1887

Chapter 12 : Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817213/9781555817084_Chap12-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817213/9781555817084_Chap12-2.gif

Abstract:

The epidemic and sporadic forms of gastroenteritis are common causes of morbidity in developed countries and of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Although the current review focuses on viral causes of acute gastroenteritis, it can also be caused by bacteria or parasites. Recent studies employing molecular and antigenic methods for detection of enteric viruses showed that the majority of acute viral gastroenteritis cases worldwide are caused by noroviruses (NVs). The molecular cloning and genomic characterization of other viral strains has greatly facilitated our understanding of the genetic structure and classification of NVs. The RNA genome is organized into three open reading frames (ORFs). Several studies were undertaken in recent years to improve understanding of the mechanisms and biological advantages of genotype GII.4 epidemic strains. A study showed that GII.4 NVs evolve stepwise by highly significant preferential accumulation and fixation of nucleotide and amino acid mutations in the protruding part of the capsid protein. Another study showed that the NV capsid protein accumulates mutations more rapidly in healthy immunocompetent individuals than in immunocompromised individuals. In this study, 66 P2 sequences from viruses isolated during outbreaks occurring between 1997 and 2006 in the United Kingdom showed diversity of up to 20%. Further high-resolution structural studies are necessary to determine the role of the P2 subdomain in host interactions and to understand its possible role in NV strain diversity.

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12

Key Concept Ranking

Infection and Immunity
0.69901824
Hepatitis C virus
0.50714123
Single-Stranded RNA Viruses
0.48720074
Infectious Diseases
0.46971783
Amino Acids
0.45575133
Viruses
0.455355
0.69901824
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

NV particles from a stool filtrate of a patient with acute gastroenteritis. The particles were negatively stained with uranyl acetate and visualized by electron microscopy. They are about 35 nm in diameter. Bar, 100 nm. Courtesy of the Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany.

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Schematic diagram showing the organization of the NV genome and putative cleavage products of the ORF1 polyprotein. Values represent the molecular mass of the predicted protein products (in kilodaltons). The nucleotide position (GenBank accession number M87661) is indicated along the top.

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Capsid structure of the NV VLP solved by cryoelectron microscopic reconstruction (top, surface representation; bottom, cross section) and by X-ray crystallography. The VLP contains 90 dimers of capsid protein assembled in T=3 icosahedral symmetry (left, ribbon diagram). Each monomeric capsid protein (right, ribbon diagram) is divided into an N-terminal arm region (green) facing the interior of the VLP, a shell (S) domain (yellow) that forms the continuous surface of the VLP, and a protruding (P) domain that constitutes the arch at the surface of the VLP. The P domain is further divided into subdomains P1 and P2 (red and blue, respectively). The P2 subdomain is implicated in virus-host interactions. Reprinted from with permission.

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Phylogenetic relationships within the genus Full-length capsid nucleotide sequences were used for the phylogenetic analysis and included a representative strain from each genotype of genogroups GI to GV. Phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method) was performed with BioEdit (version 7.09, copyright T. A. Hall), which includes the Phylogeny Interference Package (PHYLIP) from J. Felsenstein. Evolutionary distances were calculated by the Kimura two-parameter method ( ). The scale bar represents the phylogenetic distances expressed as units of expected nucleotide substitutions per site. GenBank accession numbers for the genotypes in the analysis were as follows: GI.1 (M87661), GI.2 (L07418), GI.3 (U04469), GI.4 (AB042808), GI.5 (AJ277614), GI.6 (AF093797), GI.7 (AJ277609), GI.8 (AF538679), GII.1 (U07611), GII.2 (AY134748), GII.3 (U22498), GII.4 (X86557), GII.5 (AJ277607), GII.6 (AJ277620), GII.7 (AJ277608), GII.8 (AF195848), GII.9 (AY038599),GII.10 (AF427118), GII.11 (AB074893), GII.12 (AJ277618), GII.13 (AY113106), GII.14 (AY130761), GII.15 (AY130762), GII.16 (AY502010), GII.17 (AY502009), GII.18 (AY823304), GII.19 (AY823306), GIII.1 (AJ011099), GIII.2 (AF320625), GIV.1 (AF195847), GIV.2 (EF450827), and GV (AY228235).

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Distribution of major NV genotypes in Germany between January 2001 and December 2008. Genotyping was done based on partial RdRp sequence data (M. Hoehne and E. Schreier, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany, unpublished data). The numbers of reported NV cases in Germany are as follows: 9,292 (2001), 51,619 (2002), 41,755 (2003), 64,794 (2004), 62,773 (2005), 75,865 (2006), 201,227 (2007), and 212,692 (2008) (see ://www3.rki.de/SurvStat).

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Electron micrograph of baculovirus-expressed NV capsid protein (VLPs) negatively stained with uranyl acetate. Bar, 100 nm. M. Hoehne, M. Laue, and E. Schreier, Robert Koch Institute, Berlin, Germany, unpublished data.)

