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Chapter 28 : Laboratory Safety

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Laboratory Safety, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter defines the essential components of a laboratory safety program. The key to a safe laboratory environment is the development, implementation, and enforcement of a high-quality safety management program that considers worker safety as a responsibility of the facility. The risk from biological, chemical, physical, and radiological hazards is related to exposure levels, duration of exposure, toxicity or pathogenicity of the hazardous material, safety controls present, and other factors such as the general health or age of the laboratory worker. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) identifies a number of practices that should be implemented to protect the worker from exposure to blood-borne pathogens, including an exposure control and risk assessment plan. The chapter describes various modes of hazard prevention such as handwashing, barrier protection and immunization. While disinfectants destroy all microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores on inanimate surfaces, sterilants are agents that kill all microbial life, including spores, on inanimate surfaces. The chapter provides discusses spill management, both for biological and chemical spills. A training program should include recognition and evaluation of fire hazards, planning to reduce the risk of fire, and all actions to take when a fire occurs. For effective and efficient management of infectious wastes, a comprehensive management plan is essential to ensure the safety of the employees handling the waste, and implementation of cost-effective strategies for waste disposal.

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28

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Hepatitis C virus
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Hepatitis B virus
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Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
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Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A7.1

Example of packing and marking for category A infectious substances. The smallest external dimension of the outer packaging must not be less than 100 mm; the primary receptacle or secondary receptacle must be capable of withstanding, without leakage, an internal pressure of not less than 95 kPa. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.fA7.1

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A7.2

Example of packing and marking for category B infectious substances. At least one surface of the outer packaging must have a minimum dimension of 100 mm × 100 mm; the primary receptacle or secondary receptacle must be capable of withstanding, without leakage, an internal pressure of not less than 95 kPa. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.f A7.2

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A7.3

Example of packing and marking for exempt specimens. At least one surface of the outer packaging must have a minimum dimension of 100 mm × 100 mm; the outer packaging must be of adequate strength for its capacity, mass, and intended use. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.f A7.3

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A8.1

Label: infectious substance, category A (class 6). doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.fA8.1

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A8.2

Label: biological substance, category B. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.fA8.2

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A8.3

Labels: miscellaneous dangerous goods (class 9). doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.fA8.3

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A8.4

Label: package orientation. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.fA8.4

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Figure A8.5

Label: exempt human specimen. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch28.fA8.5

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Tables

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Table 28.1

Elements of a safety management plan

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.2

WHO classification of microorganisms by risk group

From reference .

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.3

CDC/NIH-recommended biosafety levels for infectious agents

From reference .

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.4

Laboratory biosafety level criteria

From reference .

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.5a

Risk assessment and exposure control plan for clinical microbiology laboratory

Adapted from reference . Abbreviations: R, required; D, discretionary; P, prohibited; A, one of the required alternatives.

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.5b

Risk assessment and exposure control plan for clinical microbiology laboratory

Adapted from reference . Abbreviations: R, required; D, discretionary; P, prohibited; A, one of the required alternatives.

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.6

Select agents and toxins

From reference .

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.7

Characteristics of hand-hygiene antiseptic agents

From reference . +++, Excellent; ++, good, but does not include entire bacterial spectrum; +, fair; −, no activity or not sufficient; F, fast; I, intermediate; S, slow; GP, Gram positive; GN, Gram negative.

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.8

Immunizing agents and schedules for healthcare personnel

From reference .

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
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Table 28.9

Activity levels and hazards of selected germicides

From references , and . NA, not available.

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.10

Shipping classification examples

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.11a

Sample laboratory safety audit

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28
Generic image for table
Table 28.11b

Sample laboratory safety audit

Citation: Dunn J, Sewell D. 2014. Laboratory Safety, p 515-544. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch28

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