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Chapter 9 : Employee Needs

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Employee Needs, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The healthy, well-functioning laboratory requires the satisfaction of employees’ needs, both basic and higher-level, if they are to reach their highest performance and the laboratory is to retain their knowledge and skills. With a predicted crisis in the laboratory workforce and the increasing need for good technical, problem-solving, and financial skills, it is critical for laboratory and hospital administrators to successfully recruit, train, and retain skilled workers. The author believes that an understanding of the expectations, hungers, and needs of employees can guide leaders in this process. This chapter explains the theories of human needs. Abraham Maslow’s name is inextricably linked to the study of human needs. His seminal works presented a hierarchy of needs represented as a pyramid with four levels of “deficiency needs” and a final top level of “growth needs”. The chapter explains how to apply these theories to the laboratory workplace. The laboratory must provide a safe workplace to meet the protection and security needs of employees. The cognitive needs of employees in the workplace are best met by providing opportunities to improve their knowledge. Finally, the chapter determines if generational differences in employee needs exist. Four social generations are described and general characteristics are attributed to each group.

Citation: Steele J. 2014. Employee Needs, p 232-242. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch9

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Figures

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Figure 9.1

Pyramid of Abraham Maslow's original hierarchy of human needs. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch9.fl

Citation: Steele J. 2014. Employee Needs, p 232-242. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch9
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Figure 9.2

Simon Hertnon's nautilus of universal human needs. doi:10.1128/9781555817282.ch9.f2

Citation: Steele J. 2014. Employee Needs, p 232-242. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch9
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References

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1. Alderfer, C. P. 1972. Existence, Relatedness, and Growth. Free Press, New York, NY.
2. Bennett, A.,, N. N. Thompson,, B. Holladay,, A. Bugbee,, and C. A. Steward. 2009. ASCP Wage and Vacancy Survey of U.S. medical laboratories. LabMedicine 40:133141.
3.Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor. 2012. Medical and clinical laboratory technologists and technicians. Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2012-13 Edition. Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC. www.bls.gov/ooh/healthcare/medical-and-clinical-laboratory-technologists-and-technicians.htm (last accessed May 17, 2012).
4. Cortelyou-Ward, K.,, B. Ramirez,, and T. Rotarius. 2011. The laboratory workforce shortage: a managerial perspective. Healthcare Manag. (Frederick) 30:148155. [PubMed][CrossRef]
5. Eckert, E. R. 2006. College of American Pathologists' House of Delegates Resolution F-2004-03. College of American Pathologists, Northfield, IL www.cap.org/apps/docs/house_of_delegates/reference/laboratory_personnel_shortage.doc (last accessed May 17,2012).
6. Epner, P. L. 2007. Laboratory workforce shortage: implications for the future. Clin. Leadersh. Manag. Rev. 21:E1E7.
7. Garcia, E.,, A. Bennett,, M. DeFranco,, M. Schulze,, P. A. Tanabe,, J. Hampshire,, F. Rodriguez,, J. Edwards,, and H. Lee. 2011. American Society for Clinical Pathology's 2011 Vacancy Survey of U.S. clinical laboratories. LabMedicine 42:199206.
8. Garletts, J. A. 2002. Using career ladders to motivate and retain employees: an implementation success story. Clin. Leadersh. Manag. Rev. 16:380385. [PubMed]
9. Hertnon, S. Simon Hertnon's theory of universal human needs. www.nakedize.com/universal-human-needs.cfm (last accessed October 8, 2012).
10. Hilborne, L. 2008. The other big workforce shortage. As laboratory technology wanes as a career choice, a staffing crisis grows. Mod. Healthc. 38:23. [PubMed]
11. Huitt, W. 2007. Maslow's hierarchy of needs. Educational Psychology Interactive, Valdosta State University, Valdosta, GA. www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/conation/maslow.html (last accessed October 8, 2012).
12. Kaplan, R.L.,, and T. E. Burgess. 2010. The impending crisis. J. Microbiol. Biol. Educ. 11:140143. [PubMed][CrossRef]
13. Koltko-Rivera, M. E. 2006. Rediscovering the later version of Maslow's hierarchy of needs: self-transcendence and opportunities for theory, research, and unification. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 10:302317.
14. Laudicina, R. J. 2001. Mentoring for retention and advancement in the multigenerational clinical laboratory. Clin. Lab. Sci. 14:4852. [PubMed]
15. Maslow, A. H. 1943. A theory of human motivation. Psychol. Rev. 50:370396.
16. Maslow, A. H. 1954. Motivation and Personality. Harper, New York, NY.
17. Smola, K. W.,, and C. D. Sutton. 2002. Generational differences: revisiting generational work values for the new millennium. J. Organ. Behav. 23:363382.
18. Verlander, E. G.,, and M. R. Evans. 2007. Strategies for improving employee retention. Clin. Leadersh. Manag. Rev. 21:E4. [PubMed]

Tables

Generic image for table
Table 9.1

2011 Vacancy rates by specialty for clinical laboratories

Citation: Steele J. 2014. Employee Needs, p 232-242. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 9.2

Behaviors, strengths, and struggles of the workplace generations

Adapted with permission from Birkman International, 2009; Tolbize, 2008; and Inglis, 2012 (see Appendix 9.1 ).

Citation: Steele J. 2014. Employee Needs, p 232-242. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch9
Generic image for table
Table 9.3

Generational work, communication, and technology styles

Adapted with permission from Birkman International, 2009; Tolbize, 2008; and lnglis, 2012 (see Appendix 9.1 ).

Citation: Steele J. 2014. Employee Needs, p 232-242. In Garcia L (ed), Clinical Laboratory Management, Second Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817282.ch9

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