Chapter 15 : Stress Responses in

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

Stress Responses in , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap15-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap15-2.gif


This chapter summarizes the current understanding of stress responses in . Of all the pathogenic species, the stress responses of have been investigated in the greatest depth. Cellular responses to stresses in include heat shock response, osmotic stress response and oxidative stress response. Stress-signaling pathways include mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, Hog1 pathway and Mkc1 pathway. The chapter describes one's understanding of the molecular mechanisms that regulate stress responses in and, where information is available, , contrasting these mechanisms mainly with those in and . Redox-sensitive antioxidant proteins, with roles in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species, can also act as sensors and regulators of reactive oxygen species-induced signal transduction pathways. Transcription factors that drive stress responses includes Cap1, Skn7 and Msn4. The structures of Hog1 signaling networks differ between and . As these differences must contribute to the behavior of these pathogens in their hosts, it is important that these differences are addressed at a molecular level. Quantitative mathematical modeling of these responses will provide an invaluable foil to our more classical molecular and genomic approaches.

Citation: Brown A, Haynes K, Gow N, Quinn J. 2012. Stress Responses in , p 225-242. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch15

Key Concept Ranking

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Diagram summarizing the pathways implicated in the adaptation of to stress. See text for details. Most connections between signaling components are indicated by dashed lines, but dotted lines are used to indicate connections between osmotic stress signaling factors in an effort to distinguish them from oxidative stress signaling, particularly with regard to upstream components. doi:10.1128/9781555817176.ch15.f1

Citation: Brown A, Haynes K, Gow N, Quinn J. 2012. Stress Responses in , p 225-242. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch15
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Alarco, A. M.,, I. Balan,, D. Talibi,, N. Mainville, and, M. Raymond. 1997. AP1-mediated multidrug resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires FLR1 encoding a transporter of the major facilitator superfamily. J. Biol. Chem. 272:1930419313.
2. Alarco, A. M.,, and M. Raymond. 1999. The bZip transcription factor Cap1p is involved in multidrug resistance and oxidative stress response in Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 181:700708.
3. Albertyn, J.,, S. Hohmann,, J. M. Thevelein, and, B. A. Prior. 1994. GPD1, which encodes glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, is essential for growth under osmotic stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and its expression is regulated by the element. EMBO J. 10:585592.
4. Alex, L. A.,, C. Korch,, C. P. Selitrennikoff, and, M. I. Simon. 1998. COS1, a two-component histidine kinase that is involved in hyphal development in the opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 95:70697073.
5. Alonso-Monge, R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, G. Molero,, R. Diez-Orejas,, M. Gustin,, J. Pla,, M. Sanchez, and, C. Nom-bela. 1999. Role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Hog1p in morphogenesis and virulence of Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 181:30583068.
6. Alonso-Monge, R.,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, E. Roman,, A. I. Negredo,, B. Eisman,, C. Nombela, and, J. Pla. 2003. The Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase is essential in the oxidative stress response and chlamydospore formation in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 2:351361.
7. Alonso-Monge, R.,, S. Carvaihlo,, C. Nombela,, E. Rial, and, J. Pla. 2009. The Hog1 MAP kinase controls respiratory metabolism in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Microbiology 155:413423.
8. Alonso-Monge, R.,, E. Roman,, D. M. Arana,, D. Prieto,, V. Urrialde,, C. Nombela, and, J. Pla. 2010. The Sko1 protein represses the yeast-to-hypha transition and regulates the oxidative stress response in Candida albicans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 47:587601.
9. Alvarez-Peral, F. J.,, O. Zaragoza,, Y. Pedreno, and, J. C. Arguelles. 2002. Protective role of trehalose during severe oxidative stress caused by hydrogen peroxide and the adaptive oxidative stress response in Candida albicans. Microbiology 148:25992606.
10. Alves, S. H.,, E. P. Milan,, P. de Laet Santana,, L. O. Oliveira,, J. M. Santurio, and, A. L. Colombo. 2002. Hypertonic Sabouraud broth as a simple and powerful test for Candida dubliniensis screening. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 43:8586.
11. Ansell, R.,, K. Granath,, S. Hohmann,, J. M. Thevelein, and, L. Adler. 1997. The two isoenzymes for yeast NAD-dependent glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by GPD1 and GPD2 have distinct roles in osmoadaptation and redox regulation. EMBO J. 16:21792187.
12. Arana, D. M.,, C. Nombela,, R. Alonso-Monge, and, J. Pla. 2005. The Pbs2 MAP kinase kinase is essential for the oxidative-stress response in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Microbiology 151:10331049.
13. Arana, D. M.,, R. Alonso-Monge,, C. Du,, R. A. Calderone, and, J. Pla. 2007. Differential susceptibility of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway mutants to oxidative-mediated killing by phagocytes in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Cell. Microbiol. 9:16471659.
14. Arguelles, J. C. 1997. Thermotolerance and trehalose accumulation induced by heat shock in yeast cells of Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 146:6571.
15. Bambach, A.,, M. P. Fernandes,, A. Ghosh,, M. Kruppa,, D. Alex,, D. Li,, W. A. Fonzi,, N. Chauhan,, N. Sun,, O. A. Agrellos,, A. E. Vercesi,, R. J. Rolfes, and, R. A. Calderone. 2009. Goa1p of Candida albicans localizes to the mitochondria during stress and is required for mitochondrial function and virulence. Eukaryot. Cell 8:17061720.
16. Blasi, E.,, L. Pitzurra,, M. Puliti,, A. R. Chimenti,, R. Mazzolla,, R. Barluzzi, and, F. Bistoni. 1995. Differential susceptibility of yeast and hyphal forms of Candida albicans to macrophage-derived nitrogen-containing compounds. Infect. Immun. 63:18061809.
17. Boisnard, S.,, G. Lagniel,, C. Garmendia-Torres,, M. Molin,, E. Boy-Marcotte,, M. Jacquet,, M. B. Toledano,, J. Labarre, and, S. Chedin. 2009. H2O2 activates the nuclear localization of Msn2 and Maf1 through thioredoxins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Eukaryot. Cell 8:14291438.
18. Bozonet, S. M.,, V. J. Findlay,, A. M. Day,, J. Cameron,, E. A. Veal, and, B. A. Morgan. 2005. Oxidation of a eukaryotic 2-Cys peroxiredoxin is a molecular switch controlling the transcriptional response to increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide. J. Biol. Chem. 280:2331923327.
19. Brock, M. 2009. Fungal metabolism in host niches. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 12:371376.
20. Bromuro, C.,, R. la Valle,, S. Sandini,, F. Urbani,, C. M. Ausiello,, L. Morelli,, C. F. d’Ostiani,, L. Romani, and, A. Cassone. 1998. A 70-kilodalton recombinant heat shock protein of Candida albicans is highly immunogenic and enhances systemic murine candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 66:21542162.
21. Brown, A. J. P. 2005. Integration of metabolism with virulence in Candida albicans, p. 185–203. In A. J. P. Brown (ed.), Mycota, vol. XIII. Fungal Genomics. Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany.
