albicans enhances mouse neutrophil candidacidal activity. Infect. Immun. 65:53545357.
16. Chang, H. M.,, T. Y. Shann,, K. T. Mok,, W. Y. Lui,, F. K. P’Eng, and, H. Y. Lin. 1989. Multitest skin testing values of cell-mediated immunity among healthy individuals in Taiwan. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei) 44:8188.
17. Chokephaibulkit, K.,, W. Phongsamart,, N. Vanprapar,, T. Chotpitayasunondh, and, S. Chearskul. 2004. Catch-up vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae type b in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai children older than 2 years old. Vaccine 22:20182022.
18. Collin, B.,, C. J. Clancy, and, M. H. Nguyen. 1999. Antifungal resistance in non-albicans Candida species. Drug Resist. Updat. 2:914.
19. Cormack, B. P.,, N. Ghori, and, S. Falkow. 1999. An adhesin of the yeast pathogen Candida glabrata mediating adherence to human epithelial cells. Science 285:578582.
20. Creditor, M. C.,, E. C. Smith,, J. B. Gallai,, M. Baumann, and, K. E. Nelson. 1988. Tuberculosis, tuberculin reactivity, and delayed cutaneous hypersensitivity in nursing home residents. J. Gerontol. 43:M97–M100.
21. Cutler, J. E. 2005. Defining criteria for anti-mannan antibodies to protect against candidiasis. Curr. Mol. Med. 5:383392.
22. DeGregorio, M. W.,, W. M. Lee, and, C. A. Ries. 1982. Candida infections in patients with acute leukemia: ineffectiveness of nystatin prophylaxis and relationship between oropharyngeal and systemic candidiasis. Cancer 50:27802784.
23. De Lencastre, H.,, K. G. Kristinsson,, A. Brito-Avo,, I. S. Sanches,, R. Sa-Leao,, J. Saldanha,, E. Sigvaldadottir,, S. Karlsson,, D. Oliveira,, R. Mato,, M. Aires de Sousa, and, A. Tomasz. 1999. Carriage of respiratory tract pathogens and molecular epidemiology of Streptococcus pneumoniae colonization in healthy children attending day care centers in Lisbon, Portugal. Microb. Drug Resist. 5:1929.
24. Derendorf, H.,, R. Nave,, A. Drollmann,, F. Cerasoli, and, W. Wurst. 2006. Relevance of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of inhaled corticosteroids to asthma. Eur. Respir. J. 28:10421050.
25. De Sousa dos Santos, S.,, M. H. Lopes,, V. Simonsen, and, H. H. Caiaffa Filho. 2004. Haemophilus influenzae type b immunization in adults infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses 20:493496.
26. Dockrell, D. H.,, G. A. Poland,, J. M. Steckelberg,, P. C. Wollan,, S. R. Strickland, and, C. Pomeroy. 1999. Immunogenicity of three Haemophilus influenzae type b protein conjugate vaccines in HIV seropositive adults and analysis of predictors of vaccine response. Vaccine 17:27792785.
27. Dongari-Bagtzoglou, A.,, and P. L. Fidel, Jr. 2005. The host cytokine responses and protective immunity in oropharyngeal candidiasis. J. Dent. Res. 84:966977.
28. Duerr, A.,, C. M. Heilig,, S. F. Meikle,, S. Cu-Uvin,, R. S. Klein,, A. Rompalo, and, J. D. Sobel. 2003. Incident and persistent vulvovaginal candidiasis among human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: risk factors and severity. Obstet. Gynecol. 101:548556.
29. Edwards, J. E.,, Jr., C. L. Mayer,, S. G. Filler,, E. Wadsworth, and, R. A. Calderone. 1992. Cell extracts of Candida albicans block adherence of the organisms to endothelial cells. Infect. Immun. 60:30873091.
30. Eskola, J.,, H. Kayhty,, A. K. Takala,, H. Peltola,, P. R. Ronnberg,, E. Kela,, E. Pekkanen,, P. H. McVerry, and, P. H. Makela. 1990. A randomized, prospective field trial of a conjugate vaccine in the protection of infants and young children against invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. N. Engl. J. Med. 323:13811387.
31. Feldman, S.,, F. Gigliotti,, J. L. Shenep,, P. K. Roberson, and, L. Lott. 1990. Risk of Haemophilus influenzae type b disease in children with cancer and response of immuno-compromised leukemic children to a conjugate vaccine. J. Infect. Dis. 161:926931.
32. Fidel, P. L., Jr. 2007. History and update on host defense against vaginal candidiasis. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 57:212.
33. Fidel, P. L.,, Jr., M. Barousse,, V. Lounev,, T. Espinosa,, R. R. Chesson, and, K. Dunlap. 2003. Local immune responsiveness following intravaginal challenge with Candida antigen in adult women at different stages of the menstrual cycle. Med. Mycol. 41:97109.
34. Foxman, B.,, R. Barlow,, H. D’Arcy,, B. Gillespie, and, J. D. Sobel. 2000. Candida vaginitis: self-reported incidence and associated costs. Sex. Transm. Dis. 27:230235.
35. Foxman, B.,, J. V. Marsh,, B. Gillespie, and, J. D. Sobel. 1998. Frequency and response to vaginal symptoms among white and African American women: results of a random digit dialing survey. J. Womens Health 7:11671174.
