1887

Chapter 101 : Epstein-Barr Virus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Epstein-Barr Virus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch101-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch101-2.gif

Abstract:

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with a wide variety of disease states in immunocompetent and immunosuppressed patients, ranging from infectious mononucleosis (IM) to malignant disorders. Tests for EBV infection diagnosis are used primarily for patients with suspected IM, for which antibody assays are the method of choice. A variety of immunoassays, blots, and flow cytometry tests have been used for EBV serology assays; assays targeting vial capsid antigen (VCA) IgG, VCA IgM, and EBV nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA 1) IgG are favored. Additional assays such as avidity testing or viral load measurement are only rarely necessary to establish the diagnosis of IM. The detection of heterophile antibodies is sometimes useful when a young adult with typical IM symptoms is being tested, but this test often lacks sensitivity and specificity, particularly when testing young children and older adults and when symptoms are atypical. In these settings, EBV-specific assays are preferred. Many EBV antibody-specific point-of-care tests that combine high sensitivity and specificity with rapid detection are currently available. Antibody assays detecting early antigen (EA) are rarely useful because of their heterogeneity with respect to the specific target detected and poor specificity. Assays that measure EBV in peripheral blood using quantitative nucleic acid amplification tests (QNAT) are increasing being used for immunosuppressed hematopoietic stem cell (HSCT) and solid-organ transplant (SOT) recipients and for patients with EBV-associated malignant disorders to prevent and diagnose disease and to monitor response to therapy. In most of these settings, the interpretation of assay results in relationship to patient outcomes is uncertain, and the usefulness of these assays has not been clearly proven. The best evidence exists for EBV DNA monitoring to trigger preemptive therapy for the prevention of early posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) in high-risk HSCT and SOT patients, as well as for the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Quantitative EBV DNA assays lack standardization, and recently an international reference standard for EBV DNA has been developed that may improve interassay result harmonization. QNAT values that could be used as trigger points for intervention remain undefined and may also vary by specimen type, clinical setting, and patient group. Dynamic changes in viral load, rather than absolute QNAT values alone, may be important in patient management.

Citation: GÄrtners B, Preiksaitis J. 2015. Epstein-Barr Virus, p 1738-1753. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch101
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Development of antibodies to EBV antigens following primary infection. While there is marked interpatient and interlaboratory variation in titers, the typical relative development of titers by antibody class and antigen specificity is given. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch101.f1

Citation: GÄrtners B, Preiksaitis J. 2015. Epstein-Barr Virus, p 1738-1753. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch101
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Diagnostic algorithm and interpretation scheme based on EBNA 1 used with microparticle multiplex assays or rapid tests with random access in Europe. Diagnostic procedures and interpretation may start with EBNA 1 IgG. If this parameter is positive, a past infection is proven; if EBNA 1 IgG is negative, a negative VCA IgG results in the diagnosis of seronegative and a positive VCA IgM in the diagnosis of a primary infection. If VCA IgG is positive and the other parameters are negative, supplementary tests should be applied, e.g., avidity testing or blotting using p18 antigen. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch101.f2

Citation: GÄrtners B, Preiksaitis J. 2015. Epstein-Barr Virus, p 1738-1753. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch101
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817381.mcm11.ch101
1. Longnecker R,, Kieff E,, Cohen JI,. 2013. Epstein-Barr virus, p 18981959. In Knipe DM,, Howley PM,, Cohen JI,, Griffin DE,, Lamb RA,, Martin MA,, Racaniello VR,, Roizman B (ed), Fields Virology, 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
2. Thorley-Lawson DA,, Gross A. 2004. Persistence of the Epstein-Barr virus and the origins of associated lymphomas. N Engl J Med 350:13281337.
3. Hadinoto V,, Shapiro M,, Sun CC,, Thorley-Lawson DA. 2009. The dynamics of EBV shedding implicate a central role for epithelial cells in amplifying viral output. PLoS Pathog 5:e1000496.
4. Guerreiro-Cacais AO,, Li L,, Donati D,, Bejarano MT,, Morgan A,, Masucci MG,, Hutt-Fletcher L,, Levitsky V. 2004. Capacity of Epstein-Barr virus to infect monocytes and inhibit their development into dendritic cells is affected by the cell type supporting virus replication. J Gen Virol 85:27672778.
5. Savard M,, Belanger C,, Tardif M,, Gourde P,, Flamand L,, Gosselin J. 2000. Infection of primary human monocytes by Epstein-Barr virus. J Virol 74:26122619.
6. Kimura H,, Ito Y,, Kawabe S,, Gotoh K,, Takahashi Y,, Kojima S,, Naoe T,, Esaki S,, Kikuta A,, Sawada A,, Kawa K,, Ohshima K,, Nakamura S. 2012. EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases in nonimmunocompromised hosts: prospective analysis of 108 cases. Blood 119:673686.
7. Gulley ML,, Tang W. 2008. Laboratory assays for Epstein-Barr virus-related disease. J Mol Diagn 10:279292.
8. Middeldorp JM,, Brink AA,, van den Brule AJ,, Meijer CJ. 2003. Pathogenic roles for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) gene products in EBV-associated proliferative disorders. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 45:136.