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817213.chap12
1. Allen, D. J.,, J. J. Gray,, C. I. Gallimore,, J. Xerry,, and M. Iturriza-Gomara. 2008. Analysis of amino acid variation in the P2 domain of the GII-4 norovirus VP1 protein reveals putative variant-specific epitopes. PLoS One 3:e1485.
2. Bailey, D.,, L. B. Thackray,, and I. G. Goodfellow. 2008. A single amino acid substitution in the murine norovirus capsid protein is sufficient for attenuation in vivo. J. Virol. 82:77257728.
3. Baric, R. S.,, B. Yount,, L. Lindesmith,, P. R. Harrington,, S. R. Greene,, F. C. Tseng,, N. Davis,, R. E. Johnston,, D. G. Klapper,, and C. L. Moe. 2002. Expression and self-assembly of Norwalk virus capsid protein from Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicons. J. Virol. 76: 30233030.
4. Bertolotti-Ciarlet, A.,, S. E. Crawford,, A. M. Hutson,, and M. K. Estes. 2003. The 3′ end of Norwalk virus mRNA contains determinants that regulate the expression and stability of the viral capsid protein VP1: a novel function for the VP2 protein. J. Virol. 77:1160311615.
5. Bok, K.,, G. I. Parra,, T. Mitra,, E. Abente,, C. K. Shaver,, D. Boon,, R. Engle,, C. Yu,, A. Z. Kapikian,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, R. H. Purcell,, and K. Y. Green. 2011. Chimpanzees as an animal model for human norovirus infection and vaccine development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108:325330.
6. Bon, F.,, K. Ambert-Balay,, H. Giraudon,, J. Kaplon,, S. Le Guyader,, M. Pommepuy,, A. Gallay,, V. Vaillant,, H. de Valk,, R. Chikhi-Brachet,, A. Flahaut,, P. Pothier,, and E. Kohli. 2005. Molecular epidemiology of caliciviruses detected in sporadic and outbreak cases of gastroenteritis in France from December 1998 to February 2004. J. Clin. Microbiol. 43:46594664.
7. Bruggink, L.,, and J. Marshall. 2008. Molecular changes in the norovirus polymerase gene and their association with incidence of GII.4 norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks in Victoria, Australia, 2001-2005. Arch. Virol. 153:729-–732.
8. Bu, W.,, A. Mamedova,, M. Tan,, M. Xia,, X. Jiang,, and R. S. Hegde. 2008. Structural basis for the receptor binding specificity of Norwalk virus. J. Virol. 82:53405347.
9. Buesa, J.,, R. Montava,, R Abu-Mallouh,, M. Fos,, J. M. Ribes,, R. Bartolome,, H. Vanaclocha,, N. Torner,, and A. Dominguez. 2008. Sequential evolution of genotype GII.4 norovirus variants causing gastroenteritis outbreaks from 2001 to 2006 in Eastern Spain. J. Med. Virol. 80:12881295.
10. Bull, R. A.,, G. S. Hansman,, L. E. Clancy,, M. M. Tanaka,, W. D. Rawlinson,, and P. A. White. 2005. Norovirus recombination in ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:10791085.
11. Bull, R. A.,, M. M. Tanaka,, and P. A. White. 2007. Norovirus recombination. J. Gen. Virol. 88:33473359.
12. Cannon, J. L.,, L. C. Lindesmith,, E. F. Donaldson,, L. Saxe,, R. S. Baric,, and J. Vinje. 2009. Herd immunity to GII.4 noroviruses is supported by outbreak patient sera. J. Virol. 83:53635374.
13. Cao, S.,, Z. Lou,, M. Tan,, Y. Chen,, Y. Liu,, Z. Zhang,, X. C. Zhang,, X. Jiang,, X. Li,, and Z. Rao. 2007. Structural basis for the recognition of blood group trisaccharides by norovirus. J. Virol. 81: 59495957.
14. Carlsson, B.,, E. Kindberg,, J. Buesa,, G. E. Rydell,, M. F. Lidon,, R. Montava,, R. Abu Mallouh,, A. Grahn,, J. Rodriguez-Diaz,, J. Bellido,, A. Arnedo,, G. Larsson,, and L. Svensson. 2009a. The G428A nonsense mutation in FUT2 provides strong but not absolute protection against symptomatic GII.4 norovirus infection. PLoS One 4:e5593.
15. Carlsson, B.,, A. M. Lindberg,, J. Rodriguez-Diaz,, K. O. Hedlund,, B. Persson,, and L. Svensson. 2009b. Quasispecies dynamics and molecular evolution of human norovirus capsid P region during chronic infection. J. Gen. Virol. 90:432441.
16. Chakravarty, S.,, A. M. Hutson,, M. K. Estes,, and B. V. Prasad. 2005. Evolutionary trace residues in noroviruses: importance in receptor binding, antigenicity, virion assembly, and strain diversity. J. Virol. 79:554568.
