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Chapter 19 : Genome Plasticity of Species

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Abstract:

The chapter on genome plasticity of species focuses on the genome of various species. Aspergilli have an important impact on humankind, both beneficial and detrimental. On the one hand, some species are used industrially for the production or refinement of beverages, enzymes, food additives, or pharmaceuticals. The main genome features of fully sequenced genomes are summarized. The likelihood of finding genes belonging to these functional categories in the chromosomal center is six times higher than that of finding them within the subtelomeric regions. The function of most secondary metabolites in the producing organism is not known yet. As biologically active compounds they might protect the fungus against other soil inhabitants and may also contribute to weakening of the host immune system. Genes involved in the production of secondary metabolites are often organized in a cluster. Many of the clusters for biosynthesis of secondary metabolites contain regulatory genes. Secondary metabolite gene clusters are located predominantly in plasticity zones; in only the DHN melanin biosynthesis cluster and the Pes-1-associated cluster are not part of a plasticity zone. In eukaryotes, intragenic tandem repeats (ITRs) are not equally distributed in protein-encoding genes but tend to be biased to the end of the protein.

Citation: Heinekamp T, Brakhage A. 2012. Genome Plasticity of Species, p 326-342. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch19

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FIGURE 1

Electron micrograph of an conidiophore. The conidiophore shows the typical columnar, uniseriate conidial head. Phialides are the conidiogenous cells which produce long chains of conidia in basipetal succession. Micrograph kindly provided by Jeannette Schmaler-Ripcke, Hans Knöll Institute and Center for Electron Microscopy, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany. doi:10.1128/9781555817213.ch19f01

Citation: Heinekamp T, Brakhage A. 2012. Genome Plasticity of Species, p 326-342. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch19
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Chromosomal localization of secondary metabolite gene clusters in . Putative secondary metabolite gene clusters from were obtained from precomputed results of the Web-based tool SMURF. The positions of secondary metabolite clusters are depicted by arrowheads; the cluster number corresponds to the SMURF prediction. Arrowheads without a number show the positions of single NRPS or PKS genes. Telomeric regions are indicated in gray. doi:10.1128/9781555817213.ch19f02

Citation: Heinekamp T, Brakhage A. 2012. Genome Plasticity of Species, p 326-342. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch19
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

List of genome features of different aspergill

Citation: Heinekamp T, Brakhage A. 2012. Genome Plasticity of Species, p 326-342. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch19

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