1887

Chapter 27 : Systemic Candidiasis: Candidemia and Deep-Organ Infections

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Systemic Candidiasis: Candidemia and Deep-Organ Infections, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap27-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817176/9781555815394_Chap27-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews the clinical characteristics and specific treatment recommendations for the various types of invasive candidiasis, beginning with candidemia. Systemic candidiasis refers to end-organ disease stemming from hematogenous seeding, since any blood-borne infection may infect the organs through which it circulates. The risk factors for candidemia are numerous and well described in the chapter, including neutropenia, receipt of immunosuppressive drugs and other conditions associated with suppressed immune function, receipt of broad-spectrum antibiotics, use of central venous catheters and total parenteral nutrition, gastrointestinal surgery, burn injuries, and hemo-dialysis and other forms of renal replacement therapy. The chapter also reviews empirical therapy and treatment of proven candidemia in both nonneutropenic and neutropenic hosts. Unlike the case with non-neutropenic hosts, the use of empirical antifungal therapy among febrile neutropenic hosts is well established and validated by outcome data in clinical trials. In considering the treatment of proven candidemia it is useful to divide management decisions into those made prior to the identification of species and those made afterwards. Candidemia due to is generally catheter related, favoring routine catheter removal. All patients with candidemia require an ophthalmologic examination to exclude endophthalmitis. This examination is best undertaken after the initiation of therapy and sterilization of the bloodstream, in order to minimize the possibility of subsequently seeding the eye. Similarly, any findings suggestive of an infectious process in other end organs should be investigated to exclude invasive candidiasis.

Citation: Clancy C, Nguyen M. 2012. Systemic Candidiasis: Candidemia and Deep-Organ Infections, p 429-441. In Calderone R, Clancy C (ed), and Candidiasis, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817176.ch27

Key Concept Ranking

Microbial Ecology
0.674412
Antifungal Agents
0.6522566
Fungal Infections
0.64680696
Candida glabrata
0.5065789
Candida parapsilosis
0.5065789
Candida glabrata
0.5065789
Candida parapsilosis
0.5065789
0.674412
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817176.ch27
1. Aaron, L.,, A. Therby,, J. P. Viard,, R. Lahoulou, and, B. Dupont. 2003. Successful medical treatment of Candida albicans in mechanical prosthetic valve endocarditis. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 35: 351352.
2. Alden, S. M.,, E. Frank, and, L. Flancbaum. 1989. Abdominal candidiasis in surgical patients. Am. Surg. 55: 4549.
3. Amici, G.,, S. Grandesso,, A. Mottola,, G. Virga,, G. Calconi, and, C. Bocci. 1994. Fungal peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis: critical review of six cases. Adv. Perit. Dial. 10: 169173.
4. Anaissie, E.,, G. P. Bodey,, H. Kantarjian,, C. David,, K. Barnett,, E. Bow,, R. Defelice,, N. Downs,, T. File,, G. Karam, et al. 1991. Fluconazole therapy for chronic disseminated candidiasis in patients with leukemia and prior amphotericin B therapy. Am. J. Med. 91: 142150.
5. Anaissie, E. J.,, J. H. Rex,, O. Uzun, and, S. Vartivarian. 1998. Predictors of adverse outcome in cancer patients with candidemia. Am. J. Med. 104: 238245.
6. Anaissie, E. J.,, S. E. Vartivarian,, D. Abi-Said,, O. Uzun,, H. Pinczowski,, D. P. Kontoyiannis,, P. Khoury,, K. Papadakis,, A. Gardner,, I. I. Raad,, J. Gilbreath, and, G. P. Bodey. 1996. Fluconazole versus amphotericin B in the treatment of hematogenous candidiasis: a matched cohort study. Am. J. Med. 101: 170176.
7. Baddley, J. W.,, D. K. Benjamin, Jr.,, M. Patel,, J. Miro,, E. Athan,, B. Barsic,, E. Bouza,, L. Clara,, T. Elliott,, Z. Kanafani,, J. Klein,, S. Lerakis,, D. Levine,, D. Spelman,, E. Rubinstein,, P. Tornos,, A. J. Morris,, P. Pappas,, V. G. Fowler, Jr.,, V. H. Chu, and, C. Cabell. 2008. Candida infective endocarditis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 27: 519529.
8. Barrie, T. 1987. The place of elective vitrectomy in the management of patients with Candida endophthalmitis. Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol. 225: 107113.
9. Bayer, A. S.,, M. J. Blumenkrantz,, J. Z. Montgomerie,, J. E. Galpin,, J. W. Coburn, and, L. B. Guze. 1976. Candida peritonitis. Report of 22 cases and review of the English literature. Am. J. Med. 61: 832840.
10. Belzunegui, J.,, C. Gonzalez,, L. Lopez,, I. Plazaola,, O. Maiz, and, M. Figueroa. 1997. Osteoarticular and muscle infectious lesions in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus. Clin. Rheumatol. 16: 450453.
11. Bennett, J. E. 2006. Echinocandins for candidemia in adults without neutropenia. N. Engl. J. Med. 355: 11541159.
12. Betts, R.,, A. Glasmacher,, J. Maertens,, G. Maschmeyer,, J. A. Vazquez,, H. Teppler,, A. Taylor,, R. Lupinacci,, C. Sable, and, N. Kartsonis. 2006. Efficacy of caspofungin against invasive Candida or invasive Aspergillus infections in neutropenic patients. Cancer 106: 466473.
13. Blumberg, H. M.,, W. R. Jarvis,, J. M. Soucie,, J. E. Edwards,, J. E. Patterson,, M. A. Pfaller,, M. S. Rangel-Frausto,, M. G. Rinaldi,, L. Saiman,, R. T. Wiblin, and, R. P. Wenzel. 2001. Risk factors for candidal bloodstream infections in surgical intensive care unit patients: the NEMIS prospective multicenter study. The National Epidemiology of Mycosis Survey. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33: 177186.
14. Bonomo, R. A.,, M. Strauss,, R. Blinkhorn, and, R. A. Salata. 1996. Torulopsis (Candida) glabrata: a new pathogen found in spinal epidural abscess. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 588589.