9. Wagner HJ,, Bein G,, Bitsch A,, Kirchner H. 1992. Detection and quantification of latently infected B lymphocytes in Epstein-Barr virus-seropositive, healthy individuals by polymerase chain reaction. J Clin Microbiol 30:28262829.
10. Balfour HH,Jr,, Odumade OA,, Schmeling DO,, Mullan BD,, Ed JA,, Knight JA,, Vezina HE,, Thomas W,, Hogquist KA. 2013. Behavioral, virologic, and immunologic factors associated with acquisition and severity of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection in university students. J Infect Dis 207:8088.
11. Crawford DH,, Swerdlow AJ,, Higgins C,, McAulay K,, Harrison N,, Williams H,, Britton K,, Macsween KF. 2002. Sexual history and Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Infect Dis 186:731736.
12. Enbom M,, Strand A,, Falk KI,, Linde A. 2001. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus, but not human herpesvirus 8, DNA in cervical secretions from Swedish women by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Sex Transm Dis 28:300306.
13. Fafi-Kremer S,, Morand P,, Germi R,, Ballout M,, Brion JP,, Genoulaz O,, Nicod S,, Stahl JP,, Ruigrok RW,, Seigneurin JM. 2005. A prospective follow-up of Epstein-Barr virus LMP1 genotypes in saliva and blood during infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis 192:21082111.
14. Gratama JW,, Oosterveer MA,, Weimar W,, Sintnicolaas K,, Sizoo W,, Bolhuis RL,, Ernberg I. 1994. Detection of multiple “Ebnotypes” in individual Epstein-Barr virus carriers following lymphocyte transformation by virus derived from peripheral blood and oropharynx. J Gen Virol 75: 8594.
15. Piriou E,, Asito AS,, Sumba PO,, Fiore N,, Middeldorp JM,, Moormann AM,, Ploutz-Snyder R,, Rochford R. 2012. Early age at time of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection results in poorly controlled viral infection in infants from Western Kenya: clues to the etiology of endemic Burkitt lymphoma. J Infect Dis 205:906913.
16. Ryan JL,, Fan H,, Swinnen LJ,, Schichman SA,, Raab-Traub N,, Covington M,, Elmore S,, Gulley ML. 2004. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in plasma is not encapsidated in patients with EBV-related malignancies. Diagn Mol Pathol 13:6168.
17. Fafi-Kremer S,, Morand P,, Brion JP,, Pavese P,, Baccard M,, Germi R,, Genoulaz O,, Nicod S,, Jolivet M,, Ruigrok RW,, Stahl JP,, Seigneurin JM. 2005. Long-term shedding of infectious Epstein-Barr virus after infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis 191:985989.
18. Summers WC,, Klein G. 1976. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus DNA synthesis and late gene expression by phosphonoacetic acid. J Virol 18:151155.
19. Colby BM,, Shaw JE,, Elion GB,, Pagano JS. 1980. Effect of acyclovir [9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine] on Epstein-Barr virus DNA replication. J Virol 34:560568.
20. Lin JC,, Smith MC,, Pagano JS. 1984. Prolonged inhibitory effect of 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine against replication of Epstein-Barr virus. J Virol 50:5055.
21. Andersson J,, Britton S,, Ernberg I,, Andersson U,, Henle W,, Skoldenberg B,, Tisell A. 1986. Effect of acyclovir on infectious mononucleosis: a double-blind, placebocontrolled study. J Infect Dis 153:283290.
22. Torre D,, Tambini R. 1999. Acyclovir for treatment of infectious mononucleosis: a meta-analysis. Scand J Infect Dis 31:543547.
23. Tynell E,, Aurelius E,, Brandell A,, Julander I,, Wood M,, Yao QY,, Rickinson A,, Akerlund B,, Andersson J. 1996. Acyclovir and prednisolone treatment of acute infectious mononucleosis: a multicenter, double-blind, placebocontrolled study. J Infect Dis 174:324331.
24. Balfour HH,Jr,, Hokanson KM,, Schacherer RM,, Fietzer CM,, Schmeling DO,, Holman CJ,, Vezina HE,, Brundage RC. 2007. A virologic pilot study of valacyclovir in infectious mononucleosis. J Clin Virol 39:1621.
25. Crawford DH,, Macsween KF,, Higgins CD,, Thomas R,, McAulay K,, Williams H,, Harrison N,, Reid S,, Conacher M,, Douglas J,, Swerdlow AJ. 2006. A cohort study among university students: identification of risk factors for Epstein-Barr virus seroconversion and infectious mononucleosis. Clin Infect Dis 43:276282.
26. McAulay KA,, Higgins CD,, Macsween KF,, Lake A,, Jarrett RF,, Robertson FL,, Williams H,, Crawford DH. 2007. HLA class I polymorphisms are associated with development of infectious mononucleosis upon primary EBV infection. J Clin Invest 117:30423048.
27. Johannsen EC,, LKaye KM,. 2010. Epstein-Barr virus, p 19892010. In Mandell GL,, Bennett JE,, Dolin R (ed), Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed. Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier, Philadelphia, PA.
28. Hoagland RJ. 1964. The incubation period of infectious mononucleosis. Am J Public Health Nations Health 54:16991705.
29. Petersen I,, Thomas JM,, Hamilton WT,, White PD. 2006. Risk and predictors of fatigue after infectious mononucleosis in a large primary-care cohort. QJM 99:4955.