22. Brown, A. J. P.,, and N. A. R. Gow. 1999. Regulatory networks controlling Candida albicans morphogenesis. Trends Microbiol. 7:333338.
23. Brown, A. J. P.,, C. J. Barelle,, S. Budge,, J. Duncan,, S. Harris,, P. R. Lee,, P. Leng,, S. Macaskill,, A. M. Abdul Murad,, M. Ramsdale,, C. Wiltshire,, J. A. Wishart, and, N. A. R. Gow. 2000. Gene regulation during morphogenesis in Candida albicans, p. 112–125. In J. F. Ernst and, A. Schmidt (ed.), Contributions to Microbiology, vol. 5. Dimorphism in Human Pathogenic and Apathogenic Yeasts. Karger AG, Basel, Switzerland.
24. Buck, V.,, J. Quinn,, T. Soto Pino,, H. Martin,, J. Saldanha,, K. Makino,, B. A. Morgan, and, J. B. Millar. 2001. Peroxide sensors for the fission yeast stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol. Biol. Cell 12:407419.
25. Calcagno, A. M.,, E. Bignell,, T. R. Rogers,, M. D. Jones,, F. A. Muhlschlegel, and, K. Haynes. 2005. Candida glabrata Ste11 is involved in adaptation to hypertonic stress, maintenance of wild-type levels of filamentation and plays a role in virulence. Med. Mycol. 43:355364.
26. Calderone, R. A. 2002. Candida and Candidiasis. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
27. Calderone, R. A.,, and W. A. Fonzi. 2001. Virulence factors of Candida albicans. Trends Microbiol. 9:327335.
28. Calera, J. A.,, and R. A. Calderone. 1999. Identification of a putative response regulator two-component phosphorelay gene (CaSSK1) from Candida albicans. Yeast 15:12431254.
29. Calera, J. A.,, and R. A. Calderone. 1999. Flocculation of hyphae is associated with a deletion in the putative CaHK1 two-component histidine kinase gene from Candida albicans. Microbiology 145:14311442.
30. Calera, J. A.,, G. H. Choi, and, R. A. Calderone. 1998. Identification of a putative histidine kinase two-component phosphorelay gene (CaHK1) in Candida albicans. Yeast 14:665674.
31. Calera, J. A.,, D. Herman, and, R. A. Calderone. 2000. Identification of YPD1, a gene of Candida albicans which encodes a two-component phosphohistidine intermediate protein. Yeast 16:10531059.
32. Calera, J. A.,, X. J. Zhao, and, R. A. Calderone. 2000. Defective hyphal development and avirulence caused by a deletion of the SSK1 response regulator gene in Candida albicans. Infect. Immun. 68:518525.
33. Calera, J. A.,, X. J. Zhao,, F. De Bernardis,, M. Sheridan, and, R. A. Calderone. 1999. Avirulence of Candida albicans CaHK1 mutants in a murine model of hematogenously disseminated candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 67:42804284.
34. Causton, H. C.,, B. Ren,, S. S. Koh,, C. T. Harbison,, E. Kanin,, E. G. Jennings,, T. I. Lee,, H. L. True,, E. S. Lander, and, R. A. Young. 2001. Remodeling of yeast genome expression in response to environmental changes. Mol. Biol. Cell 12:323337.
35. Chauhan, N.,, D. Inglis,, E. Roman,, J. Pla,, D. Li,, J. A. Calera, and, R. A. Calderone. 2003. Candida albicans response regulator gene SSK1 regulates a subset of genes whose functions are associated with cell wall biosynthesis and adaptation to oxidative stress. Eukaryot. Cell 2:10181024.
36. Chauhan, N.,, J. P. Latge, and, R. A. Calderone. 2006. Signalling and oxidant adaptation in Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 4:435444.
37. Cheetham, J.,, D. A. Smith,, A. da Silva Dantas,, K. S. Doris,, M. J. Patterson,, C. R. Bruce,, and J. Quinn. 2007. A single MAPKKK regulates the Hog1 MAPK pathway in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 18:46034614.
38. Chen, D.,, W. M. Toone,, J. Mata,, R. Lyne,, G. Burns,, K. Kivinen,, A. Brazma,, N. Jones, and, J. Bahler. 2003. Global transcriptional responses of fission yeast to environmental stress. Mol. Biol. Cell 14:214229.
39. Chen, J.,, J. Chen,, S. Lane, and, H. Liu. 2002. A conserved mitogen activated protein kinase pathway is required for mating in Candida albicans. Mol. Microbiol. 46:13351344.
40. Chiranand, W.,, I. McLeod,, H. Zhou,, J. L. Lynn,, L. A. Vega,, H. Myers,, J. R. Yates III,, M. C. Lorenz, and, M. C. Gustin. 2008. CTA4 transcription factor mediates induction of nitrosative stress response in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 7:268278.
41. Cohen, B. A.,, Y. Pilpel,, R. D. Mitra, and, G. M. Church. 2002. Discrimination between paralogs using microarray analysis: application to the Yap1 and Yap2 transcriptional networks. Mol. Biol. Cell 13:16081614.
42. Cuellar-Cruz, M.,, M. Briones-Martin-del-Campo,, I. Canas-Villamar,, J. Montalvo-Arredondo,, L. Riego-Ruiz,, I. Castano, and, A. De Las Penas. 2008. High resistance to oxidative stress in the fungal pathogen Candida glabrata is mediated by a single catalase, Cta1p, and is controlled by the transcription factors Yap1p, Skn7p, Msn2p, and Msn4p. Eukaryot. Cell 7:814825.
43. da Silva Dantas, A.,, M. J. Patterson,, D. A. Smith,, D. M. MacCallum,, L. P. Erwig,, B. A. Morgan, and, J. Quinn. 2010. Thioredoxin regulates multiple hydrogen peroxide-induced signaling pathways in Candida albicans. Mol. Cell. Biol. 30:45504563.
44. Delaunay, A.,, A. D. Isnard, and, M. B. Toledano. 2000. H2O2 sensing through oxidation of the Yap1 transcription factor. EMBO J. 19:51575166.
45. Delaunay, A.,, D. Pflieger,, M. B. Barrault,, J. Vinh, and, M. B. Toledano. 2002. A thiol peroxidase is an H2O2 receptor and redox-transducer in gene activation. Cell 111:471481.
46. Diez-Orejas, R.,, G. Molero,, F. Navarro-Garcia,, J. Pla,, C. Nombela, and, M. Sanchez-Perez. 1997. Reduced virulence of Candida albicans MKC1 mutants: a role for mitogen-activated protein kinase in pathogenesis. Infect. Immun. 65:833837.
47. Du, C.,, R. A. Calderone,, J. Richert, and, D. Li. 2005. Deletion of the SSK1 response regulator gene in Candida albicans contributes to enhanced killing by human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Infect. Immun. 73:865871.
