Chapter 20 : DNA Polymorphisms and Their Relevance for Infections with Human Cytomegalovirus and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in

DNA Polymorphisms and Their Relevance for Infections with Human Cytomegalovirus and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817213/9781555817084_Chap20-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817213/9781555817084_Chap20-2.gif


The fungal pathogen and the human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represent a great challenge for immuno suppressed patients. This chapter summarizes our current knowledge about the increasing number of genetic markers influencing the pathobiology of and susceptibility to and HCMV. Further complications that arise after exposure to include allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) with hypersensitivity reactions that often occur in immunocompetent hosts with asthma or cystic fibrosis. The promoter of IL-10 contains several polymorphisms from which SNPs at positions -1082, -819, and -592 have been intensively investigated. HCMV is one of the most demanding complications after allo-SCT. The highest risk for patients after transplantation exists when stem cells from an HCMV-negative donor are transferred into an HCMV-positive recipient. Researchers found no significant association between 71 of 80 markers and the occurrence of HCMV reactivation or disease in patients after allo-SCT. Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 22 (PTPN22) is an important negative regulator of T-cell activation. The hope for early identification of patients at risk for and/or HCMV infection is legitimate and might have an impact on individualization of antifungal and antiviral prophylaxis and treatment in the near future.

Citation: Mezger M, Einsele H, Loeffler J. 2012. DNA Polymorphisms and Their Relevance for Infections with Human Cytomegalovirus and , p 345-357. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch20

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II
Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