30. Kimura H,, Ito Y,, Suzuki R,, Nishiyama Y. 2008. Measuring Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load: the significance and application for each EBV-associated disease. Rev Med Virol 18:305319.
31. Maakaroun NR,, Moanna A,, Jacob JT,, Albrecht H. 2010. Viral infections associated with haemophagocytic syndrome. Rev Med Virol 20:93105.
32. Imashuku S. 2002. Clinical features and treatment strategies of Epstein-Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 44:259272.
33. Hurt C,, Tammaro D. 2007. Diagnostic evaluation of mononucleosis-like illnesses. Am J Med 120:911.e1–911.e8.
34. Kimura H. 2006. Pathogenesis of chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection: is this an infectious disease, lymphoproliferative disorder, or immunodeficiency? Rev Med Virol 16:251261.
35. Cohen JI,, Kimura H,, Nakamura S,, Ko YH,, Jaffe ES. 2009. Epstein-Barr virus-associated lymphoproliferative disease in non-immunocompromised hosts: a status report and summary of an international meeting, 8–9 September 2008. Ann Oncol 20:14721482.
36. Kimura H,, Morishima T,, Kanegane H,, Ohga S,, Hoshino Y,, Maeda A,, Imai S,, Okano M,, Morio T,, Yokota S,, Tsuchiya S,, Yachie A,, Imashuku S,, Kawa K,, Wakiguchi H. 2003. Prognostic factors for chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Infect Dis 187:527533.
37. Kimura H,, Ito Y,, Kawabe S,, Gotoh K,, Takahashi Y,, Kojima S,, Naoe T,, Esaki S,, Kikuta A,, Sawada A,, Kawa K,, Ohshima K,, Nakamura S. 2012. EBV-associated T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases in nonimmunocompromised hosts: prospective analysis of 108 cases. Blood 119:673686.
38. Roskrow MA,, Suzuki N,, Gan Y,, Sixbey JW,, Ng CY,, Kimbrough S,, Hudson M,, Brenner MK,, Heslop HE,, Rooney CM. 1998. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for the treatment of patients with EBV-positive relapsed Hodgkin’s disease. Blood 91:29252934.
39. Louis CU,, Straathof K,, Bollard CM,, Ennamuri S,, Gerken C,, Lopez TT,, Huls MH,, Sheehan A,, Wu MF,, Liu H,, Gee A,, Brenner MK,, Rooney CM,, Heslop HE,, Gottschalk S. 2010. Adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T cells results in sustained clinical responses in patients with locoregional nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Immunother 33:983990.
40. Gaspar HB,, Sharifi R,, Gilmour KC,, Thrasher AJ. 2002. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease: clinical, diagnostic and molecular perspective. Br J Haematol 119:585595.
41. Lu KT,, Schwartzberg PL. 2010. To B or not to B. Blood 116:31203121.
42. Rezaei N,, Mahmoudi E,, Aghamohammadi A,, Das R,, Nichols KE. 2011. X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome: a genetic condition typified by the triad of infection, immunodeficiency and lymphoma. Br J Haematol 152:1330.
43. Booth C,, Gilmour KC,, Veys P,, Gennery AR,, Slatter MA,, Chapel H,, Heath PT,, Steward CG,, Smith O,, O’Meara A,, Kerrigan H,, Mahlaoui N,, Cavazzana-Calvo M,, Fischer A,, Moshous D,, Blanche S,, Pachlopnik Schmid J,, Latour S,, de Saint-Basile G,, Albert M,, Notheis G,, Rieber N,, Strahm B,, Ritterbusch H,, Lankester A,, Hartwig NG,, Meyts I,, Plebani A,, Soresina A,, Finocchi A,, Pignata C,, Cirillo E,, Bonanomi S,, Peters C,, Kalwak K,, Pasic S,, Sedlacek P,, Jazbec J,, Kanegane H,, Nichols KE,, Hanson IC,, Kapoor N,, Haddad E,, Cowan M,, Choo S,, Smart J,, Arkwright PD,, Gaspar HB. 2011. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP/SH2D1A deficiency: a multicenter study on the manifestations, management and outcome of the disease. Blood 117:5362.
44. Swerdlow SH. 2013. Lymphoma classification and the tools of our trade: an introduction to the 2012 USCAP Long Course. Mod Pathol 26(Suppl 1):S1S14.
45. Cherikh WS,, Kauffman HM,, McBride MA,, Maghirang J,, Swinnen LJ,, Hanto DW. 2003. Association of the type of induction immunosuppression with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder, graft survival, and patient survival after primary kidney transplantation. Transplantation 76:12891293.
46. Landgren O,, Gilbert ES,, Rizzo JD,, Socie G,, Banks PM,, Sobocinski KA,, Horowitz MM,, Jaffe ES,, Kingma DW,, Travis LB,, Flowers ME,, Martin PJ,, Deeg HJ,, Curtis RE. 2009. Risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Blood 113: 49925001.
47. Walker RC,, Marshall WF,, Strickler JG,, Wiesner RH,, Velosa JA,, Habermann TM,, McGregor CG,, Paya CV. 1995. Pretransplantation assessment of the risk of lymphoproliferative disorder. Clin Infect Dis 20:13461353.