36. Fraser, V. J.,, M. Jones,, J. Dunkel,, S. Storfer,, G. Medoff, and, W. C. Dunagan. 1992. Candidemia in a tertiary care hospital: epidemiology, risk factors, and predictors of mortality. Clin. Infect. Dis. 15:414421.
37. Frieman, M. B.,, J. M. McCaffery, and, B. P. Cormack. 2002. Modular domain structure in the Candida glabrata adhesin Epa1p, a β1,6 glucan-cross-linked cell wall protein. Mol. Microbiol. 46:479492.
38. Gable, C. B.,, S. S. Holzer,, L. Engelhart,, R. B. Friedman,, F. Smeltz,, D. Schroeder, and, K. Baum. 1990. Pneumococcal vaccine. Efficacy and associated cost savings. JAMA 264:29102915.
39. Giraldo, P. C.,, O. Babula,, A. K. Goncalves,, I. M. Lin-hares,, R. L. Amaral,, W. J. Ledger, and, S. S. Witkin. 2007. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphism, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and bacterial vaginosis. Obstet. Gynecol. 109:11231128.
40. Gray, B. M.,, G. M. Converse III, and, H. C. Dillon, Jr. 1980. Epidemiologic studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants: acquisition, carriage, and infection during the first 24 months of life. J. Infect. Dis. 142:923933.
41. Gray, B. M.,, and H. C. Dillon, Jr. 1988. Epidemiological studies of Streptococcus pneumoniae in infants: antibody to types 3, 6, 14, and 23 in the first two years of life. J. Infect. Dis. 158:948955.
42. Greenwood, B. 2005. Interpreting vaccine efficacy. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:15191520.
43. Gudlaugsson, O.,, S. Gillespie,, K. Lee,, J. Vande Berg,, J. Hu,, S. Messer,, L. Herwaldt,, M. Pfaller, and, D. Diekema. 2003. Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:11721177.
44. Guerrero, M.,, S. Kruger,, A. Saitoh,, F. Sorvillo,, K. J. Cheng,, C. French, and, G. Beall. 1999. Pneumonia in HIV-infected patients: a case-control survey of factors involved in risk and prevention. AIDS 13:19711975.
45. Hajjeh, R. A.,, A. N. Sofair,, L. H. Harrison,, G. M. Lyon,, B. A. Arthington-Skaggs,, S. A. Mirza,, M. Phelan,, J. Morgan,, W. Lee-Yang,, M. A. Ciblak,, L. E. Benjamin,, L. T. Sanza,, S. Huie,, S. F. Yeo,, M. E. Brandt, and, D. W. Warnock. 2004. Incidence of bloodstream infections due to Candida species and in vitro susceptibilities of isolates collected from 1998 to 2000 in a population-based active surveillance program. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:15191527.
46. Han, Y.,, and J. E. Cutler. 1995. Antibody response that protects against disseminated candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 63:27142719.
47. Han, Y.,, T. Kanbe,, R. Cherniak, and, J. E. Cutler. 1997. Biochemical characterization of Candida albicans epitopes that can elicit protective and nonprotective antibodies. Infect. Immun. 65:41004107.
48. Han, Y.,, R. P. Morrison, and, J. E. Cutler. 1998. A vaccine and monoclonal antibodies that enhance mouse resistance to Candida albicans vaginal infection. Infect. Immun. 66:57715776.
49. Han, Y.,, M. H. Riesselman, and, J. E. Cutler. 2000. Protection against candidiasis by an immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3) monoclonal antibody specific for the same mannotriose as an IgM protective antibody. Infect. Immun. 68:16491654.
50. Han, Y.,, M. A. Ulrich, and, J. E. Cutler. 1999. Candida albicans mannan extract-protein conjugates induce a protective immune response against experimental candidiasis. J. Infect. Dis. 179:14771484.
51. Haroon Parupia, M. F.,, and R. Dhanireddy. 2001. Association of postnatal dexamethasone use and fungal sepsis in the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity and progression to laser therapy in extremely low-birth-weight infants. J. Perinatol. 21:242247.
52. Heidenreich, S.,, T. Kubis,, M. Schmidt, and, W. Fegeler. 1994. Glucocorticoid-induced alterations of monocyte defense mechanisms against Candida albicans. Cell. Immunol. 157:320327.
53. Hodgetts, S.,, L. Nooney,, R. Al-Akeel,, A. Curry,, S. Awad,, R. Matthews, and, J. Burnie. 2008. Efungumab and caspofungin: pre-clinical data supporting synergy. J. Anti-microb. Chemother. 61:11321139.
54. Hope, W.,, A. Morton, and, D. P. Eisen. 2002. Increase in prevalence of nosocomial non-Candida albicans candidaemia and the association of Candida krusei with fluconazole use. J. Hosp. Infect. 50:5665.
55. Hoyer, L. L. 2001. The ALS gene family of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiol. 9:176180.
56. Hoyer, L. L.,, R. Fundyga,, J. E. Hecht,, J. C. Kapteyn,, F. M. Klis, and, J. Arnold. 2001. Characterization of agglutinin-like sequence genes from non-albicans Candida and phylogenetic analysis of the ALS family. Genetics 157:15551567.