48. Eisman, B.,, R. Alonso-Monge,, E. Roman,, D. Arana,, C. Nombela, and, J. Pla. 2006. The Cek1 and Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinases play complementary roles in cell wall biogenesis and chlamydospore formation in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 5:347358.
49. Elahi, S.,, G. Pang,, R. B. Ashman, and, R. Clancy. 2001. Nitric oxide-enhanced resistance to oral candidiasis. Immunology 104:447454.
50. Enjalbert, B.,, A. Nantel, and, M. Whiteway. 2003. Stress-induced gene expression in Candida albicans: absence of a general stress response. Mol. Biol. Cell 14:14601467.
51. Enjalbert, B.,, D. A. Smith,, M. J. Cornell,, I. Alam,, S. Nicholls,, A. J. P. Brown, and, J. Quinn. 2006. Role of the Hog1 stress-activated protein kinase in the global transcriptional response to stress in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 17:10181032.
52. Enjalbert, B.,, D. MacCallum,, F. C. Odds, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2007. Niche-specific activation of the oxidative stress response by the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Infect. Immun. 75:21432151.
53. Enjalbert, B.,, G. P. Moran,, C. Vaughan,, T. Yeomans,, D. M. MacCallum,, J. Quinn,, D. C. Coleman,, A. J. P. Brown, and, D. J. Sullivan. 2009. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and forward genetic screens show that differential expression of the sodium ion transporter Ena21 contributes to the differential tolerance of Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis to osmotic stress. Mol. Microbiol. 72:216228.
54. Estruch, F.,, and M. Carlson. 1993. Two homologous zinc finger genes identified by multicopy suppression in a SNF1 protein kinase mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:38723881.
55. Fan, J. J.,, M. Whiteway, and, S. H. Shen. 2005. Disruption of a gene encoding glycerol 3-phosphatase from Candida albicans impairs intracellular glycerol accumulation-mediated salt-tolerance. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 245:107116.
56. Fang, F. C. 2004. Antimicrobial reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: concepts and controversies. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2:820832.
57. Fauchon, M.,, G. Lagniel,, J. C. Aude,, L. Lombardia,, P. Soularue,, C. Petat,, G. Marguerie,, A. Sentenac,, M. Werner, and, J. Labarre. 2002. Sulfur sparing in the yeast proteome in response to sulfur demand. Mol. Cell 9:713723.
58. Fernandes, L.,, C. Rodrigues-Pousada, and, K. Struhl. 1997. Yap, a novel family of eight bZIP proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with distinct biological functions. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:69826993.
59. Fidel, P. L., Jr. 2004. History and new insights into host defense against vaginal candidiasis. Trends Microbiol. 12:220227.
60. Fidel, P. L.,, Jr., M. M. Barousse,, T. Espinosa,, M. Ficarra,, J. Sturtevant,, D. H. Martin,, A. J. Quayle, and, K. Dunlap. 2004. A live intravaginal Candida challenge in humans reveals new hypothesis for the immunopathogenesis of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 72:29392946.
61. Fradin, C.,, M. Kretschmar,, T. Nichterlein,, C. Gaillardin,, C. d’Enfert, and, B. Hube. 2003. Stage-specific gene expression of Candida albicans in human blood. Mol. Microbiol. 47:15231543.
62. Fradin, C.,, P. De Groot,, D. MacCallum,, M. Schaller,, F. Klis,, F. C. Odds, and, B. Hube. 2005. Granulocytes govern the transcriptional response, morphology and proliferation of Candida albicans in human blood. Mol. Microbiol. 56:397415.
63. Francois, J.,, and J. L. Parrou. 2001. Reserve carbohydrates metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 25:125145.
64. Frohner, I. E.,, C. Bourgeois,, K. Yatsyk,, O. Majer, and, K. Kuchler. 2009. Candida albicans cell surface superoxide dismutases degrade host-derived reactive oxygen species to escape innate immune surveillance Mol. Microbiol. 71:240252.
65. Garreau, H.,, R. N. Hasa,, G. Renault,, F. Estruch,, E. Boy-Marcotte, and, M. Jacquet. 2000. Hyperphosphorylation of Msn2 and Msn4 in response to heat shock and the diauxic shift is inhibited by cAMP in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiology 146:21132120.
66. Gasch, A. P.,, P. T. Spellman,, C. M. Kao,, O. Carmel-Harel,, M. B. Eisen,, G. Storz,, D. Botstein, and, P. O. Brown. 2000. Genomic expression programs in the response of yeast cells to environmental changes. Mol. Biol. Cell 11:42414257.
67. Giacometti, R.,, F. Kronberg,, R. M. Biondi, and, S. Passeron. 2009. Catalytic isoforms Tpk1 and Tpk2 of Candida albicans PKA have non-redundant roles in stress response and glycogen storage. Yeast 26:273285.
68. Gonzalez-Parraga, P.,, J. A. Hernandez, and, J. C. Arguelles. 2003. Role of antioxidant enzymatic defences against oxidative stress H2O2 and the acquisition of oxidative tolerance in Candida albicans. Yeast 20:11611169.
69. Gonzalez-Parraga, P.,, R. Alonso-Monge,, J. Pla, and, J. C. Arguelles. 2010. Adaptive tolerance to oxidative stress and the induction of antioxidant enzymatic activities in Candida albicans are independent of the Hog1 and Cap1-mediated pathways. FEMS Yeast Res. doi:10.1111/ j.1567-1364.2010.00654.x.
70. Gorner, W.,, E. Durchschlag,, M. T. Martinez-Pastor,, F. Estruch,, G. Ammerer,, B. Hamilton,, H. Ruis, and, C. Schuller. 1998. Nuclear localisation of the C2H2 zinc finger protein Msn2p is regulated by stress and protein kinase A activity. Genes Dev. 12:586597.
71. Gorner, W.,, E. Durchschlag,, J. Wolf,, E. L. Brown,, G. Ammerer,, B. Hamilton,, H. Ruis, and, C. Schuller. 2002. Acute glucose starvation activates the nuclear localization signal of a stress-specific yeast transcription factor. EMBO J. 21:135144.
72. Grant, C. M. 2001. Role of the glutathione/glutaredoxin and thioredoxin systems in yeast growth and response to stress. Mol. Microbiol. 39:533541.
73. Gregori, C.,, C. Schuller,, A. Roetzer,, T. Schwarzmuller,, G. Ammerer, and, K. Kuchler. 2007. The high-osmolarity glycerol response pathway in the human fungal pathogen Candida glabrata strain ATCC 2001 lacks a signaling branch that operates in baker’s yeast. Eukaryot. Cell 6:16351645.
74. Hahn, J. S.,, and D. J. Thiele. 2004. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor under glucose starvation conditions by Snf1 protein kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 279:51695176.
75. Hahn, J. S.,, Z. Hu,, D. J. Thiele, and, V. R. Iyer. 2004. Genome-wide analysis of the biology of stress responses through heat shock transcription factor. Mol. Cell. Biol. 24:52495256.
76. Halliwell, B.,, and J. M. Gutteridge. 1984. Oxygen toxicity, oxygen radicals, transition metals and disease. Biochem. J. 219:114.