48. Trappe R,, Oertel S,, Leblond V,, Mollee P,, Sender M,, Reinke P,, Neuhaus R,, Lehmkuhl H,, Horst HA,, Salles G,, Morschhauser F,, Jaccard A,, Lamy T,, Leithauser M,, Zimmermann H,, Anagnostopoulos I,, Raphael M,, Riess H,, Choquet S. 2012. Sequential treatment with rituximab followed by CHOP chemotherapy in adult B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): the prospective international multicentre phase 2 PTLD-1 trial. Lancet Oncol 13:196206.
49. Gärtner BC,, Fischinger J,, Schafer H,, Einsele H,, Roemer K,, Müller-Lantzsch N. 2002. Epstein-Barr viral load as a tool to diagnose and monitor post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Recent Results Cancer Res 159:4954.
50. Parker A,, Bowles K,, Bradley JA,, Emery V,, Featherstone C,, Gupte G,, Marcus R,, Parameshwar J,, Ramsay A,, Newstead C. 2010. Management of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in adult solid organ transplant recipients—BCSH and BTS guidelines. Br J Haematol 149: 693705.
51. Parker A,, Bowles K,, Bradley JA,, Emery V,, Featherstone C,, Gupte G,, Marcus R,, Parameshwar J,, Ramsay A,, Newstead C. 2010. Diagnosis of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solid organ transplant recipients—BCSH and BTS guidelines. Br J Haematol 149:675692.
52. Allen UD,, Preiksaitis JK. 2013. Epstein-Barr virus and posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder in solid organ transplantation. Am J Transplant 13(Suppl 4):107120.
53. Deyrup AT,, Lee VK,, Hill CE,, Cheuk W,, Toh HC,, Kesavan S,, Chan EW,, Weiss SW. 2006. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumors are distinctive mesenchymal tumors reflecting multiple infection events: a clinicopathologic and molecular analysis of 29 tumors from 19 patients. Am J Surg Pathol 30:7582.
54. Jenson HB,, Leach CT,, McClain KL,, Joshi VV,, Pollock BH,, Parmley RT,, Chadwick EG,, Murphy SB. 1997. Benign and malignant smooth muscle tumors containing Epstein-Barr virus in children with AIDS. Leuk Lymphoma 27:303314.
55. Kaplan LD. 2012. HIV-associated lymphoma. Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 25:101117.
56. Jonigk D,, Laenger F,, Maegel L,, Izykowski N,, Rische J,, Tiede C,, Klein C,, Maecker-Kolhoff B,, Kreipe H,, Hussein K. 2012. Molecular and clinicopathological analysis of Epstein-Barr virus-associated posttransplant smooth muscle tumors. Am J Transplant 12:19081917.
57. Triantos D,, Porter SR,, Scully C,, Teo CG. 1997. Oral hairy leukoplakia: clinicopathologic features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and clinical significance. Clin Infect Dis 25:13921396.
58. Bingler MA,, Feingold B,, Miller SA,, Quivers E,, Michaels MG,, Green M,, Wadowsky RM,, Rowe DT,, Webber SA. 2008. Chronic high Epstein-Barr viral load state and risk for late-onset posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease/lymphoma in children. Am J Transplant 8:442445.
59. Lau AH,, Soltys K,, Sindhi RK,, Bond G,, Mazariegos GV,, Green M. 2010. Chronic high Epstein-Barr viral load carriage in pediatric small bowel transplant recipients. Pediatr Transplant 14:549553.
60. Green M,, Soltys K,, Rowe DT,, Webber SA,, Mazareigos G. 2009. Chronic high Epstein-Barr viral load carriage in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Pediatr Ttransplant 13:319323.
61. D’Antiga L,, Del Rizzo M,, Mengoli C,, Cillo U,, Guariso G,, Zancan L. 2007. Sustained Epstein-Barr virus detection in paediatric liver transplantation. Insights into the occurrence of late PTLD. Liver Transplant 13:343348.
62. Bekker V,, Scherpbier H,, Beld M,, Piriou E,, van Breda A,, Lange J,, van Leth F,, Jurriaans S,, Alders S,, Wertheim-van Dillen P,, van Baarle D,, Kuijpers T. 2006. Epstein-Barr virus infects B and non-B lymphocytes in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. J Infect Dis 194:13231330.
63. Piriou ER,, van Dort K,, Nanlohy NM,, Miedema F,, van Oers MH,, van Baarle D. 2004. Altered EBV viral load setpoint after HIV seroconversion is in accordance with lack of predictive value of EBV load for the occurrence of AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Immunol 172: 69316937.
64. Zimmermann H,, Trappe RU. 2011. Therapeutic options in post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders. Ther Adv Hematol 2:393407.
65. Styczynski J,, Gil L,, Tridello G,, Ljungman P,, Donnelly JP,, van der Velden W,, Omar H,, Martino R,, Halkes C,, Faraci M,, Theunissen K,, Kalwak K,, Hubacek P,, Sica S,, Nozzoli C,, Fagioli F,, Matthes S,, Diaz MA,, Migliavacca M,, Balduzzi A,, Tomaszewska A,, de la Camara R,, van Biezen A,, Hoek J,, Iacobelli S,, Einsele H,, Cesaro S. 2013. Response to rituximab-based therapy and risk factor analysis in EBV-related lymphoproliferative disorders after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children and adults: a study from the Infectious Diseases Working Group of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 57:794802.