57. Ibrahim, A. S.,, B. J. Spellberg,, V. Avanesian,, Y. Fu, and, J. E. J. Edwards. 2006. The anti-Candida rAls1p-N vaccine is broadly active against disseminated candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 74:30393041.
58. Ibrahim, A. S.,, B. J. Spellberg,, V. Avenissian,, Y. Fu,, S. G. Filler, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2005. Vaccination with recombinant N-terminal domain of Als1p improves survival during murine disseminated candidiasis by enhancing cell-mediated, not humoral, immunity. Infect. Immun. 73:9991005.
59. Kao, A. S.,, M. E. Brandt,, W. R. Pruitt,, L. A. Conn,, B. A. Perkins,, D. S. Stephens,, W. S. Baughman,, A. L. Reingold,, G. A. Rothrock,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. W. Pinner, and, R. A. Hajjeh. 1999. The epidemiology of candidemia in two United States cities: results of a population-based active surveillance. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:11641170.
60. Karabinis, A.,, C. Hill,, B. Leclercq,, C. Tancrede,, D. Baume, and, A. Andremont. 1988. Risk factors for candidemia in cancer patients: a case-control study. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:429432.
61. Karlowsky, J. A.,, G. G. Zhanel,, K. A. Klym,, D. J. Hoban, and, A. M. Kabani. 1997. Candidemia in a Canadian tertiary care hospital from 1976 to 1996. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 29:59.
62. Kelly, S. L.,, D. C. Lamb,, D. E. Kelly,, N. J. Manning,, J. Loeffler,, H. Hebart,, U. Schumacher, and, H. Einsele. 1997. Resistance to fluconazole and cross-resistance to amphotericin B in Candida albicans from AIDS patients caused by defective sterol Δ5,6-desaturation. FEBS Lett. 400:8082.
63. Kemper, C. A.,, R. Haubrich,, I. Frank,, G. Dubin,, C. Buscarino,, J. A. McCutchan, and, S. C. Deresinski. 2003. Safety and immunogenicity of hepatitis A vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. J. Infect. Dis. 187:13271331.
64. Kimura, L. H.,, and N. N. Pearsall. 1978. Adherence of Candida albicans to human buccal epithelial cells. Infect. Immun. 21:6468.
65. King, J. C.,, Jr., P. E. Vink,, J. J. Farley,, M. Parks,, M. Smilie,, D. Madore,, R. Lichenstein, and, F. Malinoski. 1996. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of a pneumococcal conjugate with a licensed polysaccharide vaccine in human immunodeficiency virus and non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15:192196.
66. Klotz, S. A.,, and R. L. Smith. 1995. Gelatin fragments block adherence of Candida albicans to extracellular matrix proteins. Microbiology 141(Pt. 10):26812684.
67. Klugman, K. P.,, S. A. Madhi,, R. E. Huebner,, R. Kohberger,, N. Mbelle, and, N. Pierce. 2003. A trial of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in children with and those without HIV infection. N. Engl. J. Med. 349:13411348.
68. Koivula, I.,, M. Sten,, M. Leinonen, and, P. H. Makela. 1997. Clinical efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine in the elderly: a randomized, single-blind population-based trial. Am. J. Med. 103:281290.
69. Kossoff, E. H.,, E. S. Buescher, and, M. G. Karlowicz. 1998. Candidemia in a neonatal intensive care unit: trends during fifteen years and clinical features of 111 cases. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 17:504508.
70. Kroon, F. P.,, J. T. van Dissel,, E. Ravensbergen,, P. H. Nibbering, and, R. van Furth. 1999. Impaired antibody response after immunization of HIV-infected individuals with the polysaccharide vaccine against Salmonella typhi (Typhim-Vi). Vaccine 17:29412945.
71. Kullberg, B. J.,, and A. M. Oude Lashof. 2002. Epidemiology of opportunistic invasive mycoses. Eur. J. Med. Res. 7:183191.
72. Kurtti, P.,, R. Isoaho,, L. von Hertzen,, T. Keistinen,, S. L. Kivela, and, M. Leinonen. 1997. Influence of age, gender and smoking on Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis antibody titres in an elderly population. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 29:485489.
73. Lark, R. L.,, C. Chenoweth,, S. Saint,, J. K. Zemencuk,, B. A. Lipsky, and, J. J. Plorde. 2000. Four year prospective evaluation of nosocomial bacteremia: epidemiology, microbiology, and patient outcome. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 38:131140.
74. Launay, O.,, O. Lortholary,, C. Bouges-Michel,, B. Jarrousse,, M. Bentata, and, L. Guillevin. 1998. Candidemia: a nosocomial complication in adults with late-stage AIDS. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:11341141.
75. Leino, T.,, K. Auranen,, P. H. Makela,, H. Kayhty,, M. Ramsay,, M. Slack, and, A. K. Takala. 2002. Haemophilus influenzae type b and cross-reactive antigens in natural Hib infection dynamics; modelling in two populations. Epidemiol. Infect. 129:7383.
76. Leung, T. F.,, C. K. Li,, E. C. Hung,, P. K. Chan,, C. W. Mo,, R. P. Wong, and, K. W. Chik. 2004. Immunogenicity of a two-dose regime of varicella vaccine in children with cancers. Eur. J. Haematol. 72:353357.