1. Alakulppi, N. S.,, L. E. Kyllonen,, H. M. Salo,, J. Partanen,, K. T. Salmela,, and J. T. Laine. 2006. The impact of donor cytokine gene polymorphisms on the incidence of cytomegalovirus infection after kidney transplantation. Transpl. Immunol. 16:258262.
2. Allen, M. J.,, R. Harbeck,, B. Smith,, D. R. Voelker,, and R. J. Mason. 1999. Binding of rat and human surfactant proteins A and D to Aspergillus fumigatus conidia. Infect. Immun. 67:45634569.
3. Anasetti, C. 2008. What are the most important donor and recipient factors affecting the outcome of related and unrelated allogeneic transplantation? Best Pract. Res. Clin. Haematol. 21:691697.
4. Asakura, Y.,, and T. Komatsu. 2009. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 360:635; author reply 635-636.
5. Ascioglu, S.,, J. H. Rex,, B. de Pauw,, J. E. Bennett,, J. Bille,, F. Crokaert,, D. W. Denning,, J. P. Donnelly,, J. E. Edwards,, Z. Erjavec,, D. Fiere,, O. Lortholary,, J. Maertens,, J. F. Meis,, T. F. Patterson,, J. Ritter,, D. Selleslag,, P. M. Shah,, D. A. Stevens,, and T. J. Walsh. 2002. Defining opportunistic invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplants: an international consensus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:714.
6. Azarian, M.,, M. Busson,, V. Rocha,, P. Ribaud,, R. Peffault de Latour,, H. Bleux,, V. Lepage,, D. Charron,, A. Toubert,, G. Socié,, and P. Loiseau. 2008. The PTPN22 R620W polymorphism is associated with severe bacterial infections after human leukocyte antigen genoidentical haematopoietic stem-cell transplantations. Transplantation 85:18591862.
7. Bochud, P. Y.,, J. W. Chien,, K. A. Marr,, W. M. Leisenring,, A. Upton,, M. Janer,, S. D. Rodrigues,, S. Li,, J. A. Hansen,, L. P. Zhao,, A. Aderem,, and M. Boeckh. 2008. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis in stem-cell transplantation. N. Engl. J. Med. 359:17661777.
8. Brandt, E. B.,, M. K. Mingler,, M. D. Stevenson,, N. Wang,, G. K. Khurana Hershey,, J. A. Whitsett,, and M. E. Rothenberg. 2008. Surfactant protein D alters allergic lung responses in mice and human subjects. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 121:11401147.
9. Brouard, J.,, N. Knauer,, P. Y. Boelle,, H. Corvol,, A. Henrion-Caude,, C. Flamant,, F. Bremont,, B. Delaisi,, J. F. Duhamel,, C. Marguet,, M. Roussey,, M. C. Miesch,, K. Chadelat,, M. Boule,, B. Fauroux,, F. Ratjen,, H. Grasemann,, and A. Clement. 2005. Influence of interleukin-10 on Aspergillus fumigatus infection in patients with cystic fibrosis. J. Infect. Dis. 191:19881991.
10. Brown, R. A.,, J. H. Gralewski,, and R. R. Razonable. 2009. The R753Q polymorphism abrogates toll-like receptor 2 signaling in response to human cytomegalovirus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49:9699.
11. Carvalho, A.,, C. Cunha,, A. Carotti,, T. Aloisi,, O. Guarrera,, M. Di Ianni,, F. Falzetti,, F. Bistoni,, F. Aversa,, L. Pitzurra,, F. Rodrigues,, and L. Romani. 2009. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor genes and susceptibility to infections in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Exp. Hematol. 37:10221029.
12. Carvalho, A.,, A. C. Pasqualotto,, L. Pitzurra,, L. Romani,, D. W. Denning,, and F. Rodrigues. 2008. Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor genes and susceptibility to pulmonary aspergillosis. J. Infect. Dis. 197:618621.
13. Cervera, C.,, F. Lozano,, N. Saval,, I. Gimferrer,, A. Ibanez,, B. Suarez,, L. Linares,, F. Cofan,, M. J. Ricart,, N. Esforzado,, M. A. Marcos,, T. Pumarola,, F. Oppenheimer,, J. M. Campistol,, and A. Moreno. 2007. The influence of innate immunity gene receptors polymorphisms in renal transplant infections. Transplantation 83:14931500.
14. Cervera, C.,, A. Moreno,, and F. Lozano. 2009. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 360:634635; author reply 635-636.
15. Compton, T. 2004. Receptors and immune sensors: the complex entry path of human cytomegalovirus. Trends Cell Biol. 14:58.
16. Compton, T.,, E. A. Kurt-Jones,, K. W. Boehme,, J. Belko,, E. Latz,, D. T. Golenbock,, and R. W. Finberg. 2003. Human cytomegalovirus activates inflammatory cytokine responses via CD14 and Toll-like receptor 2. J. Virol. 77:45884596.
17. Crosdale, D. J.,, K. V. Poulton,, W. E. Ollier,, W. Thomson,, and D. W. Denning. 2001. Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms as a susceptibility factor for chronic necrotizing pulmonary aspergillosis. J. Infect. Dis. 184:653656.
18. Deghaide, N. H.,, M. D. L. Rodrigues,, E. C. Castelli,, C. T. Mendes-Junior,, J. F. Figueiredo,, and E. A. Donadi. 2009. Tumor necrosis factor region polymorphisms are associated with AIDS and with cytomegalovirus retinitis. AIDS 23:16411647.