15. Boogaerts, M.,, D. J. Winston,, E. J. Bow,, G. Garber,, A. C. Reboli,, A. P. Schwarer,, N. Novitzky,, A. Boehme,, E. Chwetzoff, and, K. De Beule. 2001. Intravenous and oral itraconazole versus intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate as empirical antifungal therapy for persistent fever in neutropenic patients with cancer who are receiving broad-spectrum antibacterial therapy. A randomized, controlled trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 135: 412422.
16. Brooks, R. G. 1989. Prospective study of Candida endophthalmitis in hospitalized patients with candidemia. Arch. Intern. Med. 149: 22262228.
17. Calandra, T.,, J. Bille,, R. Schneider,, F. Mosimann, and, P. Francioli. 1989. Clinical significance of Candida isolated from peritoneum in surgical patients. Lancet ii: 14371440.
18. Calderone, R. A., and, W. M. Scheld. 1987. Role of fibronectin in the pathogenesis of candidal infections. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9 (Suppl. 4): S400S403.
19. Canver, C. C.,, A. K. Patel,, P. Kosolcharoen, and, M. C. Voytovich. 1998. Fungal purulent constrictive pericarditis in a heart transplant patient. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 65: 17921794.
20. Casado, J. L.,, C. Quereda,, J. Oliva,, E. Navas,, A. Moreno,, V. Pintado,, J. Cobo, and, I. Corral. 1997. Candidal meningitis in HIV-infected patients: analysis of 14 cases. Clin. Infect. Dis. 25: 673676.
21. Castaldo, P.,, R. J. Stratta,, R. P. Wood,, R. S. Markin,, K. D. Patil,, M. S. Shaefer,, A. N. Langnas,, E. C. Reed,, S. J. Li,, T. J. Pillen, et al. 1991. Clinical spectrum of fungal infections after orthotopic liver transplantation. Arch. Surg. 126: 149156.
22. Chan, T. M.,, C. Y. Chan,, S. W. Cheng,, W. K. Lo,, C. Y. Lo, and, I. K. Cheng. 1994. Treatment of fungal peritonitis complicating continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis with oral fluconazole: a series of 21 patients. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 9: 539542.
23. Connolly, J. E., Jr.,, H. P. McAdams,, J. J. Erasmus, and, M. L. Rosado-de-Christenson. 1999. Opportunistic fungal pneumonia. J. Thorac. Imaging 14: 5162.
24. Cornely, O. A.,, M. Lasso,, R. Betts,, N. Klimko,, J. Vazquez,, G. Dobb,, J. Velez,, A. Williams-Diaz,, J. Lipka,, A. Taylor,, C. Sable, and, N. Kartsonis. 2007. Caspofungin for the treatment of less common forms of invasive candidiasis. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 60: 363369.
25. Czwerwiec, F. S.,, M. S. Bilsker,, M. L. Kamerman, and, A. L. Bisno. 1993. Long-term survival after fluconazole therapy of candidal prosthetic valve endocarditis. Am. J. Med. 94: 545546.
26. Diebel, L. N.,, A. M. Raafat,, S. A. Dulchavsky, and, W. J. Brown. 1996. Gallbladder and biliary tract candidiasis. Surgery 120: 760–764; discussion, 764–765.
27. Donahue, S. P.,, E. Hein, and, R. B. Sinatra. 2003. Ocular involvement in children with candidemia. Am. J. Ophthalmol. 135: 886887.
28. Edwards, J. E. 2005. Candida species, p. 29382957. In G. L. Mandell,, J. E. Bennett and,, R. Dolin (ed.), Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 6th ed., vol. 2. Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
29. Edwards, J. E., Jr. 1992. Should all patients with candidemia be treated with antifungal agents? Clin. Infect. Dis. 15: 422423.
30. Eggimann, P.,, P. Francioli,, J. Bille,, R. Schneider,, M. M. Wu,, G. Chapuis,, R. Chiolero,, A. Pannatier,, J. Schilling,, S. Geroulanos,, M. P. Glauser, and, T. Calandra. 1999. Fluconazole prophylaxis prevents intra-abdominal candidiasis in high-risk surgical patients. Crit. Care Med. 27: 10661072.
31. el-Ebiary, M.,, A. Torres,, N. Fabregas,, J. P. de la Bellacasa,, J. Gonzalez,, J. Ramirez,, D. del Bano,, C. Hernandez, and, M. T. Jimenez de Anta. 1997. Significance of the isolation of Candida species from respiratory samples in critically ill, non-neutropenic patients. An immediate postmortem histologic study. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 156: 583590.
32. Ellepola, A. N., and, C. J. Morrison. 2005. Laboratory diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. J. Microbiol. 43 (Spec. No.): 6584.
33. Ellis, M. E.,, H. Al-Abdely,, A. Sandridge,, W. Greer, and, W. Ventura. 2001. Fungal endocarditis: evidence in the world literature, 1965–1995. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 5062.
34. EORTC International Antimicrobial Therapy Cooperative Group. 1989. Empiric antifungal therapy in febrile granulocytopenic patients. Am. J. Med. 86: 668672.
35. Epelbaum, S.,, C. Laurent,, G. Morin,, P. Berquin, and, C. Piussan. 1993. Failure of fluconazole treatment in Candida meningitis. J. Pediatr. 123: 168169.
36. Espinel-Ingroff, A.,, F. Barchiesi,, M. Cuenca-Estrella,, M. A. Pfaller,, M. Rinaldi,, J. L. Rodriguez-Tudela, and, P. E. Verweij. 2005. International and multicenter comparison of EUCAST and CLSI M27-A2 broth microdilution methods for testing susceptibilities of Candida spp. to fluconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43: 38843889.
37. Feman, S. S.,, J. C. Nichols,, S. M. Chung, and, T. A. Theobald. 2002. Endophthalmitis in patients with disseminated fungal disease. Trans. Am. Ophthalmol. Soc. 100: 67–70; discussion, 70–71.
38. Fidel, P. L., Jr. 2006. Candida-host interactions in HIV disease: implications for oropharyngeal candidiasis. Adv. Dent. Res. 23: 4549.
39. Filler, S. G., and, B. J. Kullberg. 2002. Deep-seated candidal infections, p. 341348. In R. Calderone (ed.), Candida and Candidiasis. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
40. Filler, S. G., and, B. J. Kullberg. 2002. Candidemia, p. 327340. In R. Calderone (ed.), Candida and Candidiasis. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
41. Fisher, J. F.,, C. L. Newman, and, J. D. Sobel. 1995. Yeast in the urine: solutions for a budding problem. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20: 183189.