77. Levin, M. J.,, A. A. Gershon,, A. Weinberg,, S. Blanchard,, B. Nowak,, P. Palumbo, and, C. Y. Chan. 2001. Immunization of HIV-infected children with varicella vaccine. J. Pediatr. 139:305310.
78. Lifshitz, S.,, R. Dagan,, M. Shani-Sekler,, N. Grossman,, G. Fleminger,, M. Friger, and, Y. M. Nebenzahl. 2002. Age-dependent preference in human antibody responses to Streptococcus pneumoniae polypeptide antigens. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 127:344353.
79. Lin, L.,, A. S. Ibrahim,, V. Avanesian,, J. E. J. Edwards,, Y. Fu,, B. Baquir,, R. Taub, and, B. Spellberg. 2008. Vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy vary considerably by diluent used for aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 15:582584.
80. Lin, L.,, A. S. Ibrahim,, X. Xu,, J. M. Farber,, V. Avane-sian,, B. Baquir,, Y. Fu,, S. W. French,, J. E. Edwards, Jr., and, B. Spellberg. 2009. Th1-Th17 cells mediate protective adaptive immunity against Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans infection in mice. PLoS Pathog. 5:e1000703.
81. Loda, F. A.,, A. M. Collier,, W. P. Glezen,, K. Strangert,, W. A. Clyde, Jr., and, F. W. Denny. 1975. Occurrence of Diplococcus pneumoniae in the upper respiratory tract of children. J. Pediatr. 87:10871093.
82. Luzzati, R.,, G. Amalfitano,, L. Lazzarini,, F. Soldani,, S. Bellino,, M. Solbiati,, M. C. Danzi,, S. Vento,, G. Todeschini,, C. Vivenza, and, E. Concia. 2000. Nosocomial candidemia in non-neutropenic patients at an Italian tertiary care hospital. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19:602607.
83. Madhi, S. A.,, L. Kuwanda,, C. Cutland, and, K. P. Klugman. 2005. The impact of a 9-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on the public health burden of pneumonia in HIV-infected and -uninfected children. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:15111518.
84. Madhi, S. A.,, K. Petersen,, M. Khoosal,, R. E. Huebner,, N. Mbelle,, R. Mothupi,, H. Saloojee,, H. Crewe-Brown, and, K. P. Klugman. 2002. Reduced effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine in children with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 21:315321.
85. Madore, D. V. 1996. Impact of immunization on Haemophilus influenzae type b disease. Infect. Agents Dis. 5:820.
86. Malazy, O. T.,, M. Shariat,, R. Heshmat,, F. Majlesi,, M. Alimohammadian,, N. K. Tabari, and, B. Larijani. 2007. Vulvovaginal candidiasis and its related factors in diabetic women. Taiwan J. Obstet. Gynecol. 46:399404.
87. Marr, K. A.,, K. Seidel,, T. C. White, and, R. A. Bowden. 2000. Candidemia in allogeneic blood and marrow transplant recipients: evolution of risk factors after the adoption of prophylactic fluconazole. J. Infect. Dis. 181:309316.
88. Martino, P.,, C. Girmenia,, A. Micozzi,, R. Raccah,, G. Gentile,, M. Venditti, and, F. Mandelli. 1993. Fungemia in patients with leukemia. Am. J. Med. Sci. 306:225232.
89. Matthews, R.,, S. Hodgetts, and, J. Burnie. 1995. Preliminary assessment of a human recombinant antibody fragment to hsp90 in murine invasive candidiasis. J. Infect. Dis. 171:16681671.
90. Matthews, R. C.,, J. P. Burnie,, D. Howat,, T. Rowland, and, F. Walton. 1991. Autoantibody to heat-shock protein 90 can mediate protection against systemic candidosis. Immunology 74:2024.
91. Matthews, R. C.,, J. P. Burnie, and, S. Tabaqchali. 1987. Isolation of immunodominant antigens from sera of patients with systemic candidiasis and characterization of serological response to Candida albicans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:230237.
92. Matthews, R. C.,, G. Rigg,, S. Hodgetts,, T. Carter,, C. Chapman,, C. Gregory,, C. Illidge, and, J. Burnie. 2003. Preclinical assessment of the efficacy of Mycograb, a human recombinant antibody against fungal HSP90. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:22082216.
93. Mayer, C. L.,, S. G. Filler, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 1992. Candida albicans adherence to endothelial cells. Microvasc. Res. 43:218226.
94. Meunier, F.,, M. Aoun, and, N. Bitar. 1992. Candidemia in immunocompromised patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14(Suppl. 1):S120–S125.
95. Miller, L. G.,, R. A. Hajjeh, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2001. Estimating the cost of nosocomial candidemia in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:1110.
96. Muller, F. M.,, M. Weig,, J. Peter, and, T. J. Walsh. 2000. Azole cross-resistance to ketoconazole, fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole in clinical Candida albicans isolates from HIV-infected children with oropharyngeal candidosis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 46:338340.
