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Chapter 26 : Labor Relations

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Abstract:

This chapter aims to familiarize the readers with the principles of selection, assessment, and incorporation of diagnostic tests. It reviews principles of test evaluation and utilization and their effect on patient outcomes. The chapter describes major elements of requisition and test menu formats. It discusses the principles of formatting of reports of test results. The chapter analyses the necessity for report interpretation and consultation comments. It reviews the needs for record storage. Preanalytic and postanalytic activities are crucial to accurate laboratory results and to their appropriate interpretation for patient care. The preanalytic phase refers to all steps taken before actual testing is performed on a patient’s specimen. It includes test selection, test ordering, patient/specimen identification, specimen collection and transportation, specimen processing and preparation, as well as appropriate specimen storage prior to testing. Effective laboratory test menu formats and comprehensive listing enhance appropriate test ordering. Referral of specimens to reference laboratories for additional or otherwise esoteric testing is included in this phase. The postanalytic phase refers to all steps taken after actual testing is performed on a patient’s specimen. It includes the reporting of test results, report review, result archiving, and specimen storage, as well as assessment of all postanalytic activities. Adequate explanation and interpretation of result reports is important and can greatly influence patient care and outcomes.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26

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Figure 26.1

An example of information and instructions in a laboratory users’ manual for collection and submission of specimens for evaluation of whooping cough. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch26.f1

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
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Figure 26.2

Sample list of textual “value-added” comments attached to specific laboratory reports. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch26.f2

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
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References

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Tables

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Table 26.1

Processes in the clinical laboratory: path of workflow

Path of workflow: sequential sum of all preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical processes, beginning with test order and culminating with laboratory data output.

Compiled from references 11 and 21.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
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Table 26.2

Partial list of guidelines and regulatory accreditation requirements

For additional description and listing see CAP Checklist Updates, 2009 LAP Audioconference Series, sponsored by the Commission of Laboratory Accreditation of the College of American Pathologists (CAP) at www.cap.org (accessed November 12, 2012).

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
Generic image for table
Table 26.3

Applications of laboratory tests

Adapted from references 16 and 39.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
Generic image for table
Table 26.4

Properties of useful diagnostic tests

Adapted from references 16 and 39.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
Generic image for table
Table 26.5

Parameters for ideal settings for screening tests

Adapted from reference 39.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
Generic image for table
Table 26.6

Pros and cons of direct access testing (DAT)

See references. 1, 23, and 50.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
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Table 26.7

Factors affecting the decision to implement or discontinue a test

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
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Table 26.8

Demographic information needed on test requisition

See reference 21.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
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Table 26.9

Areas that should be reviewed or evaluated in quality assessment of postanalytic systems

See references 14 and 21.

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26
Generic image for table
Table 26.10

Example of specimen retention requirements by regulatory agency

Citation: Khalsa A, Santa Cruz M, Saubolle M. 2014. Labor Relations, p 488-505. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch26

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