42. Foust, R. T. 1996. Infection of a pancreatic pseudocyst due to Candida albicans. South. Med. J. 89: 11041107.
43. Franklin, W. G.,, A. B. Simon, and, T. M. Sodeman. 1976. Candida myocarditis without valvulitis. Am. J. Cardiol. 38: 924928.
44. Garey, K. W.,, M. Rege,, M. P. Pai,, D. E. Mingo,, K. J. Suda,, R. S. Turpin, and, D. T. Bearden. 2006. Time to initiation of fluconazole therapy impacts mortality in patients with candidemia: a multi-institutional study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 43: 2531.
45. Gathe, J. C., Jr.,, R. L. Harris,, B. Garland,, M. W. Bradshaw, and, T. W. Williams, Jr. 1987. Candida osteomyelitis. Report of five cases and review of the literature. Am. J. Med. 82: 927937.
46. Geers, T. A., and, S. M. Gordon. 1999. Clinical significance of Candida species isolated from cerebrospinal fluid following neurosurgery. Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 11391147.
47. Gilbert, H. M.,, E. D. Peters,, S. J. Lang, and, B. J. Hartman. 1996. Successful treatment of fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 348354.
48. Gokhale, P. C.,, R. J. Barapatre,, S. H. Advani,, N. A. Kshirsagar, and, S. K. Pandya. 1993. Successful treatment of disseminated candidiasis resistant to amphotericin B by liposomal amphotericin B: a case report. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 119: 569571.
49. Goldie, S. J.,, L. Kiernan-Tridle,, C. Torres,, N. Gorban-Brennan,, D. Dunne,, A. S. Kliger, and, F. O. Finkelstein. 1996. Fungal peritonitis in a large chronic peritoneal dialysis population: a report of 55 episodes. Am. J. Kidney Dis. 28: 8691.
50. Goodrich, J. M.,, E. C. Reed,, M. Mori,, L. D. Fisher,, S. Skerrett,, P. S. Dandliker,, B. Klis,, G. W. Counts, and, J. D. Meyers. 1991. Clinical features and analysis of risk factors for invasive candidal infection after marrow transplantation. J. Infect. Dis. 164: 731740.
51. Gudlaugsson, O.,, S. Gillespie,, K. Lee,, J. Vande Berg,, J. Hu,, S. Messer,, L. Herwaldt,, M. Pfaller, and, D. Diekema. 2003. Attributable mortality of nosocomial candidemia, revisited. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 11721177.
52. Hansen, B. L., and, K. Andersen. 1995. Fungal arthritis. A review. Scand. J. Rheumatol. 24: 248250.
53. Harris, M. C.,, G. R. Pereira,, M. D. Myers,, A. J. Cardin,, B. Razdan,, J. Pleasure, and, L. M. Bell. 2000. Candidal arthritis in infants previously treated for systemic candidiasis during the newborn period: report of three cases. Pediatr. Emerg. Care 16: 249251.
54. Henderson, D. K.,, L. J. Hockey,, L. J. Vukalcic, and, J. E. Edwards, Jr. 1980. Effect of immunosuppression on the development of experimental hematogenous Candida endophthalmitis. Infect. Immun. 27: 628631.
55. Hesse, U. J.,, D. E. Sutherland,, R. L. Simmons, and, J. S. Najarian. 1986. Intra-abdominal infections in pancreas transplant recipients. Ann. Surg. 203: 153162.
56. Heurlin, N.,, S. E. Bergstrom,, J. Winiarski,, O. Ringden,, P. Ljungman,, B. Lonnqvist, and, J. Andersson. 1996. Fungal pneumonia: the predominant lung infection causing death in children undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Acta Paediatr. 85: 168172.
57. Hiatt, J. R.,, M. R. Kobayashi,, J. E. Doty, and, K. P. Ramming. 1991. Acalculous Candida cholecystitis: a complication of critical surgical illness. Am. Surg. 57: 825829.
58. Hitchcock, R. J.,, A. Pallett,, M. A. Hall, and, P. S. Malone. 1995. Urinary tract candidiasis in neonates and infants. Br. J. Urol. 76: 252256.
59. Horn, D. L.,, J. A. Fishman,, W. J. Steinbach,, E. J. Anaissie,, K. A. Marr,, A. J. Olyaei,, M. A. Pfaller,, M. A. Weiss,, K. M. Webster, and, D. Neofytos. 2007. Presentation of the PATH Alliance registry for prospective data collection and analysis of the epidemiology, therapy, and outcomes of invasive fungal infections. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 59: 407414.
60. Horn, R.,, B. Wong,, T. E. Kiehn, and, D. Armstrong. 1985. Fungemia in a cancer hospital: changing frequency, earlier onset, and results of therapy. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7: 646655.
61. Jalan, R.,, H. L. Jones, and, R. J. Walker. 1994. Multiple pancreatic abscesses due to Candida albicans following ERCP. Scott. Med. J. 39: 1718.
62. Jimenez-Exposito, M. J.,, G. Torres,, A. Baraldes,, N. Benito,, F. Marco,, J. C. Pare,, A. Moreno,, X. Claramonte,, C. A. Mestres,, M. Almela,, C. Garcia de la Maria,, N. Perez,, W. A. Schell,, G. R. Corey,, J. Perfect,, M. T. Jimenez de Anta,, J. M. Gatell, and, J. M. Miro. 2004. Native valve endocarditis due to Candida glabrata treated without valvular replacement: a potential role for caspofungin in the induction and maintenance treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: e70–e73.
63. Karlowicz, M. G.,, L. N. Hashimoto,, R. E. Kelly, Jr., and, E. S. Buescher. 2000. Should central venous catheters be removed as soon as candidemia is detected in neonates? Pediatrics 106: E63.
64. Kauffman, C. A.,, S. F. Bradley,, S. C. Ross, and, D. R. Weber. 1991. Hepatosplenic candidiasis: successful treatment with fluconazole. Am. J. Med. 91: 137141.
65. Kauffman, C. A.,, J. A. Vazquez,, J. D. Sobel,, H. A. Gallis,, D. S. McKinsey,, A. W. Karchmer,, A. M. Sugar,, P. K. Sharkey,, G. J. Wise,, R. Mangi,, A. Mosher,, J. Y. Lee, and, W. E. Dismukes. 2000. Prospective multicenter surveillance study of funguria in hospitalized patients. The National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Mycoses Study Group. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 1418.