97. Murphy, E. L.,, Y. Wu,, H. E. Ownby,, J. W. Smith,, R. K. Ruedy,, R. A. Thomson,, D. I. Ameti,, D. J. Wright, and, G. J. Nemo. 2001. Delayed hypersensitivity skin testing to mumps and Candida albicans antigens is normal in middle-aged HTLV-I- and-II-infected U.S. cohorts. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 17:12731277.
98. Musher, D. M.,, J. E. Groover,, M. R. Reichler,, F. X. Riedo,, B. Schwartz,, D. A. Watson,, R. E. Baughn, and, R. F. Breiman. 1997. Emergence of antibody to capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae during outbreaks of pneumonia: association with nasopharyngeal colonization. Clin. Infect. Dis. 24:441446.
99. Musher, D. M.,, J. E. Groover,, J. M. Rowland,, D. A. Watson,, J. B. Struewing,, R. E. Baughn, and, M. A. Mufson. 1993. Antibody to capsular polysaccharides of Streptococcus pneumoniae: prevalence, persistence, and response to revaccination. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:6673.
100. Musher, D. M.,, D. A. Watson, and, R. E. Baughn. 1990. Does naturally acquired IgG antibody to cell wall polysaccharide protect human subjects against pneumococcal infection? J. Infect. Dis. 161:736740.
101. Netea, M. G.,, N. A. Gow,, C. A. Munro,, S. Bates,, C. Collins,, G. Ferwerda,, R. P. Hobson,, G. Bertram,, H. B. Hughes,, T. Jansen,, L. Jacobs,, E. T. Buurman,, K. Gijzen,, D. L. Williams,, R. Torensma,, A. McKinnon,, D. M. MacCallum,, F. C. Odds,, J. W. Van der Meer,, A. J. Brown, and, B. J. Kullberg. 2006. Immune sensing of Candida albicans requires cooperative recognition of mannans and glucans by lectin and Toll-like receptors. J. Clin. Investig. 116:16421650.
102. Nolla-Salas, J.,, A. Sitges-Serra,, C. Leon-Gil,, J. Martinez-Gonzalez,, M. A. Leon-Regidor,, P. Ibanez-Lucia, and, J. M. Torres-Rodriguez. 1997. Candidemia in nonneutropenic critically ill patients: analysis of prognostic factors and assessment of systemic antifungal therapy. Study Group of Fungal Infection in the ICU. Intensive Care Med. 23:2330.
103. Nordoy, T.,, I. S. Aaberge,, A. Husebekk,, H. H. Samdal,, S. Steinert,, H. Melby, and, A. Kolstad. 2002. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy show adequate serological response to vaccinations against influenza virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Med. Oncol. 19:7178.
104. Nucci, M.,, W. Pulcheri,, N. Spector,, A. P. Bueno,, P. C. Bacha,, M. J. Caiuby,, A. Derossi,, R. Costa,, J. C. Morais, and, H. P. de Oliveira. 1995. Fungal infections in neutropenic patients. A 8-year prospective study. Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. São Paulo 37:397406.
105. Ohri, L. K.,, J. M. Manley,, A. Chatterjee, and, N. E. Cornish. 2004. Pediatric case series evaluating a standardized Candida albicans skin test product. Ann. Pharmacother. 38:973977.
106. Opal, S. M.,, G. E. Garber,, S. P. LaRosa,, D. G. Maki,, R. C. Freebairn,, G. T. Kinasewitz,, J. F. Dhainaut,, S. B. Yan,, M. D. Williams,, D. E. Graham,, D. R. Nelson,, H. Levy, and, G. R. Bernard. 2003. Systemic host responses in severe sepsis analyzed by causative microorganism and treatment effects of drotrecogin alfa (activated). Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:5058.
107. Pachl, J.,, P. Svoboda,, F. Jacobs,, K. Vandewoude,, B. van der Hoven,, P. Spronk,, G. Masterson,, M. Malbrain,, M. Aoun,, J. Garbino,, J. Takala,, L. Drgona,, J. Burnie, and, R. Matthews. 2006. A randomized, blinded, multicenter trial of lipid-associated amphotericin B alone versus in combination with an antibody-based inhibitor of heat shock protein 90 in patients with invasive candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:14041413.
108. Pagano, L.,, A. Antinori,, A. Ammassari,, L. Mele,, A. Nosari,, L. Melillo,, B. Martino,, M. Sanguinetti,, F. Equitani,, F. Nobile,, M. Carotenuto,, E. Morra,, G. Morace, and, G. Leone. 1999. Retrospective study of candidemia in patients with hematological malignancies. Clinical features, risk factors and outcome of 76 episodes. Eur. J. Haematol. 63:7785.
109. Pappas, P. G.,, C. A. Kauffman,, D. Andes,, D. K. Benjamin, Jr.,, T. F. Calandra,, J. E. Edwards, Jr.,, S. G. Filler,, J. F. Fisher,, B. J. Kullberg,, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner,, A. C. Reboli,, J. H. Rex,, T. J. Walsh, and, J. D. Sobel. 2009. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48:503535.
110. Pappas, P. G.,, J. H. Rex,, J. Lee,, R. J. Hamill,, R. A. Larsen,, W. Powderly,, C. A. Kauffman,, N. Hyslop,, J. E. Mangino,, S. Chapman,, H. W. Horowitz,, J. E. Edwards, and, W. E. Dismukes. 2003. A prospective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37:634643.