19. Ducloux, D.,, M. Deschamps,, M. Yannaraki,, C. Ferrand,, J. Bamoulid,, P. Saas,, A. Kazory,, J. M. Chalopin,, and P. Tiberghien. 2005. Relevance of Toll-like receptor-4 polymorphisms in renal transplantation. Kidney Int. 67:24542461.
20. Einsele, H.,, and H. Hebart. 2002. Cellular immunity to viral and fungal antigens after stem cell transplantation. Curr. Opin. Hematol. 9:485489.
21. Feire, A. L.,, H. Koss,, and T. Compton. 2004. Cellular integrins function as entry receptors for human cytomegalovirus via a highly conserved disintegrin-like domain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101:1547015475.
22. Gibson, P. G. 2006. Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Semin. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 27:185191.
23. Gruber, S. G.,, M. Gloria Luciani,, P. Grundtner,, A. Zdanov,, and C. Gasche. 2008. Differential signaling of cmvIL-10 through common variants of the IL-10 receptor 1. Eur. J. Immunol. 38:33653375.
24. Halary, F.,, A. Amara,, H. Lortat-Jacob,, M. Messerle,, T. Delaunay,, C. Houles,, F. Fieschi,, F. Arenzana-Seisdedos,, J. F. Moreau,, and J. Dechanet-Merville. 2002. Human cytomegalovirus binding to DC-SIGN is required for dendritic cell infection and target cell trans-infection. Immunity 17:653664.
25. Hebart, H.,, and H. Einsele. 2004. Clinical aspects of CMV infection after stem cell transplantation. Hum. Immunol. 65:432436.
26. Helminen, M. E.,, S. Kilpinen,, M. Virta,, and M. Hurme. 2001. Susceptibility to primary Epstein-Barr virus infection is associated with interleukin-10 gene promoter polymorphism. J. Infect. Dis. 184:777780.
27. Hoffmann, T. W.,, J. M. Halimi,, M. Buchler,, F. Velge-Roussel,, A. Al-Najjar,, J. F. Marliere,, Y. Lebranchu,, and C. Baron. 2009. Impact of a polymorphism in the IL-12p40 gene on the outcome of kidney transplantation. Transplant. Proc. 41:654656.
28. Hoffmann, T. W.,, J. M. Halimi,, M. Buchler,, F. Velge-Roussel,, A. Goudeau,, A. Al-Najjar,, J. F. Marliere,, Y. Lebranchu,, and C. Baron. 2010. Association between a polymorphism in the human programmed death-1 (PD-1) gene and CMV infection after kidney transplantation. J. Med. Genet. 47:5458.
29. Hoffmann, T. W.,, J. M. Halimi,, M. Buchler,, F. Velge-Roussel,, A. Goudeau,, A. Al Najjar,, M. D. Boulanger,, T. S. Houssaini,, J. F. Marliere,, Y. Lebranchu,, and C. Baron. 2008. Association between a polymorphism in the IL-12p40 gene and cytomegalovirus reactivation after kidney transplantation. Transplantation 85:14061411.
30. Jaskula, E.,, D. Dlubek,, D. Duda,, K. Bogunia-Kubik,, A. Mlynarczewska,, and A. Lange. 2009. Interferon gamma 13-CA-repeat homozygous genotype and a low proportion of CD4(+) lymphocytes are independent risk factors for cytomegalovirus reactivation with a high number of copies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant. 15:12961305.
31. Kaur, S.,, V. K. Gupta,, A. Shah,, S. Thiel,, P. U. Sarma,, and T. Madan. 2006. Elevated levels of mannan-binding lectin [corrected] (MBL) and eosinophilia in patients of bronchial asthma with allergic rhinitis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis associate with a novel intronic polymorphism in MBL. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 143:414419.
32. Kaur, S.,, V. K. Gupta,, S. Thiel,, P. U. Sarma,, and T. Madan. 2007. Protective role of mannan-binding lectin in a murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 148:382389.
33. Kesh, S.,, N. Y. Mensah,, P. Peterlongo,, D. Jaffe,, K. Hsu,, M. van den Brink,, R. O’Reilly,, E. Pamer,, J. Satagopan,, and G. A. Papanicolaou. 2005. TLR1 and TLR6 polymorphisms are associated with susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 1062:95103.
34. Kijpittayarit, S.,, A. J. Eid,, R. A. Brown,, C. V. Paya,, and R. R. Razonable. 2007. Relationship between Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphism and cytomegalovirus disease after liver transplantation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 44:13151320.
35. Kishore, U.,, T. J. Greenhough,, P. Waters,, A. K. Shrive,, R. Ghai,, M. F. Kamran,, A. L. Bernal,, K. B. Reid,, T. Madan,, and T. Chakraborty. 2006. Surfactant proteins SP-A and SP-D: structure, function and receptors. Mol. Immunol. 43:12931315.
36. Knutsen, A. P.,, B. Kariuki,, J. D. Consolino,, and M. R. Warrier. 2006. IL-4 alpha chain receptor (IL-4Ralpha) polymorphisms in allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clin. Mol. Allergy 4:3.
37. Latge, J. P. 1999. Aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillosis. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 12:310350.
38. Latge, J. P. 2001. The pathobiology of Aspergillus fumigatus. Trends. Microbiol. 9:382389.