77. Harcus, D.,, A. Nantel,, A. Marcil,, T. Rigby, and, M. Whiteway. 2004. Transcription profiling of cyclic AMP signaling in Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 15:44904499.
78. He, X. J.,, K. E. Mulford, and, J. S. Fassler. 2009. Oxidative stress function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Skn7 receiver domain. Eukaryot. Cell 8:768778.
79. Hersen, P.,, M. N. McClean,, L. Mahadevan, and, S. Ramanathan. 2008. Signal processing by the HOG MAP kinase pathway. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci USA 105:71657170.
80. Hirata, Y.,, T. Andoh,, T. Asahara, and, A. Kikuchi. 2003. Yeast glycogen synthase kinase-3 activates Msn2p-dependent transcription of stress responsive genes. Mol. Biol. Cell 14:302312.
81. Hirayama, T.,, T. Maeda,, H. Saito, and, K. Shinozaki. 1995. Cloning and characterization of seven cDNAs for hyperosmolarity-responsive (HOR) genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol. Gen. Genet. 249:127138.
82. Hohmann, S. 2002. Osmotic stress signaling and osmoadaptation in yeasts. Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 66:300372.
83. Homann, O. R.,, J. Dea,, S. M. Noble, and, A. D. Johnson. 2009. A phenotypic profile of the Candida albicans regulatory network. PLoS Genet. 5:e1000783.
84. Hromatka, B. S.,, S. M. Noble, and, A. D. Johnson. 2005. Transcriptional response of Candida albicans to nitric oxide and the role of the YHB1 gene in nitrosative stress and virulence. Mol. Biol. Cell 16:48144826.
85. Hudson, D. A.,, Q. L. Sciascia,, R. J. Sanders,, G. E. Norris,, P. J. B. Edwards,, P. A. Sullivan, and, P. C. Farley. 2004. Identification of the dialysable serum inducer of germ-tube formation in Candida albicans. Microbiology 150:30413049.
86. Hwang, C. S.,, G. E. Rhie,, J. H. Oh,, W. K. Huh,, H. S. Yim, and, S. O. Kang. 2002. Copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase (Cu/ZnSOD) is required for the protection of Candida albicans against oxidative stresses and the expression of its full virulence. Microbiology 148:37053713.
87. Jacquet, M.,, G. Renault,, S. Lallet,, J. De Mey, and, A. Goldbeter. 2003. Oscillatory nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the general stress response transcriptional activators Msn2 and Msn4 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Cell Biol. 161:497505.
88. Jamieson, D. J.,, D. W. Stephen, and, E. C. Terriere. 1996. Analysis of the adaptive oxidative stress response of Candida albicans. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 138:8388.
89. Kayingo, G.,, and B Wong. 2005. The MAP kinase Hog1p differentially regulates stress-induced production and accumulation of glycerol and d-arabitol in Candida albicans. Microbiology 151:29872999.
90. Klipp, E.,, B. Nordlander,, R. Kruger,, P. Gennemark, and, S. Hohmann. 2005. Integrative model of the response of yeast to osmotic shock. Nat. Biotechnol. 23:975982.
91. Kruppa, M.,, and R. A. Calderone. 2006. Two-component signal transduction in human fungal pathogens. FEMS Yeast Res. 6:149159.
92. Kruppa, M.,, T. Goins,, J. E. Cutler,, D. Lowman,, D. Williams,, N. Chauhan,, V. Menon,, P. Singh,, D. Li, and, R. A. Calderone. 2003. The role of the Candida albicans histidine kinase (CHK1) gene in the regulation of cell wall mannan and glucan biosynthesis. FEMS Yeast Res. 3:289299.
93. Kruppa, M.,, M. A. Jabra-Rizk,, T. F. Meiller, and, R. A. Calderone. 2004. The histidine kinases of Candida albicans: regulation of cell wall mannan biosynthesis. FEMS Yeast Res. 4:409416.
94. Kruppa, M.,, B. P. Krom,, N. Chauhan,, A. V. Bambach,, R. L. Cihlar, and, R. A. Calderone. 2004. The two-component signal transduction protein Chk1p regulates quorum sensing in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 3:10621065.
95. Kumamoto, C. A. 2005. A contact-activated kinase signals Candida albicans invasive growth and biofilm development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 102:55765581.
96. Lee, J.,, C. Godon,, G. Lagniel,, D. Spector,, J. Garin,, J. Labarre, and, M. B. Toledano. 1999. Yap1 and Skn7 control two specialized oxidative stress response regulons in yeast. J. Biol. Chem. 274:1604016046.
97. Li, D.,, J. Bernhardt, and, R. A. Calderone. 2002. Temporal expression of the Candida albicans genes CHK1 and CSSK1, adherence, and morphogenesis in a model of reconstituted human esophageal epithelial candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 70:15581565.
98. Li, D.,, V. Gurkovska,, M. Sheridan,, R. A. Calderone, and, N. Chauhan. 2004. Studies on the regulation of the two-component histidine kinase gene CHK1 in Candida albicans using the heterologous lacZ reporter gene. Microbiology 150:33053313.
99. Lorenz, M. C.,, and G. R. Fink. 2001. The glyoxylate cycle is required for fungal virulence. Nature 412:8386.
100. Lorenz, M. C.,, J. A. Bender, and, G. R. Fink. 2004. Transcriptional response of Candida albicans upon internalization by macrophages. Eukaryot. Cell 3:10761087.
101. Luyten, K.,, J. Albertyn,, W. F. Skibbe,, B. A. Prior,, J. Ramos,, J. M. Thevelein, and, S. Hohmann. 1995. Fps1, a yeast member of the MIP family of channel proteins, is a facilitator for glycerol uptake and efflux and is inactive under osmotic stress. EMBO J. 14:13601371.
102. Macaskill, S. 2003. Functional analysis of specific promoter elements involved in the control of Candida albicans transcription. Ph.D. thesis. University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
103. Maeda, T.,, M. Takekawa, and, H. Saito. 1995. Activation of yeast PBS2 MAPKK by MAPKKKs or by binding of an SH3-containing osmosensor. Science 269:554558.
104. Mager, W. H.,, and A. J. J. de Kruijff. 1995. Stress-induced transcriptional activation. Microbiol. Rev. 59:506531.
105. Maidan, M. M.,, J. M. Thevelein, and, P. Van Dijck. 2005. Carbon source induced yeast-to-hypha transition in Candida albicans is dependent on the presence of amino acids and on the G-protein-coupled receptor Gpr1. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 33:291293.
106. Marchler, G.,, C. Schuller,, G. Adam, and, H. Ruis. 1993. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae UAS element controlled by protein kinase A activates transcription in response to a variety of stress conditions. EMBO J. 12:19972003.
107. Martchenko, M.,, A. M. Alarco,, D. Harcus, and, M. Whiteway. 2004. Superoxide dismutases in Candida albicans: transcriptional regulation and functional characterization of the hyphal-induced SOD5 gene. Mol. Biol. Cell 15:456467.