111. Parveen, N.,, A. A. Munir,, I. Din, and, R. Majeed. 2008. Frequency of vaginal candidiasis in pregnant women attending routine antenatal clinic. J. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak. 18:154157.
112. Paul, W. E. (ed.). 2003. Fundamental Immunology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, New York, NY.
113. Perlroth, J.,, B. Choi, and, B. Spellberg. 2007. Nosocomial fungal infections: epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment. Med. Mycol. 45:321346.
114. Peter, C. G. 1998. Responses of children immunized with capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae type b, by David H. Smith, MD, et al, Pediatrics, 1973;52:637–644; and Haemophilus influenzae type b capsular polysaccharide vaccine in children: a double-blind field study of 100 000 vaccinees 3 months to 5 years of age in Finland, by Heikki Peltola, MD et al, Pediatrics, 1977;60:730–737. Pediatrics 102:252254.
115. Pfaller, M. A. 1995. Epidemiology of candidiasis. J. Hosp. Infect. 30(Suppl.):329338.
116. Pirotta, M. V.,, J. M. Gunn, and, P. Chondros. 2003. “Not thrush again!” Women’s experience of post-antibiotic vulvovaginitis. Med. J. Aust. 179:4346.
117. Powderly, W. G.,, K. H. Mayer, and, J. R. Perfect. 1999. Diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal candidiasis in patients infected with HIV: a critical reassessment. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 15:14051412.
118. Rachini, A.,, D. Pietrella,, P. Lupo,, A. Torosantucci,, P. Chiani,, C. Bromuro,, C. Proietti,, F. Bistoni,, A. Cassone, and, A. Vecchiarelli. 2007. An anti-beta-glucan monoclonal antibody inhibits growth and capsule formation of Cryptococcus neoformans in vitro and exerts therapeutic, anticryptococcal activity in vivo. Infect. Immun. 75:50855094.
119. Rangel-Frausto, M. S.,, T. Wiblin,, H. M. Blumberg,, L. Saiman,, J. Patterson,, M. Rinaldi,, M. Pfaller,, J. E. J. Edwards,, W. Jarvis,, J. Dawson, and, R. P. Wenzel. 1999. National Epidemiology of Mycoses Survey (NEMIS): variations in rates of bloodstream infections due to Candida species in seven surgical intensive care units and six neonatal intensive care units. Clin. Infect. Dis. 29:253258.
120. Raymond, J.,, I. Le Thomas,, F. Moulin,, A. Commeau,, D. Gendrel, and, P. Berche. 2000. Sequential colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae of healthy children living in an orphanage. J. Infect. Dis. 181:19831988.
121. Read, J. S.,, C. E. Frasch,, K. Rich,, G. A. Fitzgerald,, J. D. Clemens,, J. Pitt,, S. I. Pelton,, I. C. Hanson,, E. Handelsman,, C. Diaz, and, M. G. Fowler for the Women and Infants Transmission Study Group. 1998. The immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in children born to human immunodeficiency virus-infected women. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 17:391397.
122. Redding, S. W.,, R. C. Zellars,, W. R. Kirkpatrick,, R. K. McAtee,, M. A. Caceres,, A. W. Fothergill,, J. L. Lopez-Ribot,, C. W. Bailey,, M. G. Rinaldi, and, T. F. Patterson. 1999. Epidemiology of oropharyngeal Candida colonization and infection in patients receiving radiation for head and neck cancer. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:38963900.
123. Rennert, G.,, H. S. Rennert,, S. Pitlik,, R. Finkelstein, and, R. Kitzes-Cohen. 2000. Epidemiology of candidemia—a nationwide survey in Israel. Infection 28:2629.
124. Rich, R. R.,, T. A. Fleisher,, W. T. Shearer,, B. L. Kotzin, and, H. W. J. Schroeder (ed.). 2001. Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice, 2nd ed. Mosby, New York, NY.
125. Richet, H. M.,, A. Andremont,, C. Tancrede,, J. L. Pico, and, W. R. Jarvis. 1991. Risk factors for candidemia in patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia. Rev. Infect. Dis. 13:211215.
126. Rodriguez-Barradas, M. C.,, R. A. Tharapel,, J. E. Groover,, K. P. Giron,, C. E. Lacke,, E. D. Houston,, R. J. Hamill,, M. C. Steinhoff, and, D. M. Musher. 1997. Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae among human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: prevalence of antibiotic resistance, impact of immunization, and characterization by polymerase chain reaction with BOX primers of isolates from persistent S. pneumoniae carriers. J. Infect. Dis. 175:590597.
127. Rutstein, R. M.,, B. J. Rudy, and, A. Cnaan. 1996. Response of human immunodeficiency virus-exposed and -infected infants to Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 150:838841.
128. Saiman, L.,, E. Ludington,, M. Pfaller,, S. Rangel-Frausto,, R. T. Wiblin,, J. Dawson,, H. M. Blumberg,, J. E. Patterson,, M. Rinaldi,, J. E. Edwards,, R. P. Wenzel, and, W. Jarvis for The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey Study Group. 2000. Risk factors for candidemia in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit patients. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:319324.