66. Komshian, S. V.,, A. K. Uwaydah,, J. D. Sobel, and, L. R. Crane. 1989. Fungemia caused by Candida species and Torulopsis glabrata in the hospitalized patient: frequency, characteristics, and evaluation of factors influencing outcome. Rev. Infect. Dis. 11: 379390.
67. Kraus, W. E.,, P. N. Valenstein, and, G. R. Corey. 1988. Purulent pericarditis caused by Candida: report of three cases and identification of high-risk populations as an aid to early diagnosis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 10: 3441.
68. Kullberg, B. J.,, J. D. Sobel,, M. Ruhnke,, P. G. Pappas,, C. Viscoli,, J. H. Rex,, J. D. Cleary,, E. Rubinstein,, L. W. Church,, J. M. Brown,, H. T. Schlamm,, I. T. Oborska,, F. Hilton, and, M. R. Hodges. 2005. Voriconazole versus a regimen of amphotericin B followed by fluconazole for candidaemia in non-neutropenic patients: a randomised non-inferiority trial. Lancet 366: 14351442.
69. Kuse, E. R.,, P. Chetchotisakd,, C. A. da Cunha,, M. Ruhnke,, C. Barrios,, D. Raghunadharao,, J. S. Sekhon,, A. Freire,, V. Ramasubramanian,, I. Demeyer,, M. Nucci,, A. Leelarasamee,, F. Jacobs,, J. Decruyenaere,, D. Pittet,, A. J. Ullmann,, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner,, O. Lortholary,, S. Koblinger,, H. Diekmann-Berndt, and, O. A. Cornely. 2007. Micafungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for candidaemia and invasive candidosis: a phase III randomised double-blind trial. Lancet 369: 15191527.
70. Lecciones, J. A.,, J. W. Lee,, E. E. Navarro,, F. G. Witebsky,, D. Marshall,, S. M. Steinberg,, P. A. Pizzo, and, T. J. Walsh. 1992. Vascular catheter-associated fungemia in patients with cancer: analysis of 155 episodes. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: 875883.
71. Legrand, F.,, M. Lecuit,, B. Dupont,, E. Bellaton,, M. Huerre,, P. S. Rohrlich, and, O. Lortholary. 2008. Adjuvant corticosteroid therapy for chronic disseminated candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46: 696702.
72. Lejko-Zupanc, T., and, M. Kozelj. 1997. A case of recurrent Candida parapsilosis prosthetic valve endocarditis: cure by medical treatment alone. J. Infect. 35: 8182.
73. Leleu, G.,, P. Aegerter, and, B. Guidet. 2002. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units: a multicenter, matched-cohort study. J. Crit. Care 17: 168175.
74. Leon, C.,, S. Ruiz-Santana,, P. Saavedra,, B. Almirante,, J. Nolla-Salas,, F. Alvarez-Lerma,, J. Garnacho-Montero, and, M. A. Leon. 2006. A bedside scoring system (“Candida score”) for early antifungal treatment in nonneutropenic critically ill patients with Candida colonization. Crit. Care Med. 34: 730737.
75. Levy, I.,, I. Shalit,, E. Birk,, L. Sirota,, S. Ashkenazi,, B. German, and, N. Linder. 2006. Candida endocarditis in neonates: report of five cases and review of the literature. Mycoses 49: 4348.
76. Liu, K. H.,, C. J. Wu,, C. H. Chou,, H. C. Lee,, N. Y. Lee,, S. T. Hung, and, W. C. Ko. 2004. Refractory candidal meningitis in an immunocompromised patient cured by caspofungin. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42: 59505953.
77. Lopez-Ciudad, V.,, M. J. Castro-Orjales,, C. Leon,, C. Sanz-Rodriguez,, M. J. de la Torre-Fernandez,, M. A. Perez de Juan-Romero,, M. D. Collell-Llach, and, M. D. Diaz-Lopez. 2006. Successful treatment of Candida parapsilosis mural endocarditis with combined caspofungin and voriconazole. BMC Infect. Dis. 6: 73.
78. Lundstrom, T., and, J. Sobel. 2001. Nosocomial candiduria: a review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 16021607.
79. Luzzati, R.,, G. Amalfitano,, L. Lazzarini,, F. Soldani,, S. Bellino,, M. Solbiati,, M. C. Danzi,, S. Vento,, G. Todeschini,, C. Vivenza, and, E. Concia. 2000. Nosocomial candidemia in non-neutropenic patients at an Italian tertiary care hospital. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 19: 602607.
80. Lye, D. C.,, A. Hughes,, D. O’Brien, and, E. Athan. 2005. Candida glabrata prosthetic valve endocarditis treated successfully with fluconazole plus caspofungin without surgery: a case report and literature review. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 24: 753755.
81. Maksymiuk, A. W.,, S. Thongprasert,, R. Hopfer,, M. Luna,, V. Fainstein, and, G. P. Bodey. 1984. Systemic candidiasis in cancer patients. Am. J. Med. 77: 2027.
82. Malik, I. A.,, I. Moid,, Z. Aziz,, S. Khan, and, M. Suleman. 1998. A randomized comparison of fluconazole with amphotericin B as empiric antifungal agents in cancer patients with prolonged fever and neutropenia. Am. J. Med. 105: 478483.
83. Marchetti, O.,, J. Bille,, U. Fluckiger,, P. Eggimann,, C. Ruef,, J. Garbino,, T. Calandra,, M. P. Glauser,, M. G. Tauber, and, D. Pittet. 2004. Epidemiology of candidemia in Swiss tertiary care hospitals: secular trends, 1991–2000. Clin. Infect. Dis. 38: 311320.
84. Martino, P.,, C. Girmenia,, A. Micozzi,, F. De Bernardis,, M. Boccanera, and, A. Cassone. 1994. Prospective study of Candida colonization, use of empiric amphotericin B and development of invasive mycosis in neutropenic patients. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 13: 797804.
85. Martino, R.,, M. Subira,, A. Sureda, and, J. Sierra. 1999. Amphotericin B lipid complex at 3 mg/kg/day for treatment of invasive fungal infections in adults with haematological malignancies. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 44: 569572.
86. Mayayo, E.,, J. Moralejo,, J. Camps, and, J. Guarro. 1996. Fungal endocarditis in premature infants: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 366368.
