1887

Chapter 1 : Clinical Disease: Current Treatment and New Challenges

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $15.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Clinical Disease: Current Treatment and New Challenges, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817336/9781555816773_Chap01-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817336/9781555816773_Chap01-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews and discusses (i) the human disease manifestations for major pathogenic groups, with some attention to detail on how these differ between genera and species within a single genus; (ii) the evolution of treatment for rickettsial infections; (iii) the existing challenges for treatment and management in human infections; and (iv) corroborated or suspected treatment failures or persistent clinical complaints. The underlying theme for disease manifestations in the is systemic infection of endothelial cells, leading to increased vascular permeability. Once diagnosed, rickettsioses, ehrlichiosis, and anaplasmosis are primarily managed with specific antimicrobial agent therapy. The major advantage of doxycycline is its twice-daily oral dosing, as opposed to three or four doses daily for tetracycline. In general, tetracycline antibiotics are considered rickettsiastatic, not rickettsiacidal. This concept has led to several specific recommendations regarding treatment in rickettsial disease. First, treatment should be provided for long enough that immune recognition and clearance of active infection can proceed to eliminate viable although nonreplicating rickettsia surviving within intracellular niches. Second, since proper immune induction is in part dependent on rickettsial antigen mass, early therapy can sometimes simply suppress growth in the absence of waxing immunity, leading to relapse after apparent appropriate treatment doses and intervals. The identification of innate resistance owing to naturally occurring genetic mutations that confer resistance to currently useful antibiotics underscores the degree of genetic diversity observed in genome projects.

Citation: Dumler J. 2012. Clinical Disease: Current Treatment and New Challenges, p 1-39. In Palmer G, Azad A (ed), Intracellular Pathogens II: . ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817336.ch1

Key Concept Ranking

Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I
0.4219603
0.4219603
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817336.chap1
1. Abbott, K. C.,, S. J. Vukelja,, C. E. Smith,, C. K. McAllister,, K. A. Konkol,, T. J. O’Rourke,, C. J. Holland,, and M. Ristic. 1991. Hemophagocytic syndrome: a cause of pancytopenia in human ehrlichiosis. Am. J. Hematol. 38:230234.PubMed
2. Abramson, J. S.,, and L. B. Givner. 1990. Should tetracycline be contraindicated for therapy of presumed Rocky Mountain spotted fever in children less than 9 years of age? Pediatrics 86:123124.PubMed
3. Ackley, A. M.,, and W. J. Peter. 1981. Indigenous acquisition of epidemic typhus in the eastern United States. South. Med. J. 74:245247.PubMed
4. Aguero-Rosenfeld, M. E.,, L. Donnarumma,, L. Zentmaier,, J. Jacob,, M. Frey,, R. Noto,, C. A. Carbonaro,, and G. P. Wormser. 2002. Seroprevalence of antibodies that react with Anaplasma phagocytophila, the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, in different populations in Westchester County, New York. J. Clin. Microbiol. 40:26122615.PubMed CrossRef
5. Aguero-Rosenfeld, M. E.,, H. W. Horowitz,, G. P. Wormser,, D. F. McKenna,, J. Nowakowski,, J. Muñoz,, and J. S. Dumler. 1996. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: a case series from a medical center in New York State. Ann. Intern. Med. 125:904908.PubMed
6. Apperson, C. S.,, B. Engber,, W. L. Nicholson,, D. G. Mead,, J. Engel,, M. J. Yabsley,, K. Dail,, J. Johnson,, and D. W. Watson. 2008. Tick-borne diseases in North Carolina: is “Rickettsia amblyommii” a possible cause of rickettsiosis reported as Rocky Mountain spotted fever? Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 8:597606.PubMed CrossRef
7. Archibald, L. K.,, and D. J. Sexton. 1995. Long-term sequelae of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Clin. Infect. Dis. 20:11221125.
8. Azad, A. F. 1990. Epidemiology of murine typhus. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 35:553569.PubMed CrossRef
9. Azad, A. F.,, S. Radulovic,, J. A. Higgins,, B. H. Noden,, and J. M. Troyer. 1997. Flea-borne rickettsioses: ecologic considerations. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 3:319327.PubMed CrossRef
10. Bacellar, F.,, L. Beati,, A. Franca,, J. Pocas,, R. Regnery,, and A. Filipe. 1999. Israeli spotted fever rickettsia (Rickettsia conorii complex) associated with human disease in Portugal. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 5:835836.PubMed CrossRef
11. Bakken, J. S.,, and J. S. Dumler,. 2002. Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species (ehrlichioses), p. 875882. In V. L. Yu,, R. Weber,, and D. Raoult (ed.), Antimicrobial Therapy and Vaccines. Apple Trees Production, LLC, New York, NY.
12. Bakken, J. S.,, J. S. Dumler,, S. M. Chen,, M. R. Eckman,, L. L. Van Etta,, and D. H. Walker. 1994. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in the upper Midwest United States. A new species emerging? JAMA 272:212218.PubMed
13. Bakken, J. S.,, and S. Dumler. 2008. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infect. Dis. Clin. North. Am. 22:433448, viii.