66. Reshef R,, Vardhanabhuti S,, Luskin MR,, Heitjan DF,, Hadjiliadis D,, Goral S,, Krok KL,, Goldberg LR,, Porter DL,, Stadtmauer EA,, Tsai DE. 2011. Reduction of immunosuppression as initial therapy for posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder. Am J Transplant 11:336347.
67. Bollard CM,, Rooney CM,, Heslop HE. 2012. T-cell therapy in the treatment of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. Nat Rev Clin Oncol 9:510519.
68. Elliott SL,, Suhrbier A,, Miles JJ,, Lawrence G,, Pye SJ,, Le TT,, Rosenstengel A,, Nguyen T,, Allworth A,, Burrows SR,, Cox J,, Pye D,, Moss DJ,, Bharadwaj M. 2008. Phase I trial of a CD8+ T-cell peptide epitope-based vaccine for infectious mononucleosis. J Virol 82:14481457.
69. Sokal EM,, Hoppenbrouwers K,, Vandermeulen C,, Moutschen M,, Leonard P,, Moreels A,, Haumont M,, Bollen A,, Smets F,, Denis M. 2007. Recombinant gp350 vaccine for infectious mononucleosis: a phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of an Epstein-Barr virus vaccine in healthy young adults. J Infect Dis 196: 17491753.
70. Rees L,, Tizard EJ,, Morgan AJ,, Cubitt WD,, Finerty S,, Oyewole-Eletu TA,, Owen K,, Royed C,, Stevens SJ,, Shroff RC,, Tanday MK,, Wilson AD,, Middeldorp JM,, Amlot PL,, Steven NM. 2009. A phase I trial of Epstein-Barr virus gp350 vaccine for children with chronic kidney disease awaiting transplantation. Transplantation 88:10251029.
71. Bower M,, Collins S,, Cottrill C,, Cwynarski K,, Montoto S,, Nelson M,, Nwokolo N,, Powles T,, Stebbing J,, Wales N,, Webb A, AIDS Malignancy Subcommittee. 2008. British HIV Association guidelines for HIV-associated malignancies 2008. HIV Med 9:336388.
72. Humar A,, Michaels M, AST ID Working Group on Infectious Disease Monitoring. 2006. American Society of Transplantation recommendations for screening, monitoring and reporting of infectious complications in immunosuppression trials in recipients of organ transplantation. Am J Transplant 6:262274.
73. Styczynski J,, Reusser P,, Einsele H,, de la Camara R,, Cordonnier C,, Ward KN,, Ljungman P,, Engelhard D. 2009. Management of HSV, VZV and EBV infections in patients with hematological malignancies and after SCT: guidelines from the Second European Conference on Infections in Leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 43:757770.
74. Balfour HH,Jr,, Holman CJ,, Hokanson KM,, Lelonek MM,, Giesbrecht JE,, White DR,, Schmeling DO,, Webb CH,, Cavert W,, Wang DH,, Brundage RC. 2005. A prospective clinical study of Epstein-Barr virus and host interactions during acute infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis 192:15051512.
75. Lin JC,, Wang WY,, Chen KY,, Wei YH,, Liang WM,, Jan JS,, Jiang RS. 2004. Quantification of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA in patients with advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma. N Engl J Med 350:24612470.
76. Kwong YL,, Anderson BO,, Advani R,, Kim WS,, Levine AM,, Lim ST,, Asian Oncology Summit. 2009. Management of T-cell and natural-killer-cell neoplasms in Asia: consensus statement from the Asian Oncology Summit 2009. Lancet Oncol 10:10931101.
77. Gandhi MK,, Lambley E,, Burrows J,, Dua U,, Elliott S,, Shaw PJ,, Prince HM,, Wolf M,, Clarke K,, Underhill C,, Mills T,, Mollee P,, Gill D,, Marlton P,, Seymour JF,, Khanna R. 2006. Plasma Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA is a biomarker for EBV-positive Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res 12:460464.
78. Adham M,, Greijer AE,, Verkuijlen SA,, Juwana H,, Fleig S,, Rachmadi L,, Malik O,, Kurniawan AN,, Roezin A,, Gondhowiardjo S,, Atmakusumah D,, Stevens SJ,, Hermani B,, Tan IB,, Middeldorp JM. 2013. Epstein-Barr virus DNA load in nasopharyngeal brushings and whole blood in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients before and after treatment. Clin Cancer Res 19:21752186.
79. Connolly Y,, Littler E,, Sun N,, Chen X,, Huang PC,, Stacey SN,, Arrand JR. 2001. Antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus thymidine kinase: a characteristic marker for the serological detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer 91: 692697.
80. Grasser FA,, Murray PG,, Kremmer E,, Klein K,, Remberger K,, Feiden W,, Reynolds G,, Niedobitek G,, Young LS,, Mueller-Lantzsch N. 1994. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1): immunohistologic detection of EBNA1 in the malignant cells of Hodgkin’s disease. Blood 84:37923798.
81. Niedobitek G,, Herbst H. 2006. In situ detection of Epstein-Barr virus and phenotype determination of EBV-infected cells. Methods Mol Biol 326:115137.
82. Delecluse HJ,, Feederle R,, O’Sullivan B,, Taniere P. 2007. Epstein Barr virus-associated tumours: an update for the attention of the working pathologist. J Clin Pathol 60:13581364.
