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Color Plates

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COLOR PLATE 1

(Chapter 1) Prokaryotic diversity found in Antarctic terrestrial soils. Key: CFB-Bacteroides, . “Other” taxa include , β-, and . (References: Scott Base and Cape Hallett, Aislabie et al. [2008]; Seal carcass and Miers Valley, Smith et al. [2006]; Cape Evans, Shravage et al. [2007]; Victoria Land high and low, Niederberg et al. [2008]; Cyano cryptoendolith and Lichen cryptoendolith, de La Torre et al. [2003]; Mars Oasis, Newsham et al. [2009]; Quartz sublith, Smith et al. [2000].)

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 2

(Chapter 1) Prokaryotic diversity in Antarctic aquatic habitats as assessed by metagenomic 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Key: CFB, ; CF, . (References: Ross Sea, Gentile et al. [2006]; Vestfold Hills Lakes, Van Trappen et al. [2002]; Lake Vida 2, Mondino et al. [2009]; Lake Vida 1, Mosier et al. [2006]; Lazarev Sea and Weddell Sea, Brinkmeyer et al. [2003]; Casey-Davis 9 and 10, Brown and Bowman [2001]; Vestfold Hills, Bowman et al. [1997].)

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 3

(Chapter 1) Prokaryotic diversity in Arctic terrestrial and aquatic habitats as determined by culture-independent 16S rRNA gene clone libraries. Key: CFB, ; CF, . “Other” taxa include , gram-positive bacteria, novel taxa, , and unidentified ribotypes. (References: Cryoconite hole, Christner et al. [2003]; Tundra shrub and Tundra tussock, Wallenstein et al. [2007]; Permafrost, Steven et al. [2007]; Melt pond, Brinkmeyer et al. [2004]; Ward Hunt Ice Shelf and Markham Ice Shelf, Bottos et al. [2008]; Chukchi Sea, Junge et al. [2002]; Fram Strait XV and XIII, Brinkmeyer et al. [2003]; Canadian Arctic, Brown and Bowman [2001].)

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 4

(Chapter 2) Comparison of the phylogenetic diversity of archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences from the Arctic and Antarctic. The sequences used for this analysis are from studies of Arctic and Antarctic terrestrial and aquatic environments (described in Table 3). A total of 1,392 sequences were included in the analysis and the tree was constructed using ARB, with DNADIST and neighbor-joining analysis. Polar archaeal sequences are found in three groups in the (Marine Group I [MGI] 1.1a, MGI 1.1b, and Marine Benthic Group C) and eight groups in the (, MGII and MGIII, methanogens, SAGMA-1, Rice Cluster V [RC-V], and Lake Dagow Sediment [LDS] group). In several studies of the RC-V and LDS groups have been part of the PENDANT-33 (Schleper et al., 2005) or the “Sediment Archaea group.” The largest groups of sequences in the analysis were MGI 1.1a (44%), “Sediment Archaea group” (16%), MGII (12%), and MGI 1.1b (8%), with almost 54% of sequences in the .

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 5

(Chapter 2) Polar sites surveyed for the presence of via 16S rRNA gene-based studies. Numbers refer to the study sites listed in Table 3. *, consists of various sample sites located within the vicinity of the indicated region.

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 6

(Chapter 7) Methods available for metagenomic analyses.

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 7

(Chapter 9) A generalized northern landscape ( latitude increasing from left to right) depicting commonly occurring permafrost features. Position and scale of features are approximated, since the size of taliks, cryopegs, and ground ice varies greatly. The general depth of the active layer varies from <0.5 m to between 2 and 3 m deep in the sub-Arctic, while permafrost appears at a depth of 0.5 m and extends upwards of 1.5 km. Thermokarst features result from thawing permafrost, where pore space once occupied by ice subsides and creates surface depressions and meltwater pools. Taliks are associated with thermokarst features and other water-dominated features.

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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(Chapter 9) The carbon cycle in permafrost-affected soils. Permafrost-affected soils can be both a source and a sink for CO and CH. Under aerobic conditions soil organic matter is respired to CO, whereas under anaerobic conditions it is decomposed via a sequence of microbial processes to CH. Methane fluxes from anaerobic soil horizons to the atmosphere result from diffusion (slow), ebullition (fast), and plant-mediated transport (bypassing the oxic soil layer). Therefore, the mode of transport determines the amount of methane that is reoxidized by microorganisms in aerobic soil horizons. Photosynthesis may function as an important sink for CO in permafrost environments whereby biomass is produced. In contrast, the consumption of atmospheric methane (negative methane flux) in the upper surface layer of the soils plays only a minor role for the methane budget. The thickness of the arrows reflects the importance of the above processes. (Modified according to Wagner and Liebner [2009].)

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 9

(Chapter 9) Scheme illustrating methanotrophy associated with submerged mosses (MAMO). (a) In the presence of light, methane oxidizers (MOB) associated with the moss plant use O produced via photosynthesis (PS = photosystem) to convert CH into CO. CH derives mainly from methanogenesis within the active layer, but atmospheric CH is also consumed. The CO is directly recycled by the moss through photosynthesis. (b) In the absence of light and when light intensity is low, respectively, MAMO is suppressed through the lack of O, leading to a significant increase of CH emissions at the water-atmosphere boundary. (Modified according to Liebner et al. [2011].)

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 10

(Chapter 13) TOMS project (http://jwocky.gsfc.nasa.gov/eptoms/ep.html) images of stratospheric ozone levels in Antarctica during October to December 2001 showing the reduction in the ozone hole that occurred during this period.

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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COLOR PLATE 11

(Chapter 14) Map showing crater distribution, ground ice, and crustal magnetism on Mars. The suggested target site for deep drilling to search for evidence of ancient life on Mars is the region between 60 and 80°S at 180°W, where the ground is heavily cratered, crustal magnetism is preserved, and ground ice is present. Each green circle represents a crater with a diameter greater than 15 km based on the crater distribution in Barlow (1997). The filled green circles are volcanic craters. The boundary between the smooth northern plains and the cratered southern highlands is shown with a green line. The southern regions of Mars are more heavily cratered and therefore considered to be older. The solid blue lines show the extent of near-surface ground ice as determined by the Odyssey mission (Feldman et al., 2002). Ground ice is present near the surface polarward of these lines. Crater morphology indicates deep ground ice poleward of 30° (Squyres and Carr, 1986), shown here by dark blue lines and arrows. Also shown in this figure is the crustal magnetism discovered by Acuña et al. (1999). The crustal magnetism is shown as red for positive and blue for negative. Full scale is 1,500 nT. The typical strength of Earth's magnetic field at the surface is 50,000 nT. (Reprinted from Smith and McKay [2005] with permission of the publisher.)

Citation: Miller R, Whyte L. 2012. Color Plates, In Polar Microbiology: Life in a Deep Freeze. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
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