17. Chang, K. O.,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, G. Belliot,, A. D. King,, and K. Y. Green. 2006. Stable expression of a Norwalk virus RNA replicon in a human hepatoma cell line. Virology 353:463473.
18. Chanit, W.,, A. Thongprachum,, P. Khamrin,, S. Okitsu,, M. Mizuguchi,, and H. Ushijima. 2009. Intergenogroup recombinant sapovirus in Japan, 2007-2008. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15:10841087.
19. Chaudhry, Y.,, M. A. Skinner,, and I. G. Goodfellow. 2007. Recovery of genetically defined murine norovirus in tissue culture by using a fowlpox virus expressing T7 RNA polymerase. J. Gen. Virol. 88:20912100.
20. Cheetham, S.,, M. Souza,, R. McGregor,, T. Meulia,, Q. Wang,, and L. J. Saif. 2007. Binding patterns of human norovirus-like particles to buccal and intestinal tissues of gnotobiotic pigs in relation to A/H histo-blood group antigen expression. J. Virol. 81:35353544.
21. Cheetham, S.,, M. Souza,, T. Meulia,, S. Grimes,, M. G. Han,, and L. J. Saif. 2006. Pathogenesis of a genogroup II human norovirus in gnotobiotic pigs. J. Virol. 80:1037210381.
22. Chen, R.,, J. D. Neill,, J. S. Noel,, A. M. Hutson,, R. I. Glass,, M. K. Estes,, and B. V. Prasad. 2004. Inter- and intragenus structural variations in caliciviruses and their functional implications. J. Virol. 78:64696479.
23. Choi, J. M.,, A. M. Hutson,, M. K. Estes,, and B. V. Prasad. 2008. Atomic resolution structural characterization of recognition of histo-blood group antigens by Norwalk virus. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 105:91759180.
24. Clausen, H.,, and S. Hakomori. 1989. ABH and related histo-blood group antigens; immunochemical differences in carrier isotypes and their distribution. Vox Sang. 56:120.
25. Daughenbaugh, K. F.,, C. S. Fraser,, J. W. Hershey,, and M. E. Hardy. 2003. The genome-linked protein VPg of the Norwalk virus binds eIF3, suggesting its role in translation initiation complex recruitment. EMBO J. 22:28522859.
26. de Rougemont, A.,, N. Ruvoen-Clouet,, B. Simon,, M. Estienney,, C. Elie-Caille,, S. Aho,, P. Pothier,, J. Le Pendu,, W. Boireau,, and G. Belliot. 2011. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the binding of GII.4 norovirus variants onto human blood group antigens. J. Virol. 85:40574070.
27. Domingo, E. 1997. RNA virus evolution, population dynamics, and nutritional status. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 56:2330.
28. Domingo, E.,, C. Escarmis,, N. Sevilla, and E. Baranowski. 1998. Population dynamics in the evolution of RNA viruses. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 440:721727.
29. Domingo, E.,, and J. J. Holland. 1997. RNA virus mutations and fitness for survival. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. 51:151178.
30. Donaldson, E. F.,, L. C. Lindesmith,, A. D. Lobue,, and R. S. Baric. 2008. Norovirus pathogenesis: mechanisms of persistence and immune evasion in human populations. Immunol. Rev. 225:190211.
31. Eigen, M. 1993. The origin of genetic information: viruses as models. Gene 135:3747.
32. Eigen, M. 1996. On the nature of virus quasispecies. Trends Microbiol. 4:216218.
33. Farkas, T.,, K. Sestak,, C. Wei,, and X. Jiang. 2008. Characterization of a rhesus monkey calicivirus representing a new genus of Caliciviridae. J. Virol. 82:54085416.
34. Forns, X.,, R. H. Purcell,, and J. Bukh. 1999. Quasispecies in viral persistence and pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus. Trends Microbiol. 7:402410.
35. Gallimore, C. I.,, M. Iturriza-Gomara,, J. Xerry,, J. Adigwe,, and J. J. Gray. 2007. Inter-seasonal diversity of norovirus genotypes: emergence and selection of virus variants. Arch. Virol. 152:12951303.
36. Gallimore, C. I.,, D. Lewis,, C. Taylor,, A. Cant,, A. Gennery,, and J. J. Gray. 2004. Chronic excretion of a norovirus in a child with cartilage hair hypoplasia (CHH). J. Clin. Virol. 30:196204.
37. Glass, P. J.,, L. J. White,, J. M. Ball,, I. Leparc-Goffart,, M. E. Hardy,, and M. K. Estes. 2000. Norwalk virus open reading frame 3 encodes a minor structural protein. J. Virol. 74:65816591.
38. Gomes, K. A.,, J. A. Stupka,, J. Gomez,, and G. I. Parra. 2007. Molecular characterization of calicivirus strains detected in outbreaks of gastroenteritis in Argentina. J. Med. Virol. 79:17031709.