14. Bakken, J. S.,, P. Goellner,, M. Van Etten,, D. Z. Boyle,, O. L. Swonger,, S. Mattson,, J. Krueth,, R. L. Tilden,, K. Asanovich,, J. Walls,, and J. S. Dumler. 1998. Seroprevalence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis among permanent residents of northwestern Wisconsin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:14911496.PubMed CrossRef
15. Bakken, J. S.,, J. Krueth,, R. L. Tilden,, J. S. Dumler,, and B. E. Kristiansen. 1996a. Serological evidence of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Norway. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 15:829832.PubMed
16. Bakken, J. S.,, J. Krueth,, C. Wilson-Nordskog,, R. L. Tilden,, K. Asanovich,, and J. S. Dumler. 1996b. Clinical and laboratory characteristics of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. JAMA 275:199205.PubMed
17. Barker, L. F. 1968. Determination of antibiotic susceptibility of Rickettsiae and Chlamydiae in BS-C-1 cell cultures. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 8:425428.PubMed
18. Basrai, D.,, C. Pox,, and W. Schmiegel. 2007. Fever of intermediate duration after return from the Canary Islands. Internist (Berl.) 48:413419. (In German.)PubMed CrossRef
19. Bechah, Y.,, C. Capo,, J. L. Mege,, and D. Raoult. 2008. Epidemic typhus. Lancet Infect. Dis. 8:417426.PubMed CrossRef
20. Bella, F.,, E. Espejo,, S. Uriz,, J. A. Serrano,, M. D. Alegre,, and J. Tort. 1991. Randomized trial of 5-day rifampin versus 1-day doxycycline therapy for Mediterranean spotted fever. J. Infect. Dis. 164:433434.PubMed CrossRef
21. Bella, F.,, B. Font,, S. Uriz,, T. Muñoz,, E. Espejo,, J. Traveria,, J. A. Serrano,, and F. Segura. 1990. Randomized trial of doxycycline versus josamycin for Mediterranean spotted fever. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:937938.PubMed CrossRef
22. Bella-Cueto, F.,, B. Font-Creus,, F. Segura-Porta,, E. Espejo-Arenas,, P. López-Parés,, and T. Muñoz-Espin. 1987. Comparative, randomized trial of one-day doxycycline versus 10-day tetracycline therapy for Mediterranean spotted fever. J. Infect. Dis. 155:10561058.PubMed CrossRef
23. Belongia, E. A. 2002. Epidemiology and impact of coinfections acquired from Ixodes ticks. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2:265273.PubMed CrossRef
24. Bernabeu-Wittel, M.,, J. Pachon,, A. Alarcon,, L. F. Lopez-Cortes,, P. Viciana,, M. E. Jimenez-Mejias,, J. L. Villanueva,, R. Torronteras,, and F. J. Caballero-Granado. 1999. Murine typhus as a common cause of fever of intermediate duration: a 17-year study in the south of Spain. Arch. Intern. Med. 159:872876.PubMed CrossRef
25. Bernabeu-Wittel, M.,, J. L. Villanueva-Marcos,, A. de Alarcon-Gonzalez,, and J. Pachon. 1998. Septic shock and multiorganic failure in murine typhus. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 17:131132.PubMed CrossRef
26. Billings, A. N.,, J. A. Rawlings,, and D. H. Walker. 1998. Tick-borne diseases in Texas: a 10-year retrospective examination of cases. Tex. Med. 94:6676.PubMed
27. Biswas, S.,, D. Raoult,, and J. M. Rolain. 2008. A bioinformatic approach to understanding antibiotic resistance in intracellular bacteria through whole genome analysis. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 32:207220.PubMed CrossRef
28. Biswas, S.,, D. Raoult,, and J. M. Rolain. 2009. Molecular mechanism of gentamicin resistance in Bartonella henselae. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 15(Suppl. 2):9899.PubMed CrossRef
29. Bitsori, M.,, E. Galanakis,, A. Gikas,, E. Scoulica,, and S. Sbyrakis. 2002. Rickettsia typhi infection in childhood. Acta Paediatr. 91:5961.PubMed CrossRef
30. Boostrom, A.,, M. S. Beier,, J. A. Macaluso,, K. R. Macaluso,, D. Sprenger,, J. Hayes,, S. Radulovic,, and A. F. Azad. 2002. Geographic association of Rickettsia felis-infected opossums with human murine typhus, Texas. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 8:549554.PubMed CrossRef
31. Botelho-Nevers, E.,, C. Rovery,, H. Richet,, and D. Raoult. 2011. Analysis of risk factors for malignant Mediterranean spotted fever indicates that fluoroquinolone treatment has a deleterious effect. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 66:18211830.PubMed CrossRef
32. Branger, S.,, J. M. Rolain,, and D. Raoult. 2004. Evaluation of antibiotic susceptibilities of Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum by real-time PCR. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 48:48224828.PubMed CrossRef
33. Brouqui, P.,, P. Parola,, P. E. Fournier,, and D. Raoult. 2007. Spotted fever rickettsioses in southern and eastern Europe. FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol. 49:212.PubMed CrossRef
34. Brouqui, P.,, and D. Raoult. 1990. In vitro susceptibility of Ehrlichia sennetsu to antibiotics. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:15931596.PubMed CrossRef
35. Brouqui, P.,, and D. Raoult. 1992. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of the newly recognized agent of ehrlichiosis in humans, Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:27992803.PubMed CrossRef
36. Brouqui, P.,, Y. O. Sanogo,, G. Caruso,, F. Merola,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Candidatus Ehrlichia walkerii: a new Ehrlichia detected in Ixodes ricinus tick collected from asymptomatic humans in Northern Italy. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990:134140.PubMed CrossRef
37. Brown, G. W.,, J. P. Saunders,, S. Singh,, D. L. Huxsoll,, and A. Shirai. 1978. Single dose doxycycline therapy for scrub typhus. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 72:412416.PubMed CrossRef
38. Browning, M. D.,, J. W. Garyu,, J. S. Dumler,, and D. G. Scorpio. 2006. Role of reactive nitrogen species in development of hepatic injury in a C57BL/6 mouse model of human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Comp. Med. 56:5562.PubMed
39. Buitrago, M. I.,, J. W. IJdo,, P. Rinaudo,, H. Simon,, J. Copel,, J. Gadbaw,, R. Heimer,, E. Fikrig,, and F. J. Bia. 1998. Human granulocytic ehrlichiosis during pregnancy treated successfully with rifampin. Clin. Infect. Dis. 27:213215.PubMed CrossRef