83. Randhawa PS,, Jaffe R,, Demetris AJ,, Nalesnik M,, Starzl TE,, Chen YY,, Weiss LM. 1992. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA (by the EBER-1 gene) in liver specimens from transplant recipients with post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disease. N Engl J Med 327: 17101714.
84. Junying J,, Herrmann K,, Davies G,, Lissauer D,, Bell A,, Timms J,, Reynolds GM,, Hubscher SG,, Young LS,, Niedobitek G,, Murray PG. 2003. Absence of Epstein-Barr virus DNA in the tumor cells of European hepatocellular carcinoma. Virology 306:236243.
85. Kimura H,, Miyake K,, Yamauchi Y,, Nishiyama K,, Iwata S,, Iwatsuki K,, Gotoh K,, Kojima S,, Ito Y,, Nishiyama Y. 2009. Identification of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected lymphocyte subtypes by flow cytometric in situ hybridization in EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. J Infect Dis 200:10781087.
86. Calattini S,, Sereti I,, Scheinberg P,, Kimura H,, Childs RW,, Cohen JI. 2010. Detection of EBV genomes in plasmablasts/plasma cells and non-B cells in the blood of most patients with EBV lymphoproliferative disorders by using Immuno-FISH. Blood 116:45464559.
87. Espy MJ,, Uhl JR,, Sloan LM,, Buckwalter SP,, Jones MF,, Vetter EA,, Yao JD,, Wengenack NL,, Rosenblatt JE,, Cockerill FR,3rd,, Smith TF. 2006. Real-time PCR in clinical microbiology: applications for routine laboratory testing. Clin Microbiol Rev 19:165256.
88. Gulley ML,, Tang W. 2010. Using Epstein-Barr viral load assays to diagnose, monitor, and prevent posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder. Clin Microbiol Rev 23:350366.
89. Ruf S,, Wagner HJ. 2013. Determining EBV load: current best practice and future requirements. Expert Rev Clin Immunol 9:139151.
90. Ryan JL,, Fan H,, Glaser SL,, Schichman SA,, Raab-Traub N,, Gulley ML. 2004. Epstein-Barr virus quantitation by real-time PCR targeting multiple gene segments: a novel approach to screen for the virus in paraffin-embedded tissue and plasma. J Mol Diagn 6:378385.
91. Tsai DE,, Douglas L,, Andreadis C,, Vogl DT,, Arnoldi S,, Kotloff R,, Svoboda J,, Bloom RD,, Olthoff KM,, Brozena SC,, Schuster SJ,, Stadtmauer EA,, Robertson ES,, Wasik MA,, Ahya VN. 2008. EBV PCR in the diagnosis and monitoring of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder: results of a two-arm prospective trial. Am J Transplant 8:10161024.
92. Ishii H,, Ogino T,, Berger C,, Kochli-Schmitz N,, Nagato T,, Takahara M,, Nadal D,, Harabuchi Y. 2007. Clinical usefulness of serum EBV DNA levels of BamHI W and LMP1 for nasal NK/T-cell lymphoma. J Med Virol 79:562572.
93. Le QT,, Jones CD,, Yau TK,, Shirazi HA,, Wong PH,, Thomas EN,, Patterson BK,, Lee AW,, Zehnder JL. 2005. A comparison study of different PCR assays in measuring circulating plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 11:57005707.
94. Stevens SJ,, Verkuijlen SA,, Hariwiyanto B,, Harijadi,, Fachiroh J,, Paramita DK,, Tan IB,, Haryana SM,, Middeldorp JM. 2005. Diagnostic value of measuring Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load and carcinoma-specific viral mRNA in relation to anti-EBV immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG antibody levels in blood of nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients from Indonesia. J Clin Microbiol 43:30663073.
95. Gärtner B,, Preiksaitis JK. 2010. EBV viral load detection in clinical virology. J Clin Virol 48:8290.
96. Preiksaitis JK,, Pang XL,, Fox JD,, Fenton JM,, Caliendo AM,, Miller GG. 2009. Interlaboratory comparison of Epstein-Barr virus viral load assays. Am J Transplant 9: 269279.
97. Hayden RT,, Yan X,, Wick MT,, Rodriguez AB,, Xiong X,, Ginocchio CC,, Mitchell MJ,, Caliendo AM. 2012. Factors contributing to variability of quantitative viral PCR results in proficiency testing samples: a multivariate analysis. J Clin Microbiol 50:337345.
98. Hakim H,, Gibson C,, Pan J,, Srivastava K,, Gu Z,, Bankowski MJ,, Hayden RT. 2007. Comparison of various blood compartments and reporting units for the detection and quantification of Epstein-Barr virus in peripheral blood. J Clin Microbiol 45:21512155.
99. Ruf S,, Behnke-Hall K,, Gruhn B,, Bauer J,, Horn M,, Beck J,, Reiter A,, Wagner HJ. 2012. Comparison of six different specimen types for Epstein-Barr viral load quantification in peripheral blood of pediatric patients after heart transplantation or after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Clin Virol 53:186194.
100. Henle W,, Henle G,, Andersson J,, Ernberg I,, Klein G,, Horwitz CA,, Marklund G,, Rymo L,, Wellinder C,, Straus SE. 1987. Antibody responses to Epstein-Barr virus-determined nuclear antigen (EBNA)-1 and EBNA-2 in acute and chronic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:570574.