39. Lee, J. E.,, J. H. Choi,, J. H. Lee,, and M. G. Lee. 2005. Gene SNPs and mutations in clinical genetic testing: haplotype-based testing and analysis. Mutat. Res. 573:195204.
40. Levitz, S. M.,, S. Shoham,, and J. D. Cleary. 2009. Toll-like receptor 4 polymorphisms and aspergillosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 360:634; author reply, 360:635636.
41. Loeffler, J.,, M. Steffens,, E. M. Arlt,, M. R. Toliat,, M. Mezger,, A. Suk,, T. F. Wienker,, H. Hebart,, P. Nurnberg,, M. Boeckh,, P. Ljungman,, R. Trenschel,, and H. Einsele. 2006. Polymorphisms in the genes encoding chemokine receptor 5, interleukin-10, and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 contribute to cytomegalovirus reactivation and disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. J. Clin. Microbiol. 44:18471850.
42. Loetscher, M.,, B. Gerber,, P. Loetscher,, S. A. Jones,, L. Piali,, I. Clark-Lewis,, M. Baggiolini,, and B. Moser. 1996. Chemokine receptor specific for IP10 and mig: structure, function, and expression in activated T-lymphocytes. J. Exp. Med. 184:963969.
43. Madan, T.,, S. Kaur,, S. Saxena,, M. Singh,, U. Kishore,, S. Thiel,, K. B. Reid,, and P. U. Sarma. 2005. Role of collectins in innate immunity against aspergillosis. Med. Mycol. 43:155163.
44. Manuel, O.,, A. Asberg,, X. Pang,, H. Rollag,, V. C. Emery,, J. K. Preiksaitis,, D. Kumar,, M. D. Pescovitz,, A. A. Bignamini,, A. Hartmann,, A. G. Jardine,, and A. Humar. 2009. Impact of genetic polymorphisms in cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B on outcomes in solid-organ transplant recipients with cytomegalovirus disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 49:11601166.
45. Marr, K. A.,, R. A. Carter,, M. Boeckh,, P. Martin,, and L. Corey. 2002. Invasive aspergillosis in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients: changes in epidemiology and risk factors. Blood 100:43584366.
46. Mewara, A.,, B. Mishra,, R. K. Ratho,, and P. Kumar. 2009. Cytomegalovirus glycoprotein B gene polymorphism and its association with clinical presentations in infants. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 40:759764.
47. Mezger, M.,, M. Steffens,, M. Beyer,, C. Manger,, J. Eberle,, M. R. Toliat,, T. F. Wienker,, P. Ljungman,, H. Hebart,, H. J. Dornbusch,, H. Einsele,, and J. Loeffler. 2008a. Polymorphisms in the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 are associated with invasive aspergillosis after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation and influence CXCL10 expression in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Blood 111:534536.
48. Mezger, M.,, M. Steffens,, C. Semmler,, E. M. Arlt,, M. Zimmer,, G. I. Kristjanson,, T. F. Wienker,, M. R. Toliat,, T. Kessler,, H. Einsele,, and J. Loeffler. 2008b. Investigation of promoter variations in dendritic cell-specific ICAM3-grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN) (CD209) and their relevance for human cytomegalovirus reactivation and disease after allogeneic stem-cell transplantation. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14:228234.
49. Moenkemeyer, M.,, H. Heiken,, R. E. Schmidt,, and T. Witte. 2009. Higher risk of cytomegalovirus reactivation in human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected patients homozygous for MICA5.1. Hum. Immunol. 70:175178.
50. Pamer, E. G. 2008. TLR polymorphisms and the risk of invasive fungal infections. N. Engl. J. Med. 359:18361838.
51. Paterson, D. L.,, and N. Singh. 1999. Invasive aspergillosis in transplant recipients. Medicine (Baltimore) 78:123138.
52. Roilides, E.,, A. Dimitriadou-Georgiadou,, T. Sein,, I. Kadiltsoglou,, and T. J. Walsh. 1998. Tumor necrosis factor alpha enhances antifungal activities of polymorphonuclear and mononuclear phagocytes against Aspergillus fumigatus. Infect. Immun. 66: 59996003.
53. Romani, L. 2004. Immunity to fungal infections. Nat. Rev. Immunol. 4:123.
54. Sainz, J.,, L. Hassan,, E. Perez,, A. Romero,, A. Moratalla,, E. Lopez-Fernandez,, S. Oyonarte,, and M. Jurado. 2007a. Interleukin-10 promoter polymorphism as risk factor to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Immunol. Lett. 109: 7682.
55. Sainz, J.,, E. Perez,, S. Gomez-Lopera,, and M. Jurado. 2008a. IL1 gene cluster polymorphisms and its haplotypes may predict the risk to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis and modulate C-reactive protein level. J. Clin. Immunol. 28:473485.
56. Sainz, J.,, E. Perez,, S. Gomez-Lopera,, E. Lopez-Fernandez,, L. Moratalla,, S. Oyonarte,, and M. Jurado. 2008b. Genetic variants of IL6 gene promoter influence on C-reactive protein levels but are not associated with susceptibility to invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in haematological patients. Cytokine 41:268278.