108. Martinez-Pastor, M. T.,, G. Marchler,, C. Schuller,, A. Marchler-Bauer,, H. Ruis, and, F. Estruch. 1996. The Saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc finger proteins Msn2p and Msn4p are required for transcriptional induction through the stress-response element. EMBO J. 15:22272235.
109. Matthews, R. C. 1992. Candida albicans HSP90: link between protection and autoimmunity. J. Med. Microbiol. 36:367370.
110. Matthews, R. C.,, J. P. Burnie, and, S. Tabaqchali. 1987. Isolation of immunodominant antigens from the sera of patients with systemic candidiasis and characterisation of the serological response to Candida albicans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:230237.
111. Matthews, R. C.,, J. P. Burnie,, D. Smith,, I. Clark,, J. Midgley,, M. Conolly, and, B. Gazzard. 1988. Candida and AIDS: evidence for protective antibody. Lancet 332:263266.
112. Matthews, R. C.,, J. P. Burnie,, D. Howat,, T. Rowland, and, F. Walton. 1991. Autoantibody to HSP90 can mediate protection against systemic candidosis. Immunology 74:2024.
113. Matthews, R. C.,, G. Rigg,, S. Hodgetts,, T. Carter,, C. Chapman,, C. Gregory,, C. Illidge, and, J. Burnie. 2003. Preclinical assessment of the efficacy of Mycograb, a human recombinant antibody against fungal Hsp90. Anti-microb Agents Chemother. 47:22082216.
114. Menon, V.,, D. Li,, N. Chauhan,, R. Rajnarayanan,, A. Dubrovska,, A. H. West, and, R. A. Calderone. 2006. Functional studies of the Ssk1p response regulator protein of Candida albicans as determined by phenotypic analysis of receiver domain point mutants. Mol. Microbiol. 62:9971013.
115. Momose, Y.,, and H. Iwahashi. 2001. Bioassay of cadmium using a DNA microarray: genome-wide expression patterns of Saccharomyces cerevisiae response to cadmium. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 20:23532360.
116. Morgan, B. A.,, G. R. Banks,, W. M. Toone,, D. Raitt,, S. Kuge, and, L. H. Johnston. 1997. The Skn7 response regulator controls gene expression in the oxidative stress response of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. EMBO J. 16:10351044.
117. Moskvina, E.,, C. Schuller,, C. T. C. Maurer,, W. H. Mager, and, H. Ruis. 1998. A search in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for genes regulated via stress response elements. Yeast 14:10411050.
118. Munro, C. A.,, S. Selvaggini,, I. de Bruijn,, L. Walker,, M. D. Lenardon,, B. Gerssen,, S. Milne,, A. J. P. Brown, and, N. A. R. Gow. 2007. The PKC, HOG and Ca2+ signalling pathways coordinately regulate chitin synthesis in Candida albicans. Mol. Microbiol. 63:13991413.
119. Murad, A. M. A.,, P. Leng,, M. Straffon,, J. Wishart,, S. Macaskill,, D. MacCallum,, N. Schnell,, D. Talibi,, D. Marechal,, F. Tekaia,, C. d’Enfert,, C. Gaillardin,, F. C. Odds, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2001. NRG1 represses yeast-hypha morphogenesis and hypha-specific gene expression in Candida albicans. EMBO J. 20:47424752.
120. Murad, A. M. A.,, C. d’Enfert,, C. Gaillardin,, H. Tournu,, F. Tekaia,, D. Talibi,, D. Marechal,, V. Marchais,, J. Cottin, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2001. Transcript profiling in Candida albicans reveals new cellular functions for the transcriptional repressors, CaTup1, CaMig1 and CaNrg1. Mol. Microbiol. 42:981993.
121. Muzzey, D.,, C. A. Gomez-Uribe,, J. T. Mettetal, and, A. van Oudenaarden. 2009. A systems-level analysis of perfect adaptation in yeast osmoregulation. Cell 138:160171.
122. Nagahashi, S.,, T. Mio,, N. Ono,, T. Yamada-Okabe,, M. Arisawa,, H. Bussey, and, H. Yamada-Okabe. 1998. Isolation of CaSLN1 and CaNIK1, the genes for osmosensing histidine kinase homologues, from the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Microbiology 144:425432.
123. Nasution, O.,, K. Srinivasa,, M. Kim,, Y.J. Kim,, W. Kim,, W. Jeong, and, W. Choi. 2008. Hydrogen peroxide induces hyphal differentiation in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 7:20082011.
124. Navarro-Garcia, F.,, M. Sanchez,, J. Pla, and, C. Nom-bela. 1995. Functional characterization of the MKC1 gene of Candida albicans, which encodes a mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog related to cell integrity. Mol. Cell. Biol. 15:21972206.
125. Navarro-Garcia, F.,, R. Alonso-Monge,, H. Rico,, J. Pla,, R. Sentandreu, and, C. Nombela. 1998. A role for the MAP kinase gene MKC1 in cell wall construction and morphological transitions in Candida albicans. Microbiology 144:411424.
126. Navarro-Garcia, F.,, B. Eisman,, S. M. Fiuza,, C. Nom-bela, and, J. Pla. 2005. The MAP kinase Mkc1p is activated under different stress conditions in Candida albicans. Microbiology 151:27372749.
127. Nguyen, A. N.,, A. Lee,, W. Place, and, K. Shiozaki. 2000. Multistep phosphorelay proteins transmit oxidative stress signals to the fission yeast stress-activated protein kinase. Mol. Biol. Cell 11:11691181.
128. Nicholls, S.,, M. Straffon,, B. Enjalbert,, A. Nantel,, S. Macaskill,, M. Whiteway, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2004. Msn2/4-like transcription factors play no obvious roles in the stress responses of the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 3:11111123.
129. Nicholls, S.,, M. Leach,, C. Priest, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2009. Role of the heat shock transcription factor, Hsf1, in a major fungal pathogen that is obligately associated with warm-blooded animals. Mol. Microbiol. 74:844861.
130. Nicholls, S.,, D. M. MacCallum,, F. A. R. Kaffarnik,, L. Selway,, S. C. Peck, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2011. Activation of the heat shock transcription factor Hsf1 is essential for the full virulence of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Fungal Genet. Biol. 48:297305.
131. Nikolaou, E.,, I. Agrafioti,, M. Stumpf,, J. Quinn,, I. Stansfield, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2009. Phylogenetic diversity of stress signalling pathways in fungi. BMC Evol. Biol. 9:44.
132. Norbeck, J.,, A. K. Pahlman,, N. Akhtar,, A. Blomberg, and, L. Adler. 1996. Purification and characterization of two isoenzymes of dl-glycerol-3-phosphatase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Identification of the corresponding GPP1 and GPP2 genes and evidence for osmotic regulation of Gpp2p expression by the osmosensing mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway. J. Biol. Chem. 271:1387513881.
133. Nwaka, S.,, and H. Holzer. 1998. Molecular biology of trehalose and the trehalases in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 58:197237.