40. Buller, R. S.,, M. Arens,, S. P. Hmiel,, C. D. Paddock,, J. W. Sumner,, Y. Rikhisa,, A. Unver,, M. Gaudreault-Keener,, F. A. Manian,, A. M. Liddell,, N. Schmulewitz,, and G. A. Storch. 1999. Ehrlichia ewingii, a newly recognized agent of human ehrlichiosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 341:148155.PubMed CrossRef
41. Bunnell, J. E.,, E. R. Trigiani,, S. R. Srinivas,, and J. S. Dumler. 1999. Development and distribution of pathologic lesions are related to immune status and tissue deposition of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent-infected cells in a murine model system. J. Infect. Dis. 180:546550.PubMed CrossRef
42. Cao, W. C.,, L. Zhan,, J. He,, J. E. Foley,, S. J. de Vlas,, X. M. Wu,, H. Yang,, J. H. Richardus,, and J. D. Habbema. 2006. Natural Anaplasma phagocytophilum infection of ticks and rodents from a forest area of Jilin Province, China. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:664668.PubMed
43. Carlyon, J. A.,, and E. Fikrig. 2006. Mechanisms of evasion of neutrophil killing by Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Curr. Opin. Hematol. 13:2833.PubMed
44. Carpenter, C. F.,, T. K. Gandhi,, L. K. Kong,, G. R. Corey,, S. M. Chen,, D. H. Walker,, J. S. Dumler,, E. Breitschwerdt,, B. Hegarty,, and D. J. Sexton. 1999. The incidence of ehrlichial and rickettsial infection in patients with unexplained fever and recent history of tick bite in central North Carolina. J. Infect. Dis. 180:900903.PubMed CrossRef
45. Cascio, A.,, and C. Colomba. 2002. Macrolides in the treatment of children with Mediterranean spotted fever. Infez. Med. 10:145150. (In Italian.)PubMed
46. Cascio, A.,, C. Colomba,, S. Antinori,, D. L. Paterson,, and L. Titone. 2002. Clarithromycin versus azithromycin in the treatment of Mediterranean spotted fever in children: a randomized controlled trial. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:154158.PubMed CrossRef
47. Cascio, A.,, C. Colomba,, D. Di Rosa,, L. Salsa,, L. di Martino,, and L. Titone. 2001. Efficacy and safety of clarithromycin as treatment for Mediterranean spotted fever in children: a randomized controlled trial. Clin. Infect. Dis. 33:409411.PubMed CrossRef
48. Centers for Disease Control. 1984. Epidemic typhus—Georgia. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 33:618619.PubMed
49. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Murine typhus—Hawaii, 2002. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 52:12241226. PubMed
50. Chapman, A. S.,, J. S. Bakken,, S. M. Folk,, C. D. Paddock,, K. C. Bloch,, A. Krusell,, D. J. Sexton,, S. C. Buckingham,, G. S. Marshall,, G. A. Storch,, G. A. Dasch,, J. H. McQuiston,, D. L. Swerdlow,, S. J. Dumler,, W. L. Nicholson,, D. H. Walker,, M. E. Eremeeva,, and C. A. Ohl. 2006. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis—United States: a practical guide for physicians and other health-care and public health professionals. MMWR Recomm. Rep. 55:127.PubMed
51. Chen, S. M.,, J. S. Dumler,, J. S. Bakken,, and D. H. Walker. 1994. Identification of a granulocytotropic Ehrlichia species as the etiologic agent of human disease. J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:589595.PubMed
52. Childs, J. E.,, and C. D. Paddock. 2003. The ascendancy of Amblyomma americanum as a vector of pathogens affecting humans in the United States. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 48:307337.PubMed CrossRef
53. Choi, K. S.,, J. Garyu,, J. Park,, and J. S. Dumler. 2003. Diminished adhesion of Anaplasma phagocytophilum-infected neutrophils to endothelial cells is associated with reduced expression of leukocyte surface selectin. Infect. Immun. 71:45864594.PubMed
54. Choi, K. S.,, J. T. Park,, and J. S. Dumler. 2005. Anaplasma phagocytophilum delay of neutrophil apoptosis through the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal pathway. Infect. Immun. 73:82098218.PubMed CrossRef
55. Choi, K. S.,, D. G. Scorpio,, and J. S. Dumler. 2004. Anaplasma phagocytophilum ligation to Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, but not to TLR4, activates macrophages for nuclear factor-κB nuclear translocation. J. Infect. Dis. 189:19211925.PubMed CrossRef
56. Christova, I.,, L. Schouls,, I. van De Pol,, J. Park,, S. Panayotov,, V. Lefterova,, T. Kantardjiev,, and J. S. Dumler. 2001. High prevalence of granulocytic ehrlichiae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Ixodes ricinus ticks from Bulgaria. J. Clin. Microbiol. 39:41724174.PubMed CrossRef
57. Cohen, J.,, Y. Lasri,, and Z. Landau. 1999. Mediterranean spotted fever in pregnancy. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 31:202203.PubMed
58. Colomba, C.,, L. Saporito,, V. F. Polara,, R. Rubino,, and L. Titone. 2006. Mediterranean spotted fever: clinical and laboratory characteristics of 415 Sicilian children. BMC Infect. Dis. 6:60.PubMed CrossRef
59. Dahlgren, F. S.,, E. J. Mandel,, J. W. Krebs,, R. F. Massung,, and J. H. McQuiston. 2011. Increasing incidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in the United States, 2000-2007. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 85:124131.PubMed CrossRef
60. Dalton, M. J.,, M. J. Clarke,, R. C. Holman,, J. W. Krebs,, D. B. Fishbein,, J. G. Olson,, and J. E. Childs. 1995. National surveillance for Rocky Mountain spotted fever, 1981-1992: epidemiologic summary and evaluation of risk factors for fatal outcome. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 52:405413.PubMed
61. de la Fuente, J.,, A. Torina,, V. Naranjo,, S. Nicosia,, A. Alongi,, F. La Mantia,, and K. M. Kocan. 2006. Molecular characterization of Anaplasma platys strains from dogs in Sicily, Italy. BMC Vet. Res. 2:24.PubMed CrossRef
62. De Martino, S. J.,, J. A. Carlyon,, and E. Fikrig. 2001. Coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi and the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 345:150151.PubMed CrossRef