87. McDonald, H. R.,, S. De Bustros, and, J. O. Sipperley. 1990. Vitrectomy for epiretinal membrane with Candida chorioretinitis. Ophthalmology 97: 466469.
88. McNamee, C. J.,, S. Wang, and, D. Modry. 1998. Purulent pericarditis secondary to Candida parapsilosis and Pepto-streptococcus species. Can. J. Cardiol. 14: 8586.
89. Melamed, R.,, E. Leibovitz,, O. Abramson,, A. Levitas,, N. Zucker, and, R. Gorodisher. 2000. Successful non-surgical treatment of Candida tropicalis endocarditis with liposomal amphotericin-B (AmBisome). Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 32: 8689.
90. Melgar, G. R.,, R. M. Nasser,, S. M. Gordon,, B. W. Lytle,, T. F. Keys, and, D. L. Longworth. 1997. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis in 16 patients. An 11-year experience in a tertiary care hospital. Medicine (Baltimore) 76: 94103.
91. Montenegro, J.,, R. Aguirre,, O. Gonzalez,, I. Martinez, and, R. Saracho. 1995. Fluconazole treatment of Candida peritonitis with delayed removal of the peritoneal dialysis catheter. Clin. Nephrol. 44: 6063.
92. Mora-Duarte, J.,, R. Betts,, C. Rotstein,, A. L. Colombo,, L. Thompson-Moya,, J. Smietana,, R. Lupinacci,, C. Sable,, N. Kartsonis, and, J. Perfect. 2002. Comparison of caspofungin and amphotericin B for invasive candidiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 347: 20202029.
93. Morrell, M.,, V. J. Fraser, and, M. H. Kollef. 2005. Delaying the empiric treatment of Candida bloodstream infection until positive blood culture results are obtained: a potential risk factor for hospital mortality. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 36403645.
94. Moudgal, V.,, T. Little,, D. Boikov, and, J. A. Vazquez. 2005. Multiechinocandin- and multiazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis isolates serially obtained during therapy for prosthetic valve endocarditis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49: 767769.
95. Mrowczynski, W., and, M. Wojtalik. 2004. Caspofungin for Candida endocarditis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 23: 376.
96. Muehrcke, D. D. 1995. Fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis. Semin. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 7: 2024.
97. Muehrcke, D. D.,, B. W. Lytle, and, D. M. Cosgrove III. 1995. Surgical and long-term antifungal therapy for fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 60: 538543.
98. Murphy, O.,, J. Gray,, J. Wagget, and, S. J. Pedler. 1997. Candida arthritis complicating long term total parenteral nutrition. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16: 329.
99. Nasser, R. M.,, G. R. Melgar,, D. L. Longworth, and, S. M. Gordon. 1997. Incidence and risk of developing fungal prosthetic valve endocarditis after nosocomial candidemia. Am. J. Med. 103: 2532.
100. Neughebauer, B.,, V. Alvarez,, T. Harb, and, M. Keefer. 2002. Constrictive pericarditis caused by Candida glabrata in an immunocompetent patient: case report and review of literature. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 34: 615619.
101. Nguyen, M. H.,, M. L. Nguyen,, V. L. Yu,, D. McMahon,, T. F. Keys, and, M. Amidi. 1996. Candida prosthetic valve endocarditis: prospective study of six cases and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 22: 262267.
102. Nguyen, M. H.,, J. E. Peacock, Jr.,, A. J. Morris,, D. C. Tanner,, M. L. Nguyen,, D. R. Snydman,, M. M. Wagener,, M. G. Rinaldi, and, V. L. Yu. 1996. The changing face of candidemia: emergence of non-Candida albicans species and antifungal resistance. Am. J. Med. 100: 617623.
103. Nguyen, M. H.,, J. E. Peacock, Jr.,, D. C. Tanner,, A. J. Morris,, M. L. Nguyen,, D. R. Snydman,, M. M. Wagener, and, V. L. Yu. 1995. Therapeutic approaches in patients with candidemia. Evaluation in a multicenter, prospective, observational study. Arch. Intern. Med. 155: 24292435.
104. Nguyen, M. H., and, V. L. Yu. 1995. Meningitis caused by Candida species: an emerging problem in neurosurgical patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 323327.
105. Noyola, D. E.,, M. Fernandez,, E. H. Moylett, and, C. J. Baker. 2001. Ophthalmologic, visceral, and cardiac involvement in neonates with candidemia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32: 10181023.
106. Nucci, M.,, E. Anaissie,, R. F. Betts,, B. F. Dupont,, C. Wu,, D. N. Buell,, L. Kovanda, and, O. Lortholary. 2010. Early removal of central venous catheter in patients with candidemia does not improve outcome: analysis of 842 patients from 2 randomized clinical trials. Clin. Infect. Dis. 51: 295303.
107. Obayashi, T.,, K. Negishi,, T. Suzuki, and, N. Funata. 2008. Reappraisal of the serum (1→3)-beta-d-glucan assay for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infections—a study based on autopsy cases from 6 years. Clin. Infect. Dis. 46: 18641870.
108. Odabasi, Z.,, G. Mattiuzzi,, E. Estey,, H. Kantarjian,, F. Saeki,, R. J. Ridge,, P. A. Ketchum,, M. A. Finkelman,, J. H. Rex, and, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner. 2004. Beta-d-glucan as a diagnostic adjunct for invasive fungal infections: validation, cutoff development, and performance in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodys-plastic syndrome. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 199205.
109. Oravcova, E.,, J. Lacka,, L. Drgona,, M. Studena,, L. Sevcikova,, S. Spanik,, J. Svec,, E. Kukuckova,, E. Grey,, J. Silva, and, V. Krcmery. 1996. Funguria in cancer patients: analysis of risk factors, clinical presentation and outcome in 50 patients. Infection 24: 319323.
110. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.,, B. D. Alexander,, D. H. Kett,, J. Vazquez,, P. G. Pappas,, F. Saeki,, P. A. Ketchum,, J. Wingard,, R. Schiff,, H. Tamura,, M. A. Finkelman, and, J. H. Rex. 2005. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the (1→3) beta-d-glucan assay as an aid to diagnosis of fungal infections in humans. Clin. Infect. Dis. 41: 654659.
111. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.,, A. M. Oude Lashof,, B. J. Kullberg, and, J. H. Rex. 2003. Voriconazole salvage treatment of invasive candidiasis. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 22: 651655.