134. Odds, F. C. 1988. Candida and Candidosis, 2nd ed. Bail-liere Tindall, London, United Kingdom.
135. Odds, F. C. 1994. Candida species and virulence. ASM News 60:313318.
136. Pahlman, A. K.,, K. Granath,, R. Ansell,, S. Hohmann, and, L. Adler. 2001. The yeast glycerol 3-phosphatases Gpp1p and Gpp2p are required for glycerol biosynthesis and differentially involved in the cellular responses to osmotic, anaerobic, and oxidative stress. J. Biol. Chem. 276:35553563.
137. Panaretou, B.,, K. Sinclair,, C. Prodromou,, J. Johal,, L. Pearl, and, P. W. Piper. 1999. The Hsp90 of Candida albicans can confer Hsp90 functions in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a potential model for the processes that generate immunoprotective fragments of this molecular chaperone in C. albicans infections. Microbiology 145:34553463.
138. Paravicini, G.,, A. Mendoza,, B. Antonsson,, M. Cooper,, C. Losberger, and, M. A. Payton. 1996. The Candida albicans PKC1 gene encodes a protein kinase C homolog necessary for cellular integrity but not dimorphism. Yeast 12:741756.
139. Phillips, A. J.,, I. Sudbery, and, M. Ramsdale. 2003. Apoptosis induced by environmental stresses and amphotericin B in Candida albicans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1432714332.
140. Phillips, A. J.,, J. D. Crowe, and, M. Ramsdale. 2006. Ras pathway signaling accelerates programmed cell death in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103:726731.
141. Piekarska, K.,, E. Mol,, M. van den Berg,, G. Hardy,, J. van den Burg,, C. van Roermund,, D. MacCallum,, F. C. Odds, and, B. Distel. 2006. Peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation is not essential for virulence of Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 5:18471856.
142. Pinjon, E.,, D. Sullivan,, I. Salkin,, D. Shanley, and, D. Coleman. 1998. Simple, inexpensive, reliable method for differentiation of Candida dubliniensis from Candida albicans. J. Clin. Microbiol. 36:20932095.
143. Piper, P.,, C. O. Calderon,, K. Hatzixanthis, and, M. Mollapour. 2001. Weak acid adaptation: the stress response that confers yeasts with resistance to organic acid food preservatives. Microbiology 147:26352642.
144. Posas, F.,, and H. Saito. 1997. Osmotic activation of the HOG MAPK pathway via Ste11p MAPKKK: scaffold role of Pbs2p MAPKK. Science 276:17021705.
145. Posas, F.,, and H. Saito. 1998. Activation of the yeast SSK2 MAP kinase kinase kinase by the SSK1 two-component response regulator. EMBO J. 17:13851394.
146. Posas, F.,, S. M. Wurgler-Murphy,, T. Maeda,, E. A. Witten,, T. C. Thai, and, H. Saito. 1996. Yeast HOG1 MAP kinase cascade is regulated by a multistep phosphorelay mechanism in the SLN1-YPD1-SSK1 “two-component” osmosensor. Cell 86:865875.
147. Quinn, J.,, V. J. Findlay,, K. Dawson,, J. B. Millar,, N. Jones,, B. A. Morgan, and, W. M. Toone. 2002. Distinct regulatory proteins control the graded transcriptional response to increasing H2O2 levels in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol. Biol. Cell 13:805816.
148. Raitt, D. C.,, A. L. Johnson,, A. M. Erkine,, K. Makino,, B. Morgan,, D. S. Gross, and, L. H. Johnston. 2000. The Skn7 response regulator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae interacts with Hsf1 in vivo and is required for the induction of heat shock genes by oxidative stress. Mol. Biol. Cell 11:23352347.
149. Ramsdale, M.,, L. Selway,, D. Stead,, J. Walker,, Z. Yin,, S. M. Nicholls,, E. M. Shiels, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2008. The novel gene MNL1 regulates weak acid induced stress responses of the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 19:43934403.
150. Rauceo, J. M.,, J. R. Blankenship,, J. J. Hamaker,, J. S. Deneault,, F. L. Smith,, A. Nantel, and, A. P. Mitchell. 2008. Regulation of the Candida albicans cell wall damage response by transcription factor Sko1 and PAS kinase Psk1. Mol. Biol. Cell 19:27412751.
151. Rementeria, A.,, R. Garcia-Tobalina, and, M. J. Sevilla. 1995. Nitric oxide-dependent killing of Candida albicans by murine peritoneal cells during an experimental infection. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 11:157162.
152. Rodaki, A.,, I. M. Bohovych,, B. Enjalbert,, T. Young,, F. C. Odds,, N. A. R. Gow, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2009. Glucose promotes stress resistance in the fungal pathogen, Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 20:48454855.
153. Roetzer, A.,, A. Gregori,, A. M. Jennings,, J. Quintin,, D. Ferrandon,, G. Butler,, K. Kuchler,, G. Ammerer, and, C. Schuller. 2008. Candida glabrata environmental stress response involves Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msn2/4 orthologous transcription factors. Mol. Microbiol. 69:603620.
154. Roman, E.,, C. Nombela, and, J. Pla. 2005. The Sho1 adaptor protein links oxidative stress to morphogenesis and cell wall biosynthesis in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Mol. Cell. Biol. 25:1061110627.
155. Roman, E.,, D. M. Arana,, C. Nombela,, R. Alonso-Monge, and, J. Pla. 2007. MAP kinase pathways as regulators of fungal virulence. Trends Microbiol. 15:181190.
156. Roman, E.,, R. Alonso-Monge,, Q. Gong,, D. Li,, R. A. Calderone, and, J. Pla. 2009. The Cek1 MAPK is a short-lived protein regulated by quorum sensing in the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. FEMS Yeast Res. 9:942955.
157. Roman, E.,, F. Cottier,, J. F. Ernst, and, J. Pla. 2009. Msb2 signaling mucin controls activation of Cek1 mitogen-activated protein kinase in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 8:12351249.
158. Rossignol, T.,, P. Lechat,, C. Cuomo,, Q. Zeng,, I. Moszer, and, C. d’Enfert. 2008. CandidaDB: a multi-genome database for Candida species and related Saccharomycotina. Nucleic Acids Res. 36:D557–D561.
159. Rubin-Bejerano, I.,, I. Fraser,, P. Grisafi, and, G. R. Fink. 2003. Phagocytosis by neutrophils induces an amino acid deprivation response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 100:1100711012.
160. Saijo, T.,, T. Miyazaki,, K. Izumikawa,, T. Mihara,, T. Takazono,, K. Kosai,, Y. Imamura,, M. Seki,, H. Kakeya,, Y. Yamamoto,, K. Yanagihara, and, S. Kohno. 2010. Skn7p is involved in oxidative stress response and virulence of Candida glabrata. Mycopathologia 169:8190.
161. Sandini, S.,, R. Melchionna,, C. Bromuro, and, R. La Valle. 2002. Gene expression of 70 kDa heat shock protein of Candida albicans: transcriptional activation and response to heat shock. Med. Mycol. 40:471478.