129. Schuman, P.,, S. E. Ohmit,, J. D. Sobel,, K. H. Mayer,, V. Greene,, A. Rompalo, and, R. S. Klein for the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) Group. 1998. Oral lesions among women living with or at risk for HIV infection. Am. J. Med. 104:559564.
130. Schuman, P.,, J. D. Sobel,, S. E. Ohmit,, K. H. Mayer,, C. C. Carpenter,, A. Rompalo,, A. Duerr,, D. K. Smith,, D. Warren, and, R. S. Klein for the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) Group. 1998. Mucosal candidal colonization and candidiasis in women with or at risk for human immunodeficiency virus infection. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:11611167.
131. Shapiro, E. D.,, A. T. Berg,, R. Austrian,, D. Schroeder,, V. Parcells,, A. Margolis,, R. K. Adair, and, J. D. Clemens. 1991. The protective efficacy of polyvalent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. N. Engl. J. Med. 325:14531460.
132. Shapiro, E. D.,, and J. D. Clemens. 1984. A controlled evaluation of the protective efficacy of pneumococcal vaccine for patients at high risk of serious pneumococcal infections. Ann. Intern. Med. 101:325330.
133. Sheppard, D. C.,, M. R. Yeaman,, W. H. Welch,, Q. T. Phan,, Y. Fu,, A. S. Ibrahim,, S. G. Filler,, M. Zhang,, A. J. Waring, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2004. Functional and structural diversity in the Als protein family of Candida albicans. J. Biol. Chem. 279:3048030489.
134. Sinsalo, M.,, J. Aittoniemi,, H. Kayhty, and, J. Vilpo. 2002. Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) antibody concentrations and vaccination responses in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukaemia: predicting factors for response. Leuk. Lymphoma 43:19671969.
135. Smit, P.,, D. Oberholzer,, S. Hayden-Smith,, H. J. Koornhof, and, M. R. Hilleman. 1977. Protective efficacy of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccines. JAMA 238:26132616.
136. Sobel, J. D. 2007. Vulvovaginal candidosis. Lancet 369:19611971.
137. Somjee, S.,, S. Pai,, P. Parikh,, S. Banavali,, R. Kelkar, and, S. Advani. 2002. Passive active prophylaxis against hepatitis B in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk. Res. 26:989992.
138. Spellberg, B.,, S. G. Filler, and, J. E. Edwards Jr. 2006. Current treatment strategies for disseminated candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42:244251.
139. Spellberg, B.,, A. S. Ibrahim,, J. E. Edwards, Jr., and, S. G. Filler. 2005. Mice with disseminated candidiasis die of progressive sepsis. J. Infect. Dis. 192:336343.
140. Spellberg, B.,, A. S. Ibrahim,, L. Lin,, V. Avanesian,, Y. Fu,, P. Lipke,, H. Otoo,, T. Ho, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2008. An antibody titer threshold predicts anti-candidal vaccine efficacy even though the mechanism of protection is induction of cell-mediated immunity. J. Infect. Dis. 197:957971.
141. Spellberg, B. J.,, and J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2002. The pathophysiology and treatment of Candida sepsis. Curr. Infect. Dis. Rep. 4:387399.
142. Spellberg, B. J.,, A. S. Ibrahim,, V. Avanesian,, Y. Fu,, C. Myers,, Q. T. Phan,, S. G. Filler,, M. R. Yeaman, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2006. Efficacy of the anti-Candida rAls3p-N or rAls1p-N vaccines against disseminated and mucosal candidiasis. J. Infect. Dis. 194:256260.
143. Spellberg, B. J.,, A. S. Ibrahim,, V. Avenissian,, S. G. Filler,, C. L. Myers,, Y. Fu, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 2005. The anti-Candida albicans vaccine composed of the recombinant N terminus of Als1p reduces fungal burden and improves survival in both immunocompe-tent and immunocompromised mice. Infect. Immun. 73:61916193.
144. Spellberg, B. J.,, D. Johnston,, Q. T. Phan,, J. E. Edwards, Jr.,, S. W. French,, A. Ibrahim, and, S. G. Filler. 2003. Parenchymal organ, and not splenic, immunity correlates with host survival during disseminated candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 71:57565764.
145. Spinillo, A.,, E. Capuzzo,, S. Acciano,, A. De Santolo, and, F. Zara. 1999. Effect of antibiotic use on the prevalence of symptomatic vulvovaginal candidiasis. Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. 180:1417.
146. Steele, R. W.,, R. Warrier,, P. J. Unkel,, B. J. Foch,, R. F. Howes,, S. Shah,, K. Williams,, S. Moore, and, S. J. Jue. 1996. Colonization with antibiotic-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with sickle cell disease. J. Pediatr. 128:531535.
147. Stockinger, B.,, and M. Veldhoen. 2007. Differentiation and function of Th17 T cells. Curr. Opin. Immunol. 19:281286.
148. Stone, H. H. 1974. Studies in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of Candida sepsis in children. J. Pediatr. Surg. 9:127133.
149. Tasker, S. A.,, G. A. Schnepf,, M. Lim,, H. E. Caraviello,, A. Armstrong,, M. Bavaro,, B. K. Agan,, J. Delmar,, N. Aronson,, M. R. Wallace, and, J. D. Grabenstein. 2004. Unintended smallpox vaccination of HIV-1-infected individuals in the United States military. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:13201322.