57. Sainz, J.,, E. Perez,, L. Hassan,, A. Moratalla,, A. Romero,, M. D. Collado,, and M. Jurado. 2007b. Variable number of tandem repeats of TNF receptor type 2 promoter as genetic biomarker of susceptibility to develop invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Hum. Immunol. 68:4150.
58. Sau, K.,, S. S. Mambula,, E. Latz,, P. Henneke,, D. T. Golenbock,, and S. M. Levitz. 2003. The antifungal drug amphotericin B promotes inflammatory cytokine release by a Toll-like receptor-and -dependent mechanism. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 3756137568.
59. Saxena, S.,, T. Madan,, A. Shah,, K. Muralidhar,, and P. U. Sarma. 2003. Association of polymorphisms in the collagen region of SP-A2 with increased levels of total IgE antibodies and eosinophilia in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. J. Allergy Clin. Immunol. 111: 10011007.
60. Seo, K. W.,, D. H. Kim,, S. K. Sohn,, N. Y. Lee,, H. H. Chang,, S. W. Kim,, S. B. Jeon,, J. H. Baek,, J. G. Kim,, J. S. Suh,, and K. B. Lee. 2005. Protective role of interleukin-10 promoter gene polymorphism in the pathogenesis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 36:10891095.
61. Stanilova, S.,, and L. Miteva. 2005. Taq-I polymorphism in 39UTR of the IL-12B and association with IL-12p40 production from human PBMC. Genes Immun. 6:364366.
62. Stuart, M. J.,, and R. L. Nagel. 2004. Sickle-cell disease. Lancet 364:13431360.
63. Sun, H.,, U. Ringdahl,, J. W. Homeister,, W. P. Fay,, N. C. Engleberg,, A. Y. Yang,, L. S. Rozek,, X. Wang,, U. Sjöbring,, and D. Ginsburg. 2004. Plasminogen is a critical host pathogenicity factor for group A streptococcal infection. Science 305:12831286.
64. Tagore, A.,, W. M. Gonsalkorale,, V. Pravica,, A. H. Hajeer,, R. McMahon,, P. J. Whorwell,, P. J. Sinnott,, and I. V. Hutchinson. 1999. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) genotypes in inflammatory bowel disease. Tissue Antigens 54:386390.
65. Takahashi, M.,, D. Iwaki,, K. Kanno,, Y. Ishida,, J. Xiong,, M. Matsushita,, Y. Endo,, S. Miura,, N. Ishii,, K. Sugamura,, and T. Fujita. 2008. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL)-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 contributes to activation of the lectin complement pathway. J. Immunol. 180:61326138.
66. Turner, D. M.,, D. M. Williams,, D. Sankaran,, M. Lazarus,, P. J. Sinnott,, and I. V. Hutchinson. 1997. An investigation of polymorphism in the interleukin-10 gene promoter. Eur. J. Immunogenet. 24:18.
67. Vaid, M.,, S. Kaur,, H. Sambatakou,, T. Madan,, D. W. Denning,, and P. U. Sarma. 2007. Distinct alleles of mannose-binding lectin (MBL) and surfactant proteins A (SP-A) in patients with chronic cavitary pulmonary aspergillosis and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Clin. Chem. Lab. Med. 45:183186.
68. Vang, T.,, A. V. Miletic,, Y. Arimura,, L. Tautz,, R. C. Rickert,, and T. Mustelin. 2008. Protein tyrosine phosphatases in autoimmunity. Annu. Rev. Immunol. 26:2955.
69. von Aulock, S.,, N. W. J. Schröder,, S. Traub,, K. Gueinzius,, E. Lorenz,, T. Hartung,, R. R. Schumann,, and C. Hermann. 2004. Heterozygous Toll-like receptor 2 polymorphism does not affect lipoteichoic acid-induced chemokine and inflammatory responses. Infect. Immun. 72:18281831.
70. Wang, X.,, S.-M. Huong,, M. L. Chiu,, N. Raab-Traub,, and E.-S. Huang. 2003. Epidermal growth factor receptor is a cellular receptor for human cytomegalovirus. Nature 424:456461.
71. Zaas, A. K.,, G. Liao,, J. W. Chien,, C. Weinberg,, D. Shore,, S. S. Giles,, K. A. Marr,, J. Usuka,, L. H. Burch,, L. Perera,, J. R. Perfect,, G. Peltz,, and D. A. Schwartz. 2008. Plasminogen alleles influence susceptibility to invasive aspergillosis. PLoS Genet. 4:e1000101.
72. Zheng, X. Q.,, F. Zhu,, W. W. Shi,, A. Lin,, and W. H. Yan. 2009. The HLA-G 14 bp insertion/deletion polymorphism is a putative susceptible factor for active human cytomegalovirus infection in children. Tissue Antigens 74:317321.


Generic image for table

Association between defined genetic polymorphisms and an increased risk to suffer from diseases with

Citation: Mezger M, Einsele H, Loeffler J. 2012. DNA Polymorphisms and Their Relevance for Infections with Human Cytomegalovirus and , p 345-357. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch20
Generic image for table

Association between defined genetic polymorphisms and an increased risk to suffer from diseases with HCMV

Citation: Mezger M, Einsele H, Loeffler J. 2012. DNA Polymorphisms and Their Relevance for Infections with Human Cytomegalovirus and , p 345-357. In Hacker J, Dobrindt U, Kurth R (ed), Genome Plasticity and Infectious Diseases. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817213.ch20

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error