39. Green, F. R.,, P. Greenwell,, L. Dickson,, B. Griffiths,, J. Noades,, and D. M. Swallow. 1988. Expression of the ABH, Lewis, and related antigens on the glycoproteins of the human jejunal brush border. Subcell. Biochem. 12:119153.
40. Green, K. Y., 2007. Caliciviridae: the noroviruses, p. 949978. In D. M. Knipe, and P. M. Howley (ed.), Fields Virology, 5th ed., vol. 1. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
41. Guix, S.,, M. Asanaka,, K. Katayama,, S. E. Crawford,, F. H. Neill,, R. L. Atmar,, and M. K. Estes. 2007. Norwalk virus RNA is infectious in mammalian cells. J. Virol. 81:1223812248.
42. Halperin, T.,, H. Vennema,, M. Koopmans,, G. Kahila Bar-Gal,, R. Kayouf,, T. Sela,, R. Ambar,, and E. Klement. 2008. No association between histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to clinical infections with genogroup II norovirus. J. Infect. Dis. 197:6365.
43. Han, M. G.,, J. R. Smiley,, C. Thomas,, and L. J. Saif. 2004. Genetic recombination between two genotypes of genogroup III bovine noroviruses (BoNVs) and capsid sequence diversity among BoNVs and Nebraska-like bovine enteric caliciviruses. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:52145224.
44. Hansman, G. S.,, N. Takeda,, T. Oka,, M. Oseto,, K. O. Hedlund,, and K. Katayama. 2005. Intergenogroup recombination in sapoviruses. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:19161920.
45. Hardy, M. E.,, S. F. Kramer,, J. J. Treanor,, and M. K. Estes. 1997. Human calicivirus genogroup II capsid sequence diversity revealed by analyses of the prototype Snow Mountain agent. Arch. Virol. 142:14691479.
46. Harrington, P. R.,, L. Lindesmith,, B. Yount,, C. L. Moe,, and R. S. Baric. 2002. Binding of Norwalk virus-like particles to ABH histo-blood group antigens is blocked by antisera from infected human volunteers or experimentally vaccinated mice. J. Virol. 76:1233512343.
47. Harrington, P. R.,, J. Vinje,, C. L. Moe,, and R. S. Baric. 2004. Norovirus capture with histo-blood group antigens reveals novel virus-ligand interactions. J. Virol. 78:30353045.
48. Huang, P.,, T. Farkas,, S. Marionneau,, W. Zhong,, N. Ruvoen-Clouet,, A. L. Morrow,, M. Altaye,, L. K. Pickering,, D. S. Newburg,, J. LePendu,, and X. Jiang. 2003. Noroviruses bind to human ABO, Lewis, and secretor histo-blood group antigens: identification of 4 distinct strain-specific patterns. J. Infect. Dis. 188:1931.
49. Huang, P.,, T. Farkas,, W. Zhong,, M. Tan,, S. Thornton,, A. L. Morrow,, and X. Jiang. 2005. Norovirus and histo-blood group antigens: demonstration of a wide spectrum of strain specificities and classification of two major binding groups among multiple binding patterns. J. Virol. 79:67146722.
50. Hutson, A. M.,, F. Airaud,, J. LePendu,, M. K. Estes,, and R. L. Atmar. 2005. Norwalk virus infection associates with secretor status genotyped from sera. J. Med. Virol. 77:116120.
51. Hutson, A. M.,, R. L. Atmar,, and M. K. Estes. 2004. Norovirus disease: changing epidemiology and host susceptibility factors. Trends Microbiol. 12:279287.
52. Hutson, A. M.,, R. L. Atmar,, D. Y. Graham,, and M. K. Estes. 2002. Norwalk virus infection and disease is associated with ABO histo-blood group type. J. Infect. Dis. 185:13351337.
53. Hutson, A. M.,, R. L. Atmar,, D. M. Marcus,, and M. K. Estes. 2003. Norwalk virus-like particle hemagglutination by binding to h histo-blood group antigens. J. Virol. 77:405415.
54. Iritani, N.,, H. Vennema,, J. J. Siebenga,, R. J. Siezen,, B. Renckens,, Y. Seto,, A. Kaida,, and M. Koopmans. 2008. Genetic analysis of the capsid gene of genotype GII.2 noroviruses. J. Virol. 82:73367345.
55. Jiang, X.,, C. Espul,, W. M. Zhong,, H. Cuello,, and D. O. Matson. 1999. Characterization of a novel human calicivirus that may be a naturally occurring recombinant. Arch. Virol. 144:23772387.
56. Jiang, X.,, P. Huang,, W. Zhong,, M. Tan,, T. Farkas,, A. L. Morrow,, D. S. Newburg,, G. M. Ruiz-Palacios,, and L. K. Pickering. 2004. Human milk contains elements that block binding of noroviruses to human histo-blood group antigens in saliva. J. Infect. Dis. 190:18501859.