63. Demma, L. J.,, R. C. Holman,, J. H. McQuiston,, J. W. Krebs,, and D. L. Swerdlow. 2005. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United States, 2001-2002. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 73:400409.PubMed
64. de Sousa, R.,, N. Ismail,, S. Doria-Nobrega,, P. Costa,, T. Abreu,, A. Franca,, M. Amaro,, P. Proenca,, P. Brito,, J. Pocas,, T. Ramos,, G. Cristina,, G. Pombo,, L. Vitorino,, J. Torgal,, F. Bacellar,, and D. Walker. 2005. The presence of eschars, but not greater severity, in Portuguese patients infected with Israeli spotted fever. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1063:197202.PubMed CrossRef
65. Dierberg, K. L.,, and J. S. Dumler. 2006. Lymph node hemophagocytosis in rickettsial diseases: a pathogenetic role for CD8 T lymphocytes in human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME)? BMC Infect. Dis. 6:121.PubMed CrossRef
66. Duffy, P. E.,, H. Le Guillouzic,, R. F. Gass,, and B. L. Innis. 1990. Murine typhus identified as a major cause of febrile illness in a camp for displaced Khmers in Thailand. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 43:520526.PubMed
67. Dumler, J. S. 2005. Anaplasma and Ehrlichia infection. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1063:361373.PubMed CrossRef
68. Dumler, J. S. 2010. Fitness and freezing: vector biology and human health. J. Clin. Invest. 120:30873090.PubMed CrossRef
69. Dumler, J. S.,, N. C. Barat,, C. E. Barat,, and J. S. Bakken. 2007a. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and macrophage activation. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45:199204.PubMed CrossRef
70. Dumler, J. S.,, A. F. Barbet,, C. P. Bekker,, G. A. Dasch,, G. H. Palmer,, S. C. Ray,, Y. Rikihisa,, and F. R. Rurangirwa. 2001. Reorganization of genera in the families Rickettsiaceae and Anaplasmataceae in the order Rickettsiales: unification of some species of Ehrlichia with Anaplasma, Cowdria with Ehrlichia and Ehrlichia with Neorickettsia, descriptions of six new species combinations and designation of Ehrlichia equi and ‘HGE agent’ as subjective synonyms of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 51:21452165.PubMed CrossRef
71. Dumler, J. S.,, K. S. Choi,, J. C. Garcia-Garcia,, N. S. Barat,, D. G. Scorpio,, J. W. Garyu,, D. J. Grab,, and J. S. Bakken. 2005. Human granulocytic anaplasmosis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 11:18281834.PubMed CrossRef
72. Dumler, J. S.,, J. E. Madigan,, N. Pusterla,, and J. S. Bakken. 2007b. Ehrlichioses in humans: epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. Clin. Infect. Dis. 45(Suppl. 1):S45S51.PubMed CrossRef
73. Dumler, J. S.,, W. L. Sutker,, and D. H. Walker. 1993. Persistent infection with Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Clin. Infect. Dis. 17:903905.PubMed CrossRef
74. Dumler, J. S.,, J. P. Taylor,, and D. H. Walker. 1991. Clinical and laboratory features of murine typhus in south Texas, 1980 through 1987. JAMA 266:13651370.PubMed
75. Dumler, J. S.,, and D. H. Walker,. 2005a. Order II. Rickettsiales, p. 96145. In G. M. Garrity,, D. J. Brenner,, N. R. Krieg,, and J. T. Staley (ed.), Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, 2nd ed., vol. 2. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
76. Dumler, J. S.,, and D. H. Walker. 2005b. Rocky Mountain spotted fever—changing ecology and persisting virulence. N. Engl. J. Med. 353:551553.PubMed CrossRef
77. Dunning Hotopp, J. C.,, M. Lin,, R. Madupu,, J. Crabtree,, S. V. Angiuoli,, J. Eisen,, R. Seshadri,, Q. Ren,, M. Wu,, T. R. Utterback,, S. Smith,, M. Lewis,, H. Khouri,, C. Zhang,, H. Niu,, Q. Lin,, N. Ohashi,, N. Zhi,, W. Nelson,, L. M. Brinkac,, R. J. Dodson,, M. J. Rosovitz,, J. Sundaram,, S. C. Daugherty,, T. Davidsen,, A. S. Durkin,, M. Gwinn,, D. H. Haft,, J. D. Selengut,, S. A. Sullivan,, N. Zafar,, L. Zhou,, F. Benahmed,, H. Forberger,, R. Halpin,, S. Mulligan,, J. Robinson,, O. White,, Y. Rikihisa,, and H. Tettelin. 2006. Comparative genomics of emerging human ehrlichiosis agents. PLoS Genet. 2:e21.PubMed CrossRef
78. Dzelalija, B.,, M. Petrovec,, T. Avsic-Zupanc,, J. Strugar,, and T. A. Milic. 2002. Randomized trial of azithromycin in the prophylaxis of Mediterranean spotted fever. Acta Med. Croatica 56:4547.PubMed
79. Eremeeva, M. E.,, A. Oliveira,, J. B. Robinson,, N. Ribakova,, N. K. Tokarevich,, and G. A. Dasch. 2006. Prevalence of bacterial agents in Ixodes persulcatus ticks from the Vologda Province of Russia. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078:291298.PubMed CrossRef
80. Esperanza, L.,, D. A. Holt,, J. T. T. Sinnott,, M. R. Cancio,, E. A. Bradley,, and M. Deutsch. 1992. Murine typhus: forgotten but not gone. South. Med. J. 85:754755.PubMed CrossRef
81. Fang, R.,, N. Ismail,, L. Soong,, V. L. Popov,, T. Whitworth,, D. H. Bouyer,, and D. H. Walker. 2007. Differential interaction of dendritic cells with Rickettsia conorii: impact on host susceptibility to murine spotted fever rickettsiosis. Infect. Immun. 75:31123123.PubMed CrossRef
82. Fehr, J. S.,, G. V. Bloemberg,, C. Ritter,, M. Hombach,, T. F. Luscher,, R. Weber,, and P. M. Keller. 2010. Septicemia caused by tick-borne bacterial pathogen Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 16:11271129.PubMed CrossRef
83. Fergie, J. E.,, K. Purcell,, and D. Wanat. 2000. Murine typhus in South Texas children. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 19:535538.PubMed CrossRef
84. Fishbein, D. B.,, J. E. Dawson,, and L. E. Robinson. 1994. Human ehrlichiosis in the United States, 1985 to 1990. Ann. Intern. Med. 120:736743.PubMed
85. Fishbein, D. B.,, L. A. Sawyer,, C. J. Holland,, E. B. Hayes,, W. Okoroanyanwu,, D. Williams,, K. Sikes,, M. Ristic,, and J. E. McDade. 1987. Unexplained febrile illnesses after exposure to ticks. Infection with an Ehrlichia? JAMA 257:31003104.PubMed CrossRef
86. Font-Creus, B.,, F. Bella-Cueto,, E. Espejo-Arenas,, R. Vidal-Sanahuja,, T. Muñoz-Espin,, M. Nolla-Salas,, A. Casagran-Borrell,, J. Mercade-Cuesta,, and F. Segura-Porta. 1985. Mediterranean spotted fever: a cooperative study of 227 cases. Rev. Infect. Dis. 7:635642.PubMed