150. Tedaldi, E. M.,, R. K. Baker,, A. C. Moorman,, K. C. Wood,, J. Fuhrer,, R. E. McCabe, and, S. D. Holmberg. 2004. Hepatitis A and B vaccination practices for ambulatory patients infected with HIV. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38:14781484.
151. Torosantucci, A.,, C. Bromuro,, P. Chiani,, F. De Bernardis,, F. Berti,, C. Galli,, F. Norelli,, C. Bellucci,, L. Polonelli,, P. Costantino,, R. Rappuoli, and, A. Cassone. 2005. A novel glyco-conjugate vaccine against fungal pathogens. J. Exp. Med. 202:597606.
152. Tumbarello, M.,, E. Tacconelli,, K. de Gaetano Donati,, G. Morace,, G. Fadda, and, R. Cauda. 1999. Candidemia in HIV-infected subjects. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 18:478483.
153. Uzun, O.,, and E. J. Anaissie. 2000. Predictors of outcome in cancer patients with candidemia. Ann. Oncol. 11:15171521.
154. Uzun, O.,, S. Ascioglu,, E. J. Anaissie, and, J. H. Rex. 2001. Risk factors and predictors of outcome in patients with cancer and breakthrough candidemia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:17131717.
155. Valentin, A.,, R. Le Guennec,, E. Rodriguez,, J. Reynes,, M. Mallie, and, J. M. Bastide. 1996. Comparative resistance of Candida albicans clinical isolates to fluconazole and itraconazole in vitro and in vivo in a murine model. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 40:13421345.
156. Vermitsky, J. P.,, M. J. Self,, S. G. Chadwick,, J. P. Trama,, M. E. Adelson,, E. Mordechai, and, S. E. Gygax. 2008. Survey of vaginal-flora Candida species isolates from women of different age groups by use of species-specific PCR detection. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46:15011503.
157. Ward, J. I.,, G. Gorman,, C. Phillips, and, D. W. Fraser. 1978. Hemophilus influenzae type b disease in a day-care center. Report of an outbreak. J. Pediatr. 92:713717.
158. Wey, S. B.,, M. Mori,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. F. Woolson, and, R. P. Wenzel. 1988. Hospital-acquired candidemia. The attributable mortality and excess length of stay. Arch. Intern. Med. 148:26422645.
159. Wilson, L. S.,, C. M. Reyes,, M. Stolpman,, J. Speckman,, K. Allen, and, J. Beney. 2002. The direct cost and incidence of systemic fungal infections. Value Health 5:2634.
160. Wilton, L.,, M. Kollarova,, E. Heeley, and, S. Shakir. 2003. Relative risk of vaginal candidiasis after use of antibiotics compared with antidepressants in women: post-marketing surveillance data in England. Drug Saf. 26:589597.
161. Wisplinghoff, H.,, T. Bischoff,, S. M. Tallent,, H. Seifert,, R. P. Wenzel, and, M. B. Edmond. 2004. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:309317.
162. Wisplinghoff, H.,, H. Seifert,, S. M. Tallent,, T. Bischoff,, R. P. Wenzel, and, M. B. Edmond. 2003. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in pediatric patients in United States hospitals: epidemiology, clinical features and susceptibilities. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:686691.
163. Wisplinghoff, H.,, H. Seifert,, R. P. Wenzel, and, M. B. Edmond. 2003. Current trends in the epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections in patients with hematological malignancies and solid neoplasms in hospitals in the United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36:11031110.
164. Xu, J.,, K. Schwartz,, M. Bartoces,, J. Monsur,, R. K. Severson, and, J. D. Sobel. 2008. Effect of antibiotics on vulvovaginal candidiasis: a MetroNet study. J. Am. Board Fam. Med. 21:261268.
165. Ye, P.,, F. H. Rodriguez,, S. Kanaly,, K. L. Stocking,, J. Schurr,, P. Schwarzenberger,, P. Oliver,, W. Huang,, P. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, J. E. Shellito,, G. J. Bagby,, S. Nelson,, K. Charrier,, J. J. Peschon, and, J. K. Kolls. 2001. Requirement of interleukin 17 receptor signaling for lung CXC chemokine and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression, neutrophil recruitment, and host defense. J. Exp. Med. 194:519527.
166. Yogev, R.,, H. B. Lander, and, A. T. Davis. 1978. Effect of TMP-SMX on nasopharyngeal carriage of ampicillin-sensitive and ampicillin-resistant Hemophilus influenzae type B. J. Pediatr. 93:394397.
167. Zaoutis, T. E.,, J. Argon,, J. Chu,, J. A. Berlin,, T. J. Walsh, and, C. Feudtner. 2005. The epidemiology and attributable outcomes of candidemia in adults and children hospitalized in the United States: a propensity analysis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41:12321239.
168. Ziege, S. U.,, H. F. Geerdes-Fenge,, M. Rau,, U. Buchwald, and, H. Lode. 2000. In vitro effects of interleukin-10, prednisolone, and GM-CSF on the non-specific immune function of human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and monocytes. Eur. J. Med. Res. 5:369374.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error