57. Jiang, X.,, M. Wang,, D. Y. Graham,, and M. K. Estes. 1992. Expression, self-assembly, and antigenicity of the Norwalk virus capsid protein. J. Virol. 66:65276532.
58. Jiang, X.,, M. Wang,, K. Wang,, and M. K. Estes. 1993. Sequence and genomic organization of Norwalk virus. Virology 195:5161.
59. Johansen, K.,, K. Mannerqvist,, A. Allard,, Y. Andersson,, L. G. Burman,, L. Dillner,, K. O. Hedlund,, K. Jonsson,, U. Kumlin,, T. Leitner, et al. 2008. Norovirus strains belonging to the GII.4 genotype dominate as a cause of nosocomial outbreaks of viral gastroenteritis in Sweden 1997-2005. Arrival of new variants is associated with large nation-wide epidemics. J. Clin. Virol. 42:129-–134.
60. Kageyama, T.,, M. Shinohara,, K. Uchida,, S. Fukushi,, F. B. Hoshino,, S. Kojima,, R. Takai,, T. Oka,, N. Takeda,, and K. Katayama. 2004. Coexistence of multiple genotypes, including newly identified genotypes, in outbreaks of gastroenteritis due to norovirus in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 42:29882995.
61. Kapikian, A . Z.,, R. G. Wyatt,, R. Dolin,, T. S. Thornhill,, A. R. Kalica,, and R. M. Chanock. 1972. Visualization by immune electron microscopy of a 27-nm particle associated with acute infectious nonbacterial gastroenteritis. J. Virol. 10:10751081.
62. Karst, S. M.,, C. E. Wobus,, M. Lay,, J. Davidson,, and H. W. Virgin. 2003. STAT1-dependent innate immunity to a Norwalk-like virus. Science 299:15751578.
63. Kimura, M. 1980. A simple method for estimating evolutionary rate of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences. J. Mol. Evol. 16:111120.
64. Kindberg, E.,, B. Akerlind,, C. Johnsen,, J. D. Knudsen,, O. Heltberg,, G. Larson,, B. Bottiger,, and L. Svensson. 2007. Host genetic resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII.4) infections in Denmark. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45:27202722.
65. Kirkegaard, K.,, and D. Baltimore. 1986. The mechanism of RNA recombination in poliovirus. Cell 47:433443.
66. Kroneman, A.,, H. Vennema,, J. Harris,, G. Reuter,, C. H. von Bonsdorff,, K. O. Hedlund,, K. Vainio,, V. Jackson,, P. Pothier,, J. Koch, et al. 2006. Increase in norovirus activity reported in Europe. Euro Surveill. 11:E061214.1.
67. Lambden, P. R.,, E. O. Caul,, C. R. Ashley,, and I. N. Clarke. 1993. Sequence and genome organization of a human small round-structured (Norwalk-like) virus. Science 259:516519.
68. Le Pendu, J.,, N. Ruvoen-Clouet,, E. Kindberg,, and L. Svensson. 2006. Mendelian resistance to human norovirus infections. Semin. Immunol. 18:375386.
69. LePendu, J.,, and R. Baric. 2003. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat. Med. 9:548553.
70. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, J. Lependu,, J. A. Frelinger,, J. Treanor,, and R. S. Baric. 2005. Cellular and humoral immunity following Snow Mountain virus challenge. J. Virol. 79:29002909.
71. Lindesmith, L.,, C. Moe,, S. Marionneau,, N. Ruvoen,, X. Jiang,, L. Lindblad,, P. Stewart,, J. LePendu,, and R. Baric. 2003. Human susceptibility and resistance to Norwalk virus infection. Nat. Med. 9:548553.
72. Lindesmith, L. C.,, E. F. Donaldson,, A. D. Lobue,, J. L. Cannon,, D. P. Zheng,, J. Vinje,, and R. S. Baric. 2008. Mechanisms of GII.4 norovirus persistence in human populations. PLoS Med. 5:e31.
73. Lochridge, V. P.,, and M. E. Hardy. 2007. A single-amino-acid substitution in the P2 domain of VP1 of murine norovirus is sufficient for escape from antibody neutralization. J. Virol. 81:1231612322.
74. Lochridge, V. P.,, K. L. Jutila,, J. W. Graff,, and M. E. Hardy. 2005. Epitopes in the P2 domain of norovirus VP1 recognized by monoclonal antibodies that block cell interactions. J. Gen. Virol. 86:27992806.
75. Lopman, B.,, H. Vennema,, E. Kohli,, P. Pothier,, A. Sanchez,, A. Negredo,, J. Buesa,, E. Schreier,, M. Reacher,, D. Brown, et al. 2004. Increase in viral gastroenteritis outbreaks in Europe and epidemic spread of new norovirus variant. Lancet 363:682688.