87. Fournier, P. E.,, M. Drancourt,, and D. Raoult. 2007. Bacterial genome sequencing and its use in infectious diseases. Lancet Infect. Dis. 7:711723.PubMed CrossRef
88. Fournier, P. E.,, J. S. Dumler,, G. Greub,, J. Zhang,, Y. Wu,, and D. Raoult. 2003a. Gene sequence-based criteria for identification of new Rickettsia isolates and description of Rickettsia heilongjiangensis sp. nov. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:54565465.PubMed
89. Fournier, P. E.,, J. P. Durand,, J. M. Rolain,, J. L. Camicas,, H. Tolou,, and D. Raoult. 2003b. Detection of Astrakhan fever rickettsia from ticks in Kosovo. Ann. N .Y. Acad. Sci. 990:158161.PubMed CrossRef
90. Fournier, P. E.,, K. El Karkouri,, Q. Leroy,, C. Robert,, B. Giumelli,, P. Renesto,, C. Socolovschi,, P. Parola,, S. Audic,, and D. Raoult. 2009. Analysis of the Rickettsia africae genome reveals that virulence acquisition in Rickettsia species may be explained by genome reduction. BMC Genomics 10:166.PubMed CrossRef
91. Fournier, P. E.,, F. Gouriet,, P. Brouqui,, F. Lucht,, and D. Raoult. 2005. Lymphangitis-associated rickettsiosis, a new rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia sibirica mongolotimonae: seven new cases and review of the literature. Clin. Infect. Dis. 40:14351444.PubMed CrossRef
92. Fournier, P. E.,, and D. Raoult. 2009. Current knowledge on phylogeny and taxonomy of Rickettsia spp. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1166:111.PubMed CrossRef
93. Fournier, P. E.,, S. Siritantikorn,, J. M. Rolain,, Y. Suputtamongkol,, S. Hoontrakul,, S. Charoenwat,, K. Losuwanaluk,, P. Parola,, and D. Raoult. 2008. Detection of new genotypes of Orientia tsutsugamushi infecting humans in Thailand. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. 14:168173.PubMed CrossRef
94. Fournier, P. E.,, B. Xeridat,, and D. Raoult. 2003c. Isolation of a rickettsia related to Astrakhan fever rickettsia from a patient in Chad. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 990:152157.PubMed CrossRef
95. Fournier, P. E.,, Y. Zhu,, X. Yu,, and D. Raoult. 2006. Proposal to create subspecies of Rickettsia sibirica and an emended description of Rickettsia sibirica. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1078:597606.PubMed CrossRef
96. Garcia-Garcia, J. C.,, N. C. Barat,, S. J. Trembley,, and J. S. Dumler. 2009a. Epigenetic silencing of host cell defense genes enhances intracellular survival of the rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. PLoS Pathog. 5:e1000488.PubMed CrossRef
97. Garcia-Garcia, J. C.,, K. E. Rennoll-Bankert,, S. Pelly,, A. M. Milstone,, and J. S. Dumler. 2009b. Silencing of host cell CYBB gene expression by the nuclear effector AnkA of the intracellular pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Infect. Immun. 77:23852391.PubMed CrossRef
98. Gaywee, J.,, J. B. Sacci, Jr.,, S. Radulovic,, M. S. Beier,, and A. F. Azad. 2003. Subcellular localization of rickettsial invasion protein, InvA. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 68:9296.PubMed
99. Ge, Y.,, and Y. Rikihisa. 2006. Anaplasma phagocytophilum delays spontaneous human neutrophil apoptosis by modulation of multiple apoptotic pathways. Cell. Microbiol. 8:14061416.PubMed CrossRef
100. Georgiades, K.,, V. Merhej,, K. El Karkouri,, D. Raoult,, and P. Pontarotti. 2011. Gene gain and loss events in Rickettsia and Orientia species. Biol. Direct 6:6.PubMed CrossRef
101. Gikas, A.,, S. Doukakis,, J. Pediaditis,, S. Kastanakis,, A. Manios,, and Y. Tselentis. 2004. Comparison of the effectiveness of five different antibiotic regimens on infection with Rickettsia typhi: therapeutic data from 87 cases. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 70:576579.PubMed
102. Gikas, A.,, S. Doukakis,, J. Pediaditis,, S. Kastanakis,, A. Psaroulaki,, and Y. Tselentis. 2002. Murine typhus in Greece: epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic data from 83 cases. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 96:250253.PubMed CrossRef
103. Gillespie, J. J.,, M. S. Beier,, M. S. Rahman,, N. C. Ammerman,, J. M. Shallom,, A. Purkayastha,, B. S. Sobral,, and A. F. Azad. 2007. Plasmids and rickettsial evolution: insight from Rickettsia felis. PLoS One 2:e266.PubMed CrossRef
104. Gillespie, J. J.,, K. Williams,, M. Shukla,, E. E. Snyder,, E. K. Nordberg,, S. M. Ceraul,, C. Dharmanolla,, D. Rainey,, J. Soneja,, J. M. Shallom,, N. D. Vishnubhat,, R. Wattam,, A. Purkayastha,, M. Czar,, O. Crasta,, J. C. Setubal,, A. F. Azad,, and B. S. Sobral. 2008. Rickettsia phylogenomics: unwinding the intricacies of obligate intracellular life. PLoS One 3:e2018.PubMed CrossRef
105. Giroud, P.,, P. Le Gac,, M. Rouby,, J. Lagarde,, and J. A. Gaillard. 1951. Contribution to the study of rickettsial diseases in Oubangui-Chari following brush fire; 4 new cases in Bangui; clinical cases, serological behavior, isolation of strains; spectacular results of antibiotics. Bull. Soc. Pathol. Exot. Filiales 44:871879. (In French.)PubMed
106. Gómez, J.,, M. Molina Boix,, V. Baños,, and M. Sempere. 1992. Murine typhus. Efficacy of treatment with ciprofloxacin. Enferm. Infecc. Microbiol. Clin. 10:377. (In Spanish.)PubMed
107. Goodman, J. L.,, C. Nelson,, B. Vitale,, J. E. Madigan,, J. S. Dumler,, T. J. Kurtti,, and U. G. Munderloh. 1996. Direct cultivation of the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 334:209215.PubMed CrossRef
108. Grab, D. J.,, E. Nyarko,, N. C. Barat,, O. V. Nikolskaia,, and J. S. Dumler. 2007. Anaplasma phagocytophilum-Borrelia burgdorferi coinfection enhances chemokine, cytokine, and matrix metalloprotease expression by human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Clin. Vaccine Immunol. 14:14201424.PubMed CrossRef
109. Granquist, E. G.,, M. Aleksandersen,, K. Bergström,, S. J. Dumler,, W. O. Torsteinbø,, and S. Stuen. 2010. A morphological and molecular study of Anaplasma phagocytophilum transmission events at the time of Ixodes ricinus tick bite. Acta Vet. Scand. 52:43.PubMed CrossRef