112. Ostrosky-Zeichner, L.,, C. Sable,, J. Sobel,, B. D. Alexander,, G. Donowitz,, V. Kan,, C. A. Kauffman,, D. Kett,, R. A. Larsen,, V. Morrison,, M. Nucci,, P. G. Pappas,, M. E. Bradley,, S. Major,, L. Zimmer,, D. Wallace,, W. E. Dismukes, and, J. H. Rex. 2007. Multicenter retrospective development and validation of a clinical prediction rule for nosocomial invasive candidiasis in the intensive care setting. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26: 271276.
113. Pan, S. C.,, S. M. Hsieh,, S. C. Chang,, H. T. Lee, and, Y. C. Chen. 2005. Septic Candida krusei thrombophlebitis of inferior vena cava with persistent fungemia successfully treated by new antifungal agents. Med. Mycol. 43: 731734.
114. Paphitou, N. I.,, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner, and, J. H. Rex. 2005. Rules for identifying patients at increased risk for candidal infections in the surgical intensive care unit: approach to developing practical criteria for systematic use in antifungal prophylaxis trials. Med. Mycol. 43: 235243.
115. Pappas, P. G.,, C. A. Kauffman,, D. Andes,, D. K. Benjamin, Jr.,, T. F. Calandra,, J. E. Edwards, Jr.,, S. G. Filler,, J. F. Fisher,, B. J. Kullberg,, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner,, A. C. Reboli,, J. H. Rex,, T. J. Walsh, and, J. D. Sobel. 2009. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of candidiasis: 2009 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48: 503535.
116. Pappas, P. G.,, J. H. Rex,, J. Lee,, R. J. Hamill,, R. A. Larsen,, W. Powderly,, C. A. Kauffman,, N. Hyslop,, J. E. Mangino,, S. Chapman,, H. W. Horowitz,, J. E. Edwards, and, W. E. Dismukes. 2003. A prospective observational study of candidemia: epidemiology, therapy, and influences on mortality in hospitalized adult and pediatric patients. Clin. Infect. Dis. 37: 634643.
117. Pappas, P. G.,, C. M. Rotstein,, R. F. Betts,, M. Nucci,, D. Talwar,, J. J. De Waele,, J. A. Vazquez,, B. F. Dupont,, D. L. Horn,, L. Ostrosky-Zeichner,, A. C. Reboli,, B. Suh,, R. Digumarti,, C. Wu,, L. L. Kovanda,, L. J. Arnold, and, D. N. Buell. 2007. Micafungin versus caspofungin for treatment of candidemia and other forms of invasive candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45: 883893.
118. Parker, J. C., Jr. 1980. The potentially lethal problem of cardiac candidosis. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 73: 356361.
119. Penk, A., and, L. Pittrow. 1999. Role of fluconazole in the long-term suppressive therapy of fungal infections in patients with artificial implants. Mycoses 42 (Suppl. 2): 9196.
120. Petrocheilou-Paschou, V.,, K. Georgilis,, D. Kontoyannis,, J. Nanas,, H. Prifti,, H. Costopoulos, and, S. Stamatelopoulos. 2002. Pneumonia due to Candida krusei. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 8: 806809.
121. Pfaller, M. A., and, D. J. Diekema. 2007. Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: a persistent public health problem. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 20: 133163.
122. Phillips, J. R., and, M. G. Karlowicz. 1997. Prevalence of Candida species in hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 16: 190194.
123. Piarroux, R.,, F. Grenouillet,, P. Balvay,, V. Tran,, G. Blasco,, L. Millon, and, A. Boillot. 2004. Assessment of preemptive treatment to prevent severe candidiasis in critically ill surgical patients. Crit. Care Med. 32: 24432449.
124. Pittet, D.,, M. Monod,, P. M. Suter,, E. Frenk, and, R. Auckenthaler. 1994. Candida colonization and subsequent infections in critically ill surgical patients. Ann. Surg. 220: 751758.
125. Pizzo, P. A.,, K. J. Robichaud,, F. A. Gill, and, F. G. Witebsky. 1982. Empiric antibiotic and antifungal therapy for cancer patients with prolonged fever and granulocytopenia. Am. J. Med. 72: 101111.
126. Prabhu, R. M., and, R. Orenstein. 2004. Failure of caspofungin to treat brain abscesses secondary to Candida albicans prosthetic valve endocarditis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 12531254.
127. Puzniak, L.,, S. Teutsch,, W. Powderly, and, L. Polish. 2004. Has the epidemiology of nosocomial candidemia changed? Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 25: 628633.
128. Rabinovici, R.,, D. Szewczyk,, P. Ovadia,, J. R. Greenspan, and, J. J. Sivalingam. 1997. Candida pericarditis: clinical profile and treatment. Ann. Thorac. Surg. 63: 12001204.
129. Rajendram, R.,, N. J. Alp,, A. R. Mitchell,, I. C. Bowler, and, J. C. Forfar. 2005. Candida prosthetic valve endocarditis cured by caspofungin therapy without valve replacement. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40: e72–e74.
130. Reboli, A. C.,, C. Rotstein,, P. G. Pappas,, S. W. Chapman,, D. H. Kett,, D. Kumar,, R. Betts,, M. Wible,, B. P. Goldstein,, J. Schranz,, D. S. Krause, and, T. J. Walsh. 2007. Anidulafungin versus fluconazole for invasive candidiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 356: 24722482.
131. Rex, J. H.,, J. E. Bennett,, A. M. Sugar,, P. G. Pappas,, J. Serody,, J. E. Edwards, and, R. G. Washburn. 1995. Intravascular catheter exchange and duration of candidemia. NIAID Mycoses Study Group and the Candidemia Study Group. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 994996.
132. Rex, J. H.,, J. E. Bennett,, A. M. Sugar,, P. G. Pappas,, C. M. van der Horst,, J. E. Edwards,, R. G. Washburn,, W. M. Scheld,, A. W. Karchmer,, A. P. Dine, et al. 1994. A randomized trial comparing fluconazole with amphotericin B for the treatment of candidemia in patients without neutropenia. Candidemia Study Group and the National Institute. N. Engl. J. Med. 331: 13251330.