162. San Jose, C.,, R. A. Monge,, R. Perez-Diaz,, J. Pla, and, C. Nombela. 1996. The mitogen-activated protein kinase homolog HOG1 gene controls glycerol accumulation in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 178:58505852.
163. Santos, J. L.,, and K. Shiozaki. 2001. Fungal histidine kinases. Sci. STKE 2001:re1.
164. Schmitt, A. P.,, and K. McEntee. 1996. Msn2p, a zinc finger DNA-binding protein, is the transcriptional activator of the multistress response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:57775782.
165. Selitrennikoff, C. P.,, L. Alex,, T. K. Miller,, K. V. Clemons,, M. I. Simon, and, D. A. Stevens. 2001. COS-l, a putative two-component histidine kinase of Candida albicans, is an in vivo virulence factor. Med. Mycol. 39:6974.
166. Sellam, A.,, C. Askew,, E. Epp,, H. Lavoie,, M. Whiteway, and, A. Nantel. 2009. Genome-wide mapping of the co-activator Ada2p yields insight into the functional roles of SAGA/ADA complex in Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 20:23892400.
167. Shapiro, R.,, P. Uppuluri,, A. K. Zaas,, C. Collins,, H. Senn,, J. R. Perfect,, J. Heitman, and, L. E. Cowen. 2009. Hsp90 orchestrates temperature-dependent Candida albicans morphogenesis via Ras1-PKA signalling. Curr. Biol. 19:19.
168. Shi, Q. M.,, Y. M. Wang,, X. D. Zheng,, R. T. Lee, and, Y. Wang. 2007. Critical role of DNA checkpoints in mediating genotoxic-stress-induced filamentous growth in Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 18:815826.
169. Singer, M. A.,, and S. Lindquist. 1998. Thermotolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae: the yin and yang of trehalose. Trends Biotechnol. 16:460468.
170. Singh, P.,, N. Chauhan,, A. Ghosh,, F. Dixon, and, R. A. Calderone. 2004. SKN7 of Candida albicans: mutant construction and phenotype analysis. Infect. Immun. 72:23902394.
171. Skrzypek, M. S.,, M. B. Arnaud,, M. C. Costanzo,, D. O. Inglis,, P. Shah,, G. Binkley,, S. R. Miyasato, and, G. Sherlock. 2010. New tools at the Candida Genome Database: biochemical pathways and full-text literature search. Nucleic Acids Res. 38:D428–D432.
172. Smith, D. A.,, S. Nicholls,, B. A. Morgan,, A. J. P. Brown, and, J. Quinn. 2004. A conserved stress-activated protein kinase regulates a core stress response in the human pathogen Candida albicans. Mol. Biol. Cell 15:41794190.
173. Smith, D. A.,, B. A. Morgan, and, J. Quinn. 2010. Stress signalling to fungal stress-activated protein kinase pathways. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 306:18.
174. Sorger, P. K.,, and H. R. B. Pelham. 1988. Yeast heat shock factor is an essential DNA-binding protein that exhibits temperature-dependent phosphorylation. Cell 54:855864.
175. Srikantha, T.,, L. Tsai,, K. Daniels,, L. Enger,, K. Highley, and, D. R. Soll. 1998. The two-component hybrid kinase regulator CaNIK1 of Candida albicans. Microbiology 144:27152729.
176. Stohs, S. J.,, and D. Bagchi. 1995. Oxidative mechanisms in the toxicity of metal ions. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 18:321336.
177. Swoboda, R.,, S. Miyasaki,, D. Greenspan, and, J. S. Greenspan. 1993. Heat-inducible ATP-binding proteins of Candida albicans are recognized by sera of infected patients. J. Gen. Microbiol. 139:29953003.
178. Swoboda, R. K.,, G. Bertram,, H. Hollander,, D. Greenspan,, J. S. Greenspan,, N. A. R. Gow,, G. W. Gooday, and, A. J. P. Brown. 1993. Glycolytic enzymes of Candida albicans are nonubiquitous immunogens during candidiasis. Infect. Immun. 61:42634271.
179. Swoboda, R. K.,, G. Bertram,, S. Delbruck,, J. F. Ernst,, N. A. R. Gow,, G. W. Gooday, and, A. J. P. Brown. 1994. Fluctuations in glycolytic mRNA levels during the yeast-to-hyphal transition in Candida albicans reflect underlying changes in growth and are not a response to cellular dimorphism. Mol. Microbiol. 13:663672.
180. Swoboda, R. K.,, G. Bertram,, S. Budge,, G. W. Gooday,, N. A. R. Gow, and, A. J. P. Brown. 1995. Structure and regulation of the HSP90 gene from the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. Infect. Immun. 63:45064514.
181. Tamas, M. J.,, K. Luyten,, F. C. W. Sutherland,, A. Hernandez,, J. Albertyn,, H. Valadi,, H. Li,, B. A. Prior,, S. G. Kilian,, J. Ramos,, L. Gustafsson,, J. M. Thevelein, and, S. Hohmann. 1999. Fps1p controls the accumulation and release of the compatible solute glycerol in yeast osmo-regulation. Mol. Microbiol. 31:10871104.
182. Tatebayashi, K.,, K. Tanaka,, H. Y. Yang,, K. Yamamoto,, Y. Matsushita,, T. Tomida,, M. Imai, and, H. Saito. 2007. Transmembrane mucins Hkr1 and Msb2 are putative osmosensors in the SHO1 branch of yeast HOG pathway. EMBO J. 26:35213533.
183. Thevelein, J. M.,, L. Cauwenberg,, S. Colombo,, J. H. De Winde,, M. Donation,, F. Dumortier,, L. Kraakman,, K. Lemaire,, P. Ma,, D. Nauwelaers,, F. Rolland,, A. Teunissen,, P. Van Dijck,, M. Versele,, S. Wera, and, J. Winderickx. 2000. Nutrient-induced signal transduction through the protein kinase A pathway and its role in the control of metabolism, stress resistance, and growth in yeast. Enzyme Microb. Technol. 26:819825.
184. Thewes, S.,, M. Kretschmar,, H. Park,, M. Schaller,, S. G. Filler, and, B. Hube. 2007. In vivo and ex vivo comparative transcriptional profiling of invasive and noninvasive Candida albicans isolates identifies genes associated with tissue invasion. Mol. Microbiol. 63:16061628.
185. Toone, W. M.,, and N. Jones. 1998. Stress-activated signalling pathways in yeast. Genes Cells 3:485498.
186. Toone, W. M.,, B. A. Morgan, and, N. Jones. 2001. Redox control of AP-1-like factors in yeast and beyond. Oncogene 20:23362346.
187. Torosantucci, A.,, P. Chiani,, F. De Bernardis,, A. Cassone,, J. A. Calera, and, R. A. Calderone. 2002. Deletion of the two-component histidine kinase gene (CHK1) of Candida albicans contributes to enhanced growth inhibition and killing by human neutrophils in vitro. Infect. Immun. 70:985987.