110. Graves, S. R.,, J. Banks,, B. Dwyer,, and G. K. King. 1992. A case of murine typhus in Queensland. Med. J. Aust. 156:650651.PubMed
111. Gray, E.,, P. Atatoa-Carr,, A. Bell,, S. Roberts,, D. Al Mudallal,, and G. D. Mills. 2007. Murine typhus: a newly recognised problem in the Waikato region of New Zealand. N. Z. Med. J. 120:U2661.PubMed
112. Gross, E. M.,, and P. Yagupsky. 1987. Israeli rickettsial spotted fever in children. A review of 54 cases. Acta Trop. 44:9196.PubMed
113. Gudiol, F.,, R. Pallares,, J. Carratala,, F. Bolao,, J. Ariza,, G. Rufi,, and P. F. Viladrich. 1989. Randomized double-blind evaluation of ciprofloxacin and doxycycline for Mediterranean spotted fever. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:987988.PubMed CrossRef
114. Hamburg, B. J.,, G. A. Storch,, S. T. Micek,, and M. H. Kollef. 2008. The importance of early treatment with doxycycline in human ehrlichiosis. Medicine (Baltimore) 87:5360.PubMed CrossRef
115. Hassan, I. S.,, and E. L. Ong. 1995. Fever in the returned traveller. Remember murine typhus! J. Infect. Dis. 31:173174.PubMed
116. Helmick, C. G.,, K. W. Bernard,, and L. J. D’Angelo. 1984. Rocky Mountain spotted fever: clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological features of 262 cases. J. Infect. Dis. 150:480488.PubMed CrossRef
117. Hernandez Cabrera, M.,, A. Angel-Moreno,, E. Santana,, M. Bolanos,, A. Frances,, M. S. Martin-Sanchez,, and J. L. Perez-Arellano. 2004. Murine typhus with renal involvement in Canary Islands, Spain. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 10:740743.PubMed CrossRef
118. Holden, K.,, E. Hodzic,, S. Feng,, K. J. Freet,, R. B. Lefebvre,, and S. W. Barthold. 2005. Coinfection with Anaplasma phagocytophilum alters Borrelia burgdorferi population distribution in C3H/HeN mice. Infect. Immun. 73:34403444.PubMed CrossRef
119. Horowitz, H. W.,, T. C. Hsieh,, M. E. Aguero-Rosenfeld,, F. Kalantarpour,, I. Chowdhury,, G. P. Wormser,, and J. M. Wu. 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Ehrlichia phagocytophila. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:786788.PubMed CrossRef
120. Horowitz, H. W.,, E. Kilchevsky,, S. Haber,, M. Aguero-Rosenfeld,, R. Kranwinkel,, E. K. James,, S. J. Wong,, F. Chu,, D. Liveris,, and I. Schwartz. 1998. Perinatal transmission of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. N. Engl. J. Med. 339:375378.PubMed CrossRef
121. Hove, M. G.,, and D. H. Walker. 1995. Persistence of rickettsiae in the partially viable gangrenous margins of amputated extremities 5 to 7 weeks after onset of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 119:429431.PubMed
122. Hudson, H. L.,, A. B. Thach,, and P. F. Lopez. 1997. Retinal manifestations of acute murine typhus. Int. Ophthalmol. 21:121126.PubMed CrossRef
123. Hulinska, D.,, J. Votypka,, J. Plch,, E. Vlcek,, M. Valesova,, M. Bojar,, V. Hulinsky,, and K. Smetana. 2002. Molecular and microscopical evidence of Ehrlichia spp. and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in patients, animals and ticks in the Czech Republic. New Microbiol. 25:437448.PubMed
124. Huys, J.,, P. Freyens,, J. Kayihigi,, and G. Van den Berghe. 1973a. Treatment of epidemic typhus. A comparative study of chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole and doxycycline. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 67:718721.PubMed CrossRef
125. Huys, J.,, J. Kayhigi,, P. Freyens,, and G. Van den Berghe. 1973b. Single-dose treatment of epidemic typhus with doxycyline. Chemotherapy 18:314317.PubMed CrossRef
126. IJdo, J. W.,, A. C. Carlson,, and E. L. Kennedy. 2007. Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA is tyrosine-phosphorylated at EPIYA motifs and recruits SHP-1 during early infection. Cell. Microbiol. 9:12841296.PubMed CrossRef
127. IJdo, J. W.,, and A. C. Mueller. 2004. Neutrophil NADPH oxidase is reduced at the Anaplasma phagocytophilum phagosome. Infect. Immun. 72:53925401.PubMed CrossRef
128. IJdo, J. W.,, C. Wu,, L. A. Magnarelli,, and E. Fikrig. 1999. Serodiagnosis of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis by a recombinant HGE-44-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J. Clin. Microbiol. 37:35403544.PubMed
129. Ismail, N.,, E. C. Crossley,, H. L. Stevenson,, and D. H. Walker. 2007. Relative importance of T-cell subsets in monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: a novel effector mechanism involved in Ehrlichia-induced immunopathology in murine ehrlichiosis. Infect. Immun. 75:46084620.PubMed CrossRef
130. Ismail, N.,, H. L. Stevenson,, and D. H. Walker. 2006. Role of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-10 in the pathogenesis of severe murine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis: increased resistance of TNF receptor p55- and p75-deficient mice to fatal ehrlichial infection. Infect. Immun. 74:18461856.PubMed CrossRef
131. Ismail, N.,, and D. H. Walker. 2005. Balancing protective immunity and immunopathology: a unifying model of monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 1063:383394.PubMed CrossRef
132. Jensenius, M.,, P. E. Fournier,, P. Kelly,, B. Myrvang,, and D. Raoult. 2003. African tick bite fever. Lancet Infect. Dis. 3:557564.PubMed CrossRef
133. Jensenius, M.,, A. Maeland,, and S. Vene. 1997. Endemic typhus imported to Norway. Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. 117:24472449. (In Norwegian.)PubMed
134. Jones, S. L.,, E. Athan,, D. O’Brien,, S. R. Graves,, C. Nguyen,, and J. Stenos. 2004. Murine typhus: the first reported case from Victoria. Med. J. Aust. 180:482.PubMed
135. Kao, G. F.,, C. D. Evancho,, O. Ioffe,, M. H. Lowitt,, and J. S. Dumler. 1997. Cutaneous histopathology of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. J. Cutan. Pathol. 24:604610.PubMed CrossRef
136. Kaplowitz, L. G.,, J. V. Lange,, J. J. Fischer,, and D. H. Walker. 1983. Correlation of rickettsial titers, circulating endotoxin, and clinical features in Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Arch. Intern. Med. 143:11491151.PubMed CrossRef