76. Lysen, M.,, M. Thorhagen,, M. Brytting,, M. Hjertqvist,, Y. Andersson,, and K. O. Hedlund. 2009. Genetic diversity among food-borne and waterborne norovirus strains causing outbreaks in Sweden. J. Clin. Microbiol. 47:24112418.
77. Makino, S.,, J. O. Fleming,, J. G. Keck,, S. A. Stohlman,, and M. M. Lai. 1987. RNA recombination of coronaviruses: localization of neutralizing epitopes and neuropathogenic determinants on the carboxyl terminus of peplomers. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 84:65676571.
78. Makino, S.,, J. G. Keck,, S. A. Stohlman,, and M. M. Lai. 1986. High-frequency RNA recombination of murine coronaviruses. J. Virol. 57:729737.
79. Marionneau, S.,, N. Ruvoën,, B. Le Moullac-Vaidye,, M. Clement,, A. Cailleau-Thomas,, G. Ruiz-Palacios,, P. Huang,, X. Jiang,, and J. Le Pendu. 2002. Norwalk virus binds to histo-blood group antigens present on gastroduodenal epithelial cells of secretor individuals. Gastroenterology 122:19671977.
80. Martella, V.,, M. Campolo,, E. Lorusso,, P. Cavicchio,, M. Camero,, A. L. Bellacicco,, N. Decaro,, G. Elia,, G. Greco,, M. Corrente, et al. 2007. Norovirus in captive lion cub (Panthera leo). Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:10711073.
81. Martella, V.,, E. Lorusso,, N. Decaro,, G. Elia,, A. Radogna,, M. D’Abramo,, C. Desario,, A. Cavalli,, M. Corrente,, M. Camero, et al. 2008. Detection and molecular characterization of a canine norovirus. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14: 13061308.
82. Mattison, K.,, A. Shukla,, A. Cook,, F. Pollari,, R. Friendship,, D. Kelton,, S. Bidawid,, and J. M. Farber. 2007. Human noroviruses in swine and cattle. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:11841188.
83. Maunula, L.,, and C.-H. Von Bonsdorff. 2005. Norovirus genotypes causing gastroenteritis outbreaks in Finland 1998-2002. J. Clin. Virol. 34:186194.
84. Mead, P. S.,, L. Slutsker,, V. Dietz,, L. F. McCaig,, J. S. Bresee,, C. Shapiro,, P. M. Griffin,, and R. V. Tauxe. 1999. Food-related illness and death in the United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:607625.
85. Mueller, B.,, U. Klemm,, A. Mas Marques,, and E. Schreier. 2007. Genetic diversity and recombination of murine noroviruses in immunocompromised mice. Arch. Virol. 152:17091719.
86. Mueller, B. 2009. Molekulare Charakterisierung muriner Noroviren—phylogenetische und antigene Eigenschaften. Dissertation. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
87. Nayak, M. K.,, G. Balasubramanian,, G. C. Sahoo,, R. Bhattacharya,, J. Vinje,, N. Kobayashi,, M. C. Sarkar,, M. K. Bhattacharya,, and T. Krishnan. 2008. Detection of a novel intergenogroup recombinant Norovirus from Kolkata, India. Virology 377:117123.
88. Nilsson, M.,, K. O. Hedlund,, M. Thorhagen,, G. Larson,, K. Johansen,, A. Ekspong,, and L. Svensson. 2003. Evolution of human calicivirus RNA in vivo: accumulation of mutations in the protruding P2 domain of the capsid leads to structural changes and possibly a new phenotype. J. Virol. 77:1311713124.
89. Oliver, S. L.,, E. Asobayire,, A. M. Dastjerdi,, and J. C. Bridger. 2006. Genomic characterization of the unclassified bovine enteric virus Newbury agent-1 (Newbury1) endorses a new genus in the family Caliciviridae. Virology 350:240250.
90. Phan, T. G.,, K. Kaneshi,, Y. Ueda,, S. Nakaya,, S. Nishimura,, A. Yamamoto,, K. Sugita,, S. Takanashi,, S. Okitsu,, and H. Ushijima. 2007. Genetic heterogeneity, evolution, and recombination in noroviruses. J. Med. Virol. 79:13881400.
91. Phan, T. G.,, T. Kuroiwa,, K. Kaneshi,, Y. Ueda,, S. Nakaya,, S. Nishimura,, A. Yamamoto,, K. Sugita,, T. Nishimura,, F. Yagyu, et al. 2006. Changing distribution of norovirus genotypes and genetic analysis of recombinant GIIb among infants and children with diarrhea in Japan. J. Med. Virol. 78:971978.
92. Prasad, B. V. 2010. Structural biology of calicivirus capsids (state-of-the-art), p. 14. Fourth Int. Conf. Caliciviruses, Santa Cruz, Chile, 16 to 19 October 2010.
93. Prasad, B. V.,, M. E. Hardy,, T. Dokland,, J. Bella,, M. G. Rossmann,, and M. K. Estes. 1999. X-ray crystallographic structure of the Norwalk virus capsid. Science 286:287290.