188. Ullmann, B. D.,, H. Myers,, W. Chiranand,, A. L. Lazzell,, Q. Zhao,, L. A. Vega,, J. L. Lopez-Ribot,, P. R. Gardner, and, M. C. Gustin. 2004. Inducible defense mechanism against nitric oxide in Candida albicans. Eukaryot. Cell 3:715723.
189. Urban, C.,, X. Xiong,, K. Sohn,, K. Schroppel,, H. Brunner, and, S. Rupp. 2005. The moonlighting protein Tsa1p is implicated in oxidative stress response and in cell wall biogenesis in Candida albicans. Mol. Microbiol. 57:13181341.
190. Van Dijck, P.,, L. De Rop,, K. Szlufcik,, E. Van Ael, and, J. M. Thevelein. 2002. Disruption of the Candida albicans TPS2 gene encoding trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase decreases infectivity without affecting hypha formation. Infect. Immun. 70:17721782.
191. Vazquez-Torres, A.,, J. Jones-Carson, and, E. Balish. 1996. Peroxynitrite contributes to the candidacidal activity of nitric oxide-producing macrophages. Infect. Immun. 64:31273133.
192. Veal, E. A.,, A. M. Day, and, B. A. Morgan. 2007. Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signalling. Mol. Cell 26:114.
193. Veal, E. A.,, V. J. Findlay,, A. M. Day,, S. M. Bozonet,, J. M. Evans,, J. Quinn, and, B. A. Morgan. 2004. A 2-Cys peroxiredoxin regulates peroxide-induced oxidation and activation of a stress-activated MAP kinase. Mol. Cell 15:129139.
194. Vido, K.,, D. Spector,, G. Lagniel,, S. Lopez,, M. B. Toledano, and, J. A. Labarre. 2001. Proteome analysis of the cadmium response in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 276:84698474.
195. Vylkova, S.,, W. S. Jang,, W. Li,, N. Nayyar, and, M. Edgerton. 2007. Histatin 5 initiates osmotic stress response in Candida albicans via activation of the Hog1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Eukaryot. Cell 6:18761888.
196. Walker, L. A.,, C. A. Munro,, I. de Brujin,, M. D. Lenardon,, A. McKinnon, and, N. A. R. Gow. 2008. Stimulation of chitin synthesis rescues Candida albicans from echinocandins. PLoS Pathog. 4:e1000040.
197. Walker, L. A.,, D. M. MacCallum,, G. Bertram,, N. A. R. Gow,, F. C. Odds, and, A. J. P. Brown. 2009. Genome-wide analysis of Candida albicans gene expression patterns during infection of the mammalian kidney. Fungal Genet. Biol. 46:210219.
198. Wang, Y.,, Y. Y. Cao,, X. M. Jia,, Y. B. Cao,, P. H. Gao,, X. P. Fu,, K. Ying,, W. S. Chen, and, Y. Y. Jiang. 2006. Cap1p is involved in multiple pathways of oxidative stress response in Candida albicans. Free Radic. Biol. Med. 40:12011209.
199. Whiteway, M.,, D. Dignard, and, D. Y. Thomas. 1992. Dominant negative selection of heterologous genes: isolation of Candida albicans genes that interfere with Saccharomyces cerevisiae mating factor-induced cell cycle arrest. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 89:94109414.
200. Whiteway, M. 2000. Transcriptional control of cell type and morphogenesis in Candida albicans. Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 3:582588.
201. Wiederrecht, G.,, D. Seto, and, C. S. Parker. 1988. Isolation of the gene encoding the S. cerevisiae heat shock transcription factor. Cell 54:841853.
202. Wilson, D.,, A. Tutulan-Cunita,, W. Jung,, N. C. Hauser,, R. Hernandez,, T. Williamson,, K. Piekarska,, S. Rupp,, T. Young, and, L. Stateva. 2007. Deletion of the high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase encoded by PDE2 affects stress responses and virulence in Candida albicans. Mol. Microbiol. 65:841856.
203. Wolfe, K. H.,, and D. C. Shields. 1997. Molecular evidence for an ancient duplication of the entire yeast genome. Nature 387:708713.
204. Wysong, D. R.,, L. Christin,, A. M. Sugar,, P. W. Robbins, and, R. D. Diamond. 1998. Cloning and sequencing of a Candida albicans catalase gene and effects of disruption of this gene. Infect. Immun. 66:19531961.
205. Yamada-Okabe, T.,, T. Mio,, N. Ono,, Y. Kashima,, M. Matsui,, M. Arisawa, and, H. Yamada-Okabe. 1999. Roles of three histidine kinase genes in hyphal development and virulence of the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans. J. Bacteriol. 181:72437247.
206. Yamamoto, A.,, Y. Mizukami, and, H. Sakurai. 2005. Identification of a novel class of target genes and a novel type of binding sequence of heat shock transcription factor in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Biol. Chem. 280:1191111919.
207. Yin, Z.,, D. Stead,, J. Walker,, L. Selway,, D. Smith,, A. J. P. Brown, and, J. Quinn. 2009. A proteomic analysis of the salt, cadmium and peroxide stress responses in Candida albicans and the role of the Hog1 SAPK in regulating the stress-induced proteome. Proteomics 9:46864703.
208. Zakikhany, K.,, J. R. Naglik,, A. Schmidt-Westhausen,, G. Holland,, M. Schaller, and, B. Hube. 2007. In vivo transcript profiling of Candida albicans identifies a gene essential for interepithelial dissemination. Cell. Microbiol. 9:29382954.
209. Zaragoza, O.,, M. A. Blázquez, and, C. Gancedo. 1998. Disruption of the Candida albicans TPS1 gene encoding trehalose-6-phosphate synthase impairs formation of hyphae and decreases virulence. J. Bacteriol. 180:38093815.
210. Zeuthen, M. L.,, and D. H. Howard. 1989. Thermotolerance and the heat-shock response in Candida albicans. J. Gen. Microbiol. 135:25092518.
211. Zhang, X.,, M. De Micheli,, S. T. Coleman,, D. Sanglard, and, W. S. Moye-Rowley. 2000. Analysis of the oxidative stress regulation of the Candida albicans transcription factor, Cap1p. Mol. Microbiol. 36:618629.
212. Zhao, X.,, R. Mehrabi, and, J. R. Xu. 2007. Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways and fungal pathogenesis. Eukaryot. Cell 6:17011714.
213. Zhao, X. J.,, D. Raitt,, P. V. Burke,, A. S. Clewell,, K. E. Kwast, and, R. O. Poyton. 1996. Function and expression of flavohemoglobin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Evidence for a role in the oxidative stress response. J. Biol. Chem. 271:2513125138.
214. Znaidi, S.,, K. S. Barker,, S. Weber,, A. M. Alarco,, T. T. Liu,, G. Boucher,, P. D. Rogers, and, M. Raymond. 2009. Identification of the Candida albicans Cap1p regulon. Eukaryot. Cell 8:806820.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error