137. Kawahara, M.,, Y. Rikihisa,, E. Isogai,, M. Takahashi,, H. Misumi,, C. Suto,, S. Shibata,, C. Zhang,, and M. Tsuji. 2004. Ultrastructure and phylogenetic analysis of ‘Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis’ in the family Anaplasmataceae, isolated from wild rats and found in Ixodes ovatus ticks. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 54:18371843.PubMed CrossRef
138. Kelly, D. J.,, P. A. Fuerst,, W. M. Ching,, and A. L. Richards. 2009. Scrub typhus: the geographic distribution of phenotypic and genotypic variants of Orientia tsutsugamushi. Clin. Infect. Dis. 48(Suppl. 3):S203S230.PubMed CrossRef
139. Kenyon, R. H.,, R. G. Williams,, C. N. Oster,, and C. E. Pedersen, Jr. 1978. Prophylactic treatment of Rocky Mountain spotted fever. J. Clin. Microbiol. 8:102104.PubMed
140. Kim, C. M.,, M. S. Kim,, M. S. Park,, J. H. Park,, and J. S. Chae. 2003. Identification of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and A. bovis in Haemaphysalis longicornis and Ixodes persulcatus ticks from Korea. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 3:1726.PubMed CrossRef
141. Kim, C. M.,, Y. H. Yi,, D. H. Yu,, M. J. Lee,, M. R. Cho,, A. R. Desai,, S. Shringi,, T. A. Klein,, H. C. Kim,, J. W. Song,, L. J. Baek,, S. T. Chong,, M. L. O’Guinn,, J. S. Lee,, I. Y. Lee,, J. H. Park,, J. Foley,, and J. S. Chae. 2006. Tick-borne rickettsial pathogens in ticks and small mammals in Korea. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72:57665776.PubMed CrossRef
142. Kim, D. M.,, K. D. Yu,, J. H. Lee,, H. K. Kim,, and S. H. Lee. 2007. Controlled trial of a 5-day course of telithromycin versus doxycycline for treatment of mild to moderate scrub typhus. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51:20112015.PubMed CrossRef
143. Kim, Y. S.,, H. J. Yun,, S. K. Shim,, S. H. Koo,, S. Y. Kim,, and S. Kim. 2004. A comparative trial of a single dose of azithromycin versus doxycycline for the treatment of mild scrub typhus. Clin. Infect. Dis. 39:13291335.PubMed CrossRef
144. Kirkland, K. B.,, P. K. Marcom,, D. J. Sexton,, J. S. Dumler,, and D. H. Walker. 1993. Rocky Mountain spotted fever complicated by gangrene: report of six cases and review. Clin. Infect. Dis. 16:629634.PubMed CrossRef
145. Klein, M. B.,, S. Hu,, C. C. Chao,, and J. L. Goodman. 2000. The agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis induces the production of myelosuppressing chemokines without induction of proinflammatory cytokines. J. Infect. Dis. 182:200205.PubMed CrossRef
146. Klein, M. B.,, C. M. Nelson,, and J. L. Goodman. 1997. Antibiotic susceptibility of the newly cultivated agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis: promising activity of quinolones and rifamycins. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 41:7679.PubMed
147. Kocan, K. M.,, J. de la Fuente,, E. F. Blouin,, J. F. Coetzee,, and S. A. Ewing. 2010. The natural history of Anaplasma marginale. Vet. Parasitol. 167:95107. PubMed CrossRef
148. Koliou, M.,, C. Christoforou,, and E. S. Soteriades. 2007a. Murine typhus in pregnancy: a case report from Cyprus. Scand. J. Infect. Dis. 39:625628.PubMed CrossRef
149. Koliou, M.,, A. Psaroulaki,, C. Georgiou,, I. Ioannou,, Y. Tselentis,, and A. Gikas. 2007b. Murine typhus in Cyprus: 21 paediatric cases. Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis. 26:491493.PubMed CrossRef
150. Koutaro, M.,, A. S. Santos,, J. S. Dumler,, and P. Brouqui. 2005. Distribution of ‘Ehrlichia walkeri’ in Ixodes ricinus (Acari: Ixodidae) from the northern part of Italy. J. Med. Entomol. 42:8285.PubMed CrossRef
151. Krause, D. W.,, P. L. Perine,, J. E. McDade,, and S. Awoke. 1975. Treatment of louse-borne typhus fever with chloramphenicol, tetracycline or doxycycline. East. Afr. Med. J. 52:421427.PubMed
152. Krause, P. J.,, C. L. Corrow,, and J. S. Bakken. 2003. Successful treatment of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in children using rifampin. Pediatrics 112:e252e253.PubMed
153. Krause, P. J.,, K. McKay,, C. A. Thompson,, V. K. Sikand,, R. Lentz,, T. Lepore,, L. Closter,, D. Christianson,, S. R. Telford,, D. Persing,, J. D. Radolf,, and A. Spielman. 2002. Disease-specific diagnosis of coinfecting tickborne zoonoses: babesiosis, human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, and Lyme disease. Clin. Infect. Dis. 34:11841191.PubMed CrossRef
154. Laferl, H.,, P. E. Fournier,, G. Seiberl,, H. Pichler,, and D. Raoult. 2002. Murine typhus poorly responsive to ciprofloxacin: a case report. J. Travel Med. 9:103104.PubMed CrossRef
155. Lane, R. S.,, J. E. Foley,, L. Eisen,, E. T. Lennette,, and M. A. Peot. 2001. Acarologic risk of exposure to emerging tick-borne bacterial pathogens in a semirural community in northern California. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 1:197210.PubMed CrossRef
156. Lee, H. C.,, and J. L. Goodman. 2006. Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes global induction of antiapoptosis in human neutrophils. Genomics 88:496503.PubMed CrossRef
157. Leiby, D. A.,, and J. E. Gill. 2004. Transfusion-transmitted tick-borne infections: a cornucopia of threats. Transfus. Med. Rev. 18:293306.PubMed CrossRef
158. Letaief, A. O.,, N. Kaabia,, M. Chakroun,, M. Khalifa,, N. Bouzouaia,, and L. Jemni. 2005. Clinical and laboratory features of murine typhus in central Tunisia: a report of seven cases. Int. J. Infect. Dis. 9:331334.PubMed CrossRef
159. Levin, M. L.,, and D. Fish. 2000. Acquisition of coinfection and simultaneous transmission of Borrelia burgdorferi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila by Ixodes scapularis ticks. Infect. Immun. 68:21832186.PubMed CrossRef
160. Lewin, M. R.,, D. H. Bouyer,, D. H. Walker,, and D. M. Musher. 2003. Rickettsia sibirica infection in members of scientific expeditions to northern Asia. Lancet 362:12011202.PubMed CrossRef
161. Li, W.,, G. Ortiz,, P. E. Fournier,, G. Gimenez,, D. L. Reed,, B. Pittendrigh,, and D. Raoult. 2010. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 4:e641.PubMed CrossRef