94. Prasad, B. V.,, M. E. Hardy,, X. Jiang,, and M. K. Estes. 1996. Structure of Norwalk virus. Arch. Virol. Suppl. 12:237242.
95. Rockx, B.,, R. S. Baric,, I. de Grijs,, E. Duizer,, and M. P. Koopmans. 2005a. Characterization of the homo- and heterotypic immune responses after natural norovirus infection. J. Med. Virol. 77:439446.
96. Rockx, B. H.,, W. M. Bogers,, J. L. Heeney,, G. van Amerongen,, and M. P. Koopmans. 2005b. Experimental norovirus infections in non-human primates. J. Med. Virol. 75:313320.
97. Rockx, B. H.,, H. Vennema,, C. J. Hoebe,, E. Duizer,, and M. P. Koopmans. 2005c. Association of histo-blood group antigens and susceptibility to norovirus infections. J. Infect. Dis. 191:749754.
98. Rohayem, J.,, J. Munch,, and A. Rethwilm. 2005. Evidence of recombination in the norovirus capsid gene. J. Virol. 79:49774990.
99. Rydell, G. E.,, A. B. Dahlin,, F. Hook,, and G. Larson. 2009a. QCM-D studies of human norovirus VLPs binding to glycosphingolipids in supported lipid bilayers reveal strain specific characteristics. Glycobiology 19:11761184.
100. Rydell, G. E.,, J. Nilsson,, J. Rodriguez-Diaz,, N. Ruvoen-Clouet,, L. Svensson,, J. Le Pendu,, and G. Larson. 2009b. Human noroviruses recognize sialyl Lewis x neoglycoprotein. Glycobiology 19:309320.
101. Schreier, E.,, F. Doring,, and U. Kunkel. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of outbreaks of gastroenteritis associated with small round structured viruses in Germany in 1997/98. Arch. Virol. 145:443453.
102. Siebenga, J. J.,, M. F. Beersma,, H. Vennema,, P. vanBiezen,, N. J. Hartwig,, and M. Koopmans. 2008. High prevalence of prolonged norovirus shedding and illness among hospitalized patients: a model for in vivo molecular evolution. J. Infect. Dis. 198:9941001.
103. Siebenga, J. J.,, H. Vennema,, E. Duizer,, and M. P. Koopmans. 2007a. Gastroenteritis caused by norovirus GGII.4, The Netherlands, 1994-2005. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 13:144146.
104. Siebenga, J. J.,, H. Vennema,, B. Renckens,, E. de Bruin,, B. van der Veer,, R. J. Siezen,, and M. Koopmans. 2007b. Epochal evolution of GGII.4 norovirus capsid proteins from 1995 to 2006. J. Virol. 81:99329941.
105. Siebenga, J. J.,, H. Vennema,, D. P. Zheng,, J. Vinje,, B. E. Lee,, X. L. Pang,, E. C. Ho,, W. Lim,, A. Choudekar,, S. Broor,, T. Halperin,, N. B. Rasool,, J. Hewitt,, G. E. Greening,, M. Jin,, Z. J. Duan,, Y. Lucero,, M. O’Ryan,, M. Hoehne,, E. Schreier,, R. M. Ratcliff,, P. A. White,, N. Iritani,, G. Reuter,, and M. Koopmans. 2009. Norovirus illness is a global problem: emergence and spread of Norovirus GII.4 variants, 2001-2007. J. Infect. Dis. 200:802812.
106. Smith, A. W.,, E. S. Berry,, D. E. Skilling,, J. E. Barlough,, S. E. Poet,, T. Berke,, J. Mead,, and D. O. Matson. 1998a. In vitro isolation and characterization of a calicivirus causing a vesicular disease of the hands and feet. Clin. Infect. Dis. 26:434439.
107. Smith, A. W.,, D. E. Skilling,, N. Cherry,, J. H. Mead,, and D. O. Matson. 1998b. Calicivirus emergence from ocean reservoirs: zoonotic and interspecies movements. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 4:1320.
108. Souza, M.,, M. S. Azevedo,, K. Jung,, S. Cheetham,, and L. J. Saif. 2008. Pathogenesis and immune responses in gnotobiotic calves after infection with the genogroup II.4-HS66 strain of human norovirus. J. Virol. 82:17771786.
109. Stuart, A. D.,, and T. D. Brown. 2007. Alpha2,6-linked sialic acid acts as a receptor for feline calicivirus. J. Gen. Virol. 88:177186.
110. Tamura, M.,, K. Natori,, M. Kobayashi,, T. Miyamura,, and N. Takeda. 2000. Interaction of recombinant Norwalk virus particles with the 105-kilodalton cellular binding protein, a candidate receptor molecule for virus attachment. J. Virol. 74:1158911597.
111. Tamura, M.,, K. Natori,, M. Kobayashi,, T. Miyamura,, and N. Takeda. 2004. Genogroup II noroviruses efficiently bind to heparan sulfate proteoglycan associated with the cellular membrane. J. Virol. 78:38173826.
112. Tan, M.,, P. Huang,, J. Meller,, W. Zhong,, T. Farkas,, and X. Jiang. 2003. Mutations within the P2 domain of norovirus capsid affect binding to human histo-blood group antigens: evidence for a binding pocket. J. Virol. 77:1256212571.