133. Rex, J. H.,, P. G. Pappas,, A. W. Karchmer,, J. Sobel,, J. E. Edwards,, S. Hadley,, C. Brass,, J. A. Vazquez,, S. W. Chapman,, H. W. Horowitz,, M. Zervos,, D. McKinsey,, J. Lee,, T. Babinchak,, R. W. Bradsher,, J. D. Cleary,, D. M. Cohen,, L. Danziger,, M. Goldman,, J. Goodman,, E. Hilton,, N. E. Hyslop,, D. H. Kett,, J. Lutz,, R. H. Rubin,, W. M. Scheld,, M. Schuster,, B. Simmons,, D. K. Stein,, R. G. Washburn,, L. Mautner,, T. C. Chu,, H. Panzer,, R. B. Rosenstein, and, J. Booth. 2003. A randomized and blinded multicenter trial of high-dose fluconazole plus placebo versus fluconazole plus amphotericin B as therapy for candidemia and its consequences in nonneutropenic subjects. Clin. Infect. Dis. 36: 12211228.
134. Rex, J. H.,, T. J. Walsh,, J. D. Sobel,, S. G. Filler,, P. G. Pappas,, W. E. Dismukes, and, J. E. Edwards. 2000. Practice guidelines for the treatment of candidiasis. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin. Infect. Dis. 30: 662678.
135. Rodriguez-Adrian, L. J.,, R. T. King,, L. G. Tamayo-Derat,, J. W. Miller,, C. A. Garcia, and, J. H. Rex. 2003. Retinal lesions as clues to disseminated bacterial and candidal infections: frequency, natural history, and etiology. Medicine (Baltimore) 82: 187202.
136. Rodriguez-Perez, J. C. 1987. Fungal peritonitis in CAPD—which treatment is best? Contrib. Nephrol. 57: 114121.
137. Rubinstein, E., and, R. Lang. 1995. Fungal endocarditis. Eur. Heart J. 16 (Suppl. B): 8489.
138. Sanchez-Portocarrero, J.,, P. Martin-Rabadan,, C. J. Saldana, and, E. Perez-Cecilia. 1994. Candida cerebro-spinal fluid shunt infection. Report of two new cases and review of the literature. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 20: 3340.
139. Sanchez-Portocarrero, J.,, E. Perez-Cecilia,, O. Corral,, J. Romero-Vivas, and, J. J. Picazo. 2000. The central nervous system and infection by Candida species. Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 37: 169179.
140. Sandven, P.,, H. Qvist,, E. Skovlund, and, K. E. Giercksky. 2002. Significance of Candida recovered from intra-operative specimens in patients with intra-abdominal perforations. Crit. Care Med. 30: 541547.
141. Saubolle, M. A. 2000. Fungal pneumonias. Semin. Respir. Infect. 15: 162177.
142. Schrank, J. H., Jr., and, D. P. Dooley. 1995. Purulent pericarditis caused by Candida species: case report and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 21: 182187.
143. Schuster, M. G.,, J. E. Edwards, Jr.,, J. D. Sobel,, R. O. Darouiche,, A. W. Karchmer,, S. Hadley,, G. Slotman,, H. Panzer,, P. Biswas, and, J. H. Rex. 2008. Empirical fluconazole versus placebo for intensive care unit patients: a randomized trial. Ann. Intern. Med. 149: 8390.
144. Seelig, M. S.,, C. P. Speth,, P. J. Kozinn,, C. L. Taschdjian,, E. F. Toni, and, P. Goldberg. 1974. Patterns of Candida endocarditis following cardiac surgery: importance of early diagnosis and therapy (an analysis of 91 cases). Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 17: 125160.
145. Shan, Y. S.,, E. D. Sy,, S. T. Wang,, J. C. Lee, and, P. W. Lin. 2006. Early presumptive therapy with fluconazole for occult Candida infection after gastrointestinal surgery. World J. Surg. 30: 119126.
146. Silveira, L. H.,, M. L. Cuellar,, G. Citera,, G. E. Cabrera,, E. Scopelitis, and, L. R. Espinoza. 1993. Candida arthritis. Rheum. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 19: 427437.
147. Sim, J. P.,, B. C. Kho,, H. S. Liu,, R. Yung, and, J. C. Chan. 2005. Candida tropicalis arthritis of the knee in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: successful treatment with caspofungin. Hong Kong Med. J. 11: 120123.
148. Smego, R. A., Jr.,, J. R. Perfect, and, D. T. Durack. 1984. Combined therapy with amphotericin B and 5-fluorocytosine for Candida meningitis. Rev. Infect. Dis. 6: 791801.
149. Sobel, J. D. 1988. Pathogenesis and epidemiology of vulvovaginal candidiasis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 544: 547557.
150. Solomkin, J. S.,, A. B. Flohr,, P. G. Quie, and, R. L. Simmons. 1980. The role of Candida in intraperitoneal infections. Surgery 88: 524530.
151. Sora, F.,, P. Chiusolo,, N. Piccirillo,, L. Pagano,, L. Laurenti,, G. Farina,, S. Sica, and, G. Leone. 2002. Successful treatment with caspofungin of hepatosplenic candidiasis resistant to liposomal amphotericin B. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 11351136.
152. Steinbach, W. J.,, J. R. Perfect,, C. H. Cabell,, V. G. Fowler,, G. R. Corey,, J. S. Li,, A. K. Zaas, and, D. K. Benjamin, Jr. 2005. A meta-analysis of medical versus surgical therapy for Candida endocarditis. J. Infect. 51: 230247.
153. Struijk, D. G.,, R. T. Krediet,, E. W. Boeschoten,, P. J. Rietra, and, L. Arisz. 1987. Antifungal treatment of Candida peritonitis in CAPD patients. Lancet i: 1375.
154. Thaler, M.,, B. Pastakia,, T. H. Shawker,, T. O’Leary, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1988. Hepatic candidiasis in cancer patients: the evolving picture of the syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 108: 88100.
155. Tortorano, A. M.,, J. Peman,, H. Bernhardt,, L. Klingspor,, C. C. Kibbler,, O. Faure,, E. Biraghi,, E. Canton,, K. Zimmermann,, S. Seaton, and, R. Grillot. 2004. Epidemiology of candidaemia in Europe: results of 28-month European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) hospital-based surveillance study. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 23: 317322.
156. Trick, W. E.,, S. K. Fridkin,, J. R. Edwards,, R. A. Hajjeh, and, R. P. Gaynes. 2002. Secular trend of hospital-acquired candidemia among intensive care unit patients in the United States during 1989–1999. Clin. Infect. Dis. 35: 627630.