162. Li, W.,, D. Raoult,, and P. E. Fournier. 2009. Bacterial strain typing in the genomic era. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 33:892916.PubMed CrossRef
163. Liddell, A. M.,, S. L. Stockham,, M. A. Scott,, J. W. Sumner,, C. D. Paddock,, M. Gaudreault-Keener,, M. Q. Arens,, and G. A. Storch. 2003. Predominance of Ehrlichia ewingii in Missouri dogs. J. Clin. Microbiol. 41:46174622.PubMed CrossRef
164. Lin, M.,, A. den Dulk-Ras,, P. J. Hooykaas,, and Y. Rikihisa. 2007. Anaplasma phagocytophilum AnkA secreted by type IV secretion system is tyrosine phosphorylated by Abl-1 to facilitate infection. Cell. Microbiol. 9:26442657.PubMed CrossRef
165. Little, S. E. 2010. Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in dogs and cats. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 40:11211140.PubMed CrossRef
166. Long, S. W.,, X. Zhang,, J. Zhang,, R. P. Ruble,, P. Teel,, and X. J. Yu. 2003. Evaluation of transovarial transmission and transmissibility of Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae) in Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidae). J. Med. Entomol. 40:10001004.PubMed
167. Maeda, K.,, N. Markowitz,, R. C. Hawley,, M. Ristic,, D. Cox,, and J. E. McDade. 1987. Human infection with Ehrlichia canis, a leukocytic rickettsia. N. Engl. J. Med. 316:853856.PubMed CrossRef
168. Marshall, G. S.,, G. G. Stout,, R. F. Jacobs,, G. E. Schutze,, H. Paxton,, S. C. Buckingham,, J. P. DeVincenzo,, M. A. Jackson,, V. H. San Joaquin,, S. M. Standaert,, and C. R. Woods. 2003. Antibodies reactive to Rickettsia rickettsii among children living in the southeast and south central regions of the United States. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med. 157:443448.PubMed CrossRef
169. Martinez, J. J.,, S. Seveau,, E. Veiga,, S. Matsuyama,, and P. Cossart. 2005. Ku70, a component of DNA-dependent protein kinase, is a mammalian receptor for Rickettsia conorii. Cell 123:10131023.PubMed CrossRef
170. Marty, A. M.,, J. S. Dumler,, G. Imes,, H. P. Brusman,, L. L. Smrkovski,, and D. M. Frisman. 1995. Ehrlichiosis mimicking thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura. Case report and pathological correlation. Hum. Pathol. 26:920925.PubMed CrossRef
171. Massung, R. F.,, L. E. Davis,, K. Slater,, D. B. McKechnie,, and M. Puerzer. 2001. Epidemic typhus meningitis in the southwestern United States. Clin. Infect. Dis. 32:979982.PubMed CrossRef
172. Mathai, E.,, J. M. Rolain,, L. Verghese,, M. Mathai,, P. Jasper,, G. Verghese,, and D. Raoult. 2003. Case reports: scrub typhus during pregnancy in India. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97:570572.PubMed CrossRef
173. Maurin, M.,, C. Abergel,, and D. Raoult. 2001. DNA gyrase-mediated natural resistance to fluoroquinolones in Ehrlichia spp. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:20982105.PubMed CrossRef
174. Maurin, M.,, J. S. Bakken,, and J. S. Dumler. 2003. Antibiotic susceptibilities of Anaplasma (Ehrlichia) phagocytophilum strains from various geographic areas in the United States. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:413415.PubMed CrossRef
175. McDade, J. E. 1969. Determination of antibiotic susceptibility of Rickettsia by the plaque assay technique. Appl. Microbiol. 18:133135.PubMed
176. McKechnie, D. B.,, K. S. Slater,, J. E. Childs,, R. F. Massung,, and C. D. Paddock. 2000. Survival of Ehrlichia chaffeensis in refrigerated, ADSOL-treated RBCs. Transfusion 40:10411047.PubMed CrossRef
177. McLeod, M. P.,, X. Qin,, S. E. Karpathy,, J. Gioia,, S. K. Highlander,, G. E. Fox,, T. Z. McNeill,, H. Jiang,, D. Muzny,, L. S. Jacob,, A. C. Hawes,, E. Sodergren,, R. Gill,, J. Hume,, M. Morgan,, G. Fan,, A. G. Amin,, R. A. Gibbs,, C. Hong,, X. J. Yu,, D. H. Walker,, and G. M. Weinstock. 2004. Complete genome sequence of Rickettsia typhi and comparison with sequences of other rickettsiae. J. Bacteriol. 186:58425855.PubMed CrossRef
178. Meloni, G.,, and T. Meloni. 1996. Azithromycin vs. doxycycline for Mediterranean spotted fever. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 15:10421044.PubMed CrossRef
179. Miah, M. T.,, S. Rahman,, C. N. Sarker,, G. K. Khan,, and T. K. Barman. 2007. Study on 40 cases of rickettsia. Mymensingh Med. J. 16:8588.PubMed CrossRef
180. Mitchell, P. D.,, K. D. Reed,, and J. M. Hofkes. 1996. Immunoserologic evidence of coinfection with Borrelia burgdorferi, Babesia microti, and human granulocytic Ehrlichia species in residents of Wisconsin and Minnesota. J. Clin. Microbiol. 34:724727.PubMed
181. Miyamura, S.,, T. Ohta,, and A. Tamura. 1989. Comparison of in vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia prowazekii, R. rickettsii, R. sibirica and R. tsutsugamushi to antimicrobial agents. Nihon Saikingaku Zasshi 44:717721. (In Japanese.)PubMed CrossRef
182. Moron, C. G.,, V. L. Popov,, H. M. Feng,, D. Wear,, and D. H. Walker. 2001. Identification of the target cells of Orientia tsutsugamushi in human cases of scrub typhus. Mod. Pathol. 14:752759.PubMed CrossRef
183. Moss, W. J.,, and J. S. Dumler. 2003. Simultaneous infection with Borrelia burgdorferi and human granulocytic ehrlichiosis. Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J. 22:9192.PubMed CrossRef
184. Munderloh, U. G.,, M. J. Lynch,, M. J. Herron,, A. T. Palmer,, T. J. Kurtti,, R. D. Nelson,, and J. L. Goodman. 2004. Infection of endothelial cells with Anaplasma marginale and A. phagocytophilum. Vet. Microbiol. 101:5364.PubMed CrossRef
185. Muñoz-Espin, T.,, P. López-Parés,, E. Espejo-Arenas,, B. Font-Creus,, I. Martinez-Vila,, J. Travería-Casanova,, F. Segura-Porta,, and F. Bella-Cueto. 1986. Erythromycin versus tetracycline for treatment of Mediterranean spotted fever. Arch. Dis. Child. 61:10271029.PubMed
186. Murphy, J. R.,, C. L. Wisseman, Jr.,, and P. Fiset. 1978. Mechanisms of immunity in typhus infection: some characteristics of Rickettsia mooseri infection of guinea pigs. Infect. Immun. 21:417424.PubMed