113. Tan, M.,, and X. Jiang. 2005. Norovirus and its histo-blood group antigen receptors: an answer to a historical puzzle. Trends Microbiol. 13:285293.
114. Tan, M.,, and X. Jiang. 2007. Norovirus-host interaction: implications for disease control and prevention. Expert Rev. Mol. Med. 9:122.
115. Tan, M.,, M. Jin,, H. Xie,, Z. Duan,, X. Jiang,, and Z. Fang. 2008. Outbreak studies of a GII-3 and a GII-4 norovirus revealed an association between HBGA phenotypes and viral infection. J. Med. Virol. 80:12961301.
116. Tan, M.,, J. Meller,, and X. Jiang. 2006. C-terminal arginine cluster is essential for receptor binding of norovirus capsid protein. J. Virol. 80:73227331.
117. Taube, S.,, A. Kurth,, and E. Schreier. 2005. Generation of recombinant norovirus-like particles (VLP) in the human endothelial kidney cell line 293T. Arch. Virol. 150:14251431.
118. Taube, S.,, J. W. Perry,, K. Yetming,, S. P. Patel,, H. Auble,, L. Shu,, H. F. Nawar,, C. H. Lee,, T. D. Connell,, J. A. Shayman,, and C. E. Wobus. 2009. Ganglioside-linked terminal sialic acid moieties on murine macrophages function as attachment receptors for murine noroviruses. J. Virol. 83:40924101.
119. Teunis, P. F.,, C. L. Moe,, P. Liu,, S. E. Miller,, L. Lindesmith,, R. S. Baric,, J. Le Pendu,, and R. L. Calderon. 2008. Norwalk virus: how infectious is it? J. Med. Virol. 80:14681476.
120. Thorven, M.,, A. Grahn,, K. O. Hedlund,, H. Johansson,, C. Wahlfrid,, G. Larson,, and L. Svensson. 2005. A homozygous nonsense mutation (428G?A) in the human secretor (FUT2) gene provides resistance to symptomatic norovirus (GGII) infections. J. Virol. 79:1535115355.
121. Troeger, H.,, C. Loddenkemper,, T. Schneider,, E. Schreier,, H. J. Epple,, M. Zeitz,, M. Fromm,, and J. D. Schulzke. 2009. Structural and functional changes of the duodenum in human norovirus infection. Gut 58:10701077.
122. van Nimwegen, E. 2006. Epidemiology. Influenza escapes immunity along neutral networks. Science 314:18841886.
123. Verhoef, L.,, E. Depoortere,, I. Boxman,, E. Duizer,, Y. van Duynhoven,, J. Harris,, C. Johnsen,, A. Kroneman,, S. Le Guyader,, W. Lim,, L. Maunula,, H. Meldal,, R. Ratcliff,, G. Reuter,, E. Schreier,, G. Siebenga,, K. Vainio,, C. Varela,, H. Vennema,, and M. Koopmans. 2008. Emergence of new norovirus variants on spring cruise ships and prediction of winter epidemics. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 14:238243.
124. Wang, Q. H.,, V. Costantini,, and L. J. Saif. 2007. Porcine enteric caliciviruses: genetic and antigenic relatedness to human caliciviruses, diagnosis and epidemiology. Vaccine 25:5455466.
125. Ward, V. K.,, C. J. McCormick,, I. N. Clarke,, O. Salim,, C. E. Wobus,, L. B. Thackray,, H. W. Virgin IV,, and P. R. Lambden. 2007. Recovery of infectious murine norovirus using pol II-driven expression of full-length cDNA. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104:1105011055.
126. Waters, A.,, S. Coughlan,, and W. W. Hall. 2007. Characterisation of a novel recombination event in the norovirus polymerase gene. Virology 363:1114.
127. Wobus, C. E.,, S. M. Karst,, L. B. Thackray,, K. O. Chang,, S. V. Sosnovtsev,, G. Belliot,, A. Krug,, J. M. Mackenzie,, K. Y. Green,, and H. W. Virgin. 2004. Replication of norovirus in cell culture reveals a tropism for dendritic cells and macrophages. PLoS Biol. 2:e432.
128. Xi, J. N.,, D. Y. Graham,, K. N. Wang,, and M. K. Estes. 1990. Norwalk virus genome cloning and characterization. Science 250:15801583.
129. Zheng, D. P.,, T. Ando,, R. L. Fankhauser,, R. S. Beard,, R. I. Glass,, and S. S. Monroe. 2006. Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 346:312323.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Taxonomic structure of the

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Distribution of norovirus genogroups and genotypes across the various human and animal species

Citation: Schreier E. 2012. Genome Diversity and Host Interaction of Noroviruses, p 191-213. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch12

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error