101. Wong AM,, Kong KL,, Tsang JW,, Kwong DL,, Guan XY. 2012. Profiling of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs in nasopharyngeal carcinoma reveals potential biomarkers and oncomirs. Cancer 118:698710.
102. Puchhammer-Stockl E,, Gorzer I. 2006. Cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus subtypes—the search for clinical significance. J Clin Virol 36:239248.
103. Bruu AL,, Hjetland R,, Holter E,, Mortensen L,, Natas O,, Petterson W,, Skar AG,, Skarpaas T,, Tjade T,, Asjo B. 2000. Evaluation of 12 commercial tests for detection of Epstein-Barr virus-specific and heterophile antibodies. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 7:451456.
104. Hess RD. 2004. Routine Epstein-Barr virus diagnostics from the laboratory perspective: still challenging after 35 years. J Clin Microbiol 42:33813387.
105. Odumade OA,, Hogquist KA,, Balfour HH,Jr. 2011. Progress and problems in understanding and managing primary Epstein-Barr virus infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:193209.
106. Gu AD,, Mo HY,, Xie YB,, Peng RJ,, Bei JX,, Peng J,, Li MY,, Chen LZ,, Feng QS,, Jia WH,, Zeng YX. 2008. Evaluation of a multianalyte profiling assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serological examination of Epstein-Barr virus-specific antibody responses in diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:16841688.
107. Wong J,, Sibani S,, Lokko NN,, LaBaer J,, Anderson KS. 2009. Rapid detection of antibodies in sera using multiplexed self-assembling bead arrays. J Immunol Methods 350: 171182.
108. Klutts JS,, Ford BA,, Perez NR,, Gronowski AM. 2009. Evidence-based approach for interpretation of Epstein-Barr virus serological patterns. J Clin Microbiol 47:32043210.
109. Gärtner BC,, Halfmann A,, Heinzel E. 2011. Evaluation of new extremely rapid Epstein-Barr virus VCA-IgG, EBNA-1-IgG and VCA-IgM assays using immunofluorescence as reference, abstr P2160. Abstr 21st ECCMID, Milan, Italy.
110. Gärtner BC,, Hess RD,, Bandt D,, Kruse A,, Rethwilm A,, Roemer K,, Mueller-Lantzsch N. 2003. Evaluation of four commercially available Epstein-Barr virus enzyme immunoassays with an immunofluorescence assay as the reference method. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:7882.
111. Chan KH,, Luo RX,, Chen HL,, Ng MH,, Seto WH,, Peiris JS. 1998. Development and evaluation of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay based on the 18-kilodalton matrix protein for diagnosis of primary EBV infection. J Clin Microbiol 36:33593361.
112. Gärtner BC,, Fischinger JM,, Roemer K,, Mak M,, Fleurent B,, Mueller-Lantzsch N. 2001. Evaluation of a recombinant line blot for diagnosis of Epstein-Barr virus compared with ELISA, using immunofluorescence as reference method. J Virol Methods 93:8996.
113. Tranchand-Bunel D,, Gras-Masse H,, Bourez B,, Dedecker L,, Auriault C. 1999. Evaluation of an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a synthetic convergent peptide library, or mixotope, for diagnosis of primary EBV infection. J Clin Microbiol 37:23662368.
114. Svahn A,, Magnusson M,, Jagdahl L,, Schloss L,, Kahlmeter G,, Linde A. 1997. Evaluation of three commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and two latex agglutination assays for diagnosis of primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. J Clin Microbiol 35:27282732.
115. Gärtner BC,, Kortmann K,, Schafer M,, Mueller-Lantzsch N,, Sester U,, Kaul H,, Pees H. 2000. No correlation in Epstein-Barr virus reactivation between serological parameters and viral load. J Clin Microbiol 38:2458.
116. Sumaya CV,, Ench Y. 1985. Epstein-Barr virus infectious mononucleosis in children. II. Heterophil antibody and viral-specific responses. Pediatrics 75:10111019.
117. Linde A,, Kallin B,, Dillner J,, Andersson J,, Jagdahl L,, Lindvall A,, Wahren B. 1990. Evaluation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with two synthetic peptides of Epstein-Barr virus for diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis. J Infect Dis 161:903909.
118. Bauer G. 2001. Simplicity through complexity: immunoblot with recombinant antigens as the new gold standard in Epstein-Barr virus serology. Clin Lab 47:223230.
119. van Grunsven WM,, Spaan WJ,, Middeldorp JM. 1994. Localization and diagnostic application of immunodominant domains of the BFRF3-encoded Epstein-Barr virus capsid protein. J Infect Dis 170:1319.
120. Lennette ET,, Winberg G,, Yadav M,, Enblad G,, Klein G. 1995. Antibodies to LMP2A/2B in EBV-carrying malignancies. Eur J Cancer 31A:18751878.
121. Xu J,, Ahmad A,, D’Addario M,, Knafo L,, Jones JF,, Prasad U,, Dolcetti R,, Vaccher E,, Menezes J. 2000. Analysis and significance of anti-latent membrane protein-1 antibodies in the sera of patients with EBV-associated diseases. J Immunol 164:28152822.