157. Venditti, M.,, F. De Bernardis,, A. Micozzi,, E. Pontieri,, P. Chirletti,, A. Cassone, and, P. Martino. 1992. Fluconazole treatment of catheter-related right-sided endocarditis caused by Candida albicans and associated with endophthalmitis and folliculitis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 14: 422426.
158. Viscoli, C.,, E. Castagnola,, M. T. Van Lint,, C. Moroni,, A. Garaventa,, M. R. Rossi,, R. Fanci,, F. Menichetti,, D. Caselli,, M. Giacchino, and, M. Congiu. 1996. Fluconazole versus amphotericin B as empirical antifungal therapy of unexplained fever in granulocytopenic cancer patients: a pragmatic, multicentre, prospective and randomised clinical trial. Eur. J. Cancer 32A: 814820.
159. Viscoli, C.,, C. Girmenia,, A. Marinus,, L. Collette,, P. Martino,, B. Vandercam,, C. Doyen,, B. Lebeau,, D. Spence,, V. Krcmery,, B. De Pauw, and, F. Meunier. 1999. Candidemia in cancer patients: a prospective, multicenter surveillance study by the Invasive Fungal Infection Group (IFIG) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC). Clin. Infect. Dis. 28: 10711079.
160. Voice, R. A.,, S. F. Bradley,, J. A. Sangeorzan, and, C. A. Kauffman. 1994. Chronic candidal meningitis: an uncommon manifestation of candidiasis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 19: 6066.
161. Walsh, T. J. 2002. Echinocandins—an advance in the primary treatment of invasive candidiasis. N. Engl. J. Med. 347: 20702072.
162. Walsh, T. J.,, R. W. Finberg,, C. Arndt,, J. Hiemenz,, C. Schwartz,, D. Bodensteiner,, P. Pappas,, N. Seibel,, R. N. Greenberg,, S. Dummer,, M. Schuster, and, J. S. Holcenberg. 1999. Liposomal amphotericin B for empirical therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group. N. Engl. J. Med. 340: 764771.
163. Walsh, T. J.,, P. Pappas,, D. J. Winston,, H. M. Lazarus,, F. Petersen,, J. Raffalli,, S. Yanovich,, P. Stiff,, R. Greenberg,, G. Donowitz,, M. Schuster,, A. Reboli,, J. Wing-ard,, C. Arndt,, J. Reinhardt,, S. Hadley,, R. Finberg,, M. Laverdiere,, J. Perfect,, G. Garber,, G. Fioritoni,, E. Anaissie, and, J. Lee. 2002. Voriconazole compared with liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with neutropenia and persistent fever. N. Engl. J. Med. 346: 225234.
164. Walsh, T. J.,, H. Teppler,, G. R. Donowitz,, J. A. Maertens,, L. R. Baden,, A. Dmoszynska,, O. A. Cornely,, M. R. Bourque,, R. J. Lupinacci,, C. A. Sable, and, B. E. dePauw. 2004. Caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia. N. Engl. J. Med. 351: 13911402.
165. Walsh, T. J.,, P. O. Whitcomb,, S. G. Revankar, and, P. A. Pizzo. 1995. Successful treatment of hepatosplenic candidiasis through repeated cycles of chemotherapy and neutropenia. Cancer 76: 23572362.
166. Warady, B. A.,, M. Bashir, and, L. A. Donaldson. 2000. Fungal peritonitis in children receiving peritoneal dialysis: a report of the NAPRTCS. Kidney Int. 58: 384389.
167. Warren, J. W. 1997. Catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Infect. Dis. Clin. N. Am. 11: 609622.
168. Weigl, J. A. 2000. Candida arthritis in a premature infant treated successfully with oral fluconazole for six months. Ann. Acad. Med. Singapore 29: 253255.
169. Westling, K.,, A. Thalme, and, I. Julander. 2005. Candida albicans tricuspid valve endocarditis in an intravenous drug addict: successful treatment with fluconazole. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 37: 310311.
170. Wey, S. B.,, M. Mori,, M. A. Pfaller,, R. F. Woolson, and, R. P. Wenzel. 1989. Risk factors for hospital-acquired candidemia. A matched case-control study. Arch. Intern. Med. 149: 23492353.
171. White, M. H.,, R. A. Bowden,, E. S. Sandler,, M. L. Graham,, G. A. Noskin,, J. R. Wingard,, M. Goldman,, J. A. van Burik,, A. McCabe,, J. S. Lin,, M. Gurwith, and, C. B. Miller. 1998. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial of amphotericin B colloidal dispersion vs. amphotericin B in the empirical treatment of fever and neutropenia. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27: 296302.
172. Wiederhold, N. P., and, R. E. Lewis. 2003. The echinocandin antifungals: an overview of the pharmacology, spectrum and clinical efficacy. Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 12: 13131333.
173. Wingard, J. R.,, M. H. White,, E. Anaissie,, J. Raffalli,, J. Goodman, and, A. Arrieta. 2000. A randomized, double-blind comparative trial evaluating the safety of liposomal amphotericin B versus amphotericin B lipid complex in the empirical treatment of febrile neutropenia. L Amph/ABLC Collaborative Study Group. Clin. Infect. Dis. 31: 11551163.
174. Winston, D. J.,, J. W. Hathorn,, M. G. Schuster,, G. J. Schiller, and, M. C. Territo. 2000. A multicenter, randomized trial of fluconazole versus amphotericin B for empiric antifungal therapy of febrile neutropenic patients with cancer. Am. J. Med. 108: 282289.
175. Wisplinghoff, H.,, T. Bischoff,, S. M. Tallent,, H. Seifert,, R. P. Wenzel, and, M. B. Edmond. 2004. Nosocomial bloodstream infections in US hospitals: analysis of 24,179 cases from a prospective nationwide surveillance study. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39: 309317.
176. Wong, P. N.,, S. K. Mak,, K. Y. Lo,, G. M. Tong, and, A. K. Wong. 2000. A retrospective study of seven cases of Candida parapsilosis peritonitis in CAPD patients: the therapeutic implications. Perit. Dial. Int. 20: 7679.
177. Zeluff, B. J. 1990. Fungal pneumonia in transplant recipients. Semin. Respir. Infect. 5: 8089.

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error