122. Dardari R,, Khyatti M,, Benider A,, Jouhadi H,, Kahlain A,, Cochet C,, Mansouri A,, El Gueddari B,, Benslimane A,, Joab I. 2000. Antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus transactivator protein (ZEBRA) as a valuable biomarker in young patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Int J Cancer 86:7175.
123. Chan KC,, Zhang J,, Chan AT,, Lei KI,, Leung SF,, Chan LY,, Chow KC,, Lo YM. 2003. Molecular characterization of circulating EBV DNA in the plasma of nasopharyngeal carcinoma and lymphoma patients. Cancer Res 63:20282032.
124. Chen MR,, Liu MY,, Hsu SM,, Fong CC,, Chen CJ,, Chen IH,, Hsu MM,, Yang CS,, Chen JY. 2001. Use of bacterially expressed EBNA-1 protein cloned from a nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) biopsy as a screening test for NPC patients. J Med Virol 64:5157.
125. Fan H,, Nicholls J,, Chua D,, Chan KH,, Sham J,, Lee S,, Gulley ML. 2004. Laboratory markers of tumor burden in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a comparison of viral load and serologic tests for Epstein-Barr virus. Int J Cancer 112:10361041.
126. Ling PD,, Lednicky JA,, Keitel WA,, Poston DG,, White ZS,, Peng R,, Liu Z,, Mehta SK,, Pierson DL,, Rooney CM,, Vilchez RA,, Smith EO,, Butel JS. 2003. The dynamics of herpesvirus and polyomavirus reactivation and shedding in healthy adults: a 14-month longitudinal study. J Infect Dis 187:15711580.
127. Maurmann S,, Fricke L,, Wagner HJ,, Schlenke P,, Hennig H,, Steinhoff J,, Jabs WJ. 2003. Molecular parameters for precise diagnosis of asymptomatic Epstein-Barr virus reactivation in healthy carriers. J Clin Microbiol 41:54195428.
128. Balfour HH,Jr,, Verghese P. 2013. Primary Epstein-Barr virus infection: impact of age at acquisition, coinfection, and viral load. J Infect Dis 207:17871789.
129. Vidrih JA,, Walensky RP,, Sax PE,, Freedberg KA. 2001. Positive Epstein-Barr virus heterophile antibody tests in patients with primary human immunodeficiency virus infection. Am J Med 111:192194.
130. Walensky RP,, Rosenberg ES,, Ferraro MJ,, Losina E,, Walker BD,, Freedberg KA. 2001. Investigation of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients who test positive for heterophile antibody. Clin Infect Dis 33:570572.
131. Linderholm M,, Boman J,, Juto P,, Linde A. 1994. Comparative evaluation of nine kits for rapid diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr virus-specific serology. J Clin Microbiol 32:259261.
132. Yao QY,, Rickinson AB,, Epstein MA. 1985. A re-examination of the Epstein-Barr virus carrier state in healthy seropositive individuals. Int J Cancer 35:3542.
133. Wang WY,, Twu CW,, Chen HH,, Jiang RS,, Wu CT,, Liang KL,, Shih YT,, Chen CC,, Lin PJ,, Liu YC,, Lin JC. 2013. Long-term survival analysis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels. Cancer 119:963970.
134. Lin JC,, Wang WY,, Liang WM,, Chou HY,, Jan JS,, Jiang RS,, Wang JY,, Twu CW,, Liang KL,, Chao J,, Shen WC. 2007. Long-term prognostic effects of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA by minor groove binder-probe real-time quantitative PCR on nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 68:13421348.
135. To EW,, Chan KC,, Leung SF,, Chan LY,, To KF,, Chan AT,, Johnson PJ,, Lo YM. 2003. Rapid clearance of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA after surgical treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 9:32543259.
136. Lee TC,, Savoldo B,, Rooney CM,, Heslop HE,, Gee AP,, Caldwell Y,, Barshes NR,, Scott JD,, Bristow LJ,, O’Mahony CA,, Goss JA. 2005. Quantitative EBV viral loads and immunosuppression alterations can decrease PTLD incidence in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 5:22222228.
137. Doucette K,, Dicken B,, Bigam D,, Preiksaitis J. 2010. Epstein-Barr virus load monitoring in high risk, EBV donor seropositive (D+), recipient seronegative (R−), adult and pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) patients decreases early posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD).Am J Transplant 10(Suppl 4):472.
138. van Esser JW,, Niesters HG,, van der Holt B,, Meijer E,, Osterhaus AD,, Gratama JW,, Verdonck LF,, Lowenberg B,, Cornelissen JJ. 2002. Prevention of Epstein-Barr virus-lymphoproliferative disease by molecular monitoring and preemptive rituximab in high-risk patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Blood 99:43644369.
139. Ahya VN,, Douglas LP,, Andreadis C,, Arnoldi S,, Svoboda J,, Kotloff RM,, Hadjiliadis D,, Sager JS,, Woo YJ,, Pochettino A,, Schuster SJ,, Stadtmauer EA,, Tsai DE. 2007. Association between elevated whole blood Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNA EBV polymerase chain reaction and reduced incidence of acute lung allograft rejection. J Heart Lung Transplant 26:839844.
140. Doesch AO,, Konstandin M,, Celik S,, Kristen A,, Frankenstein L,, Sack FU,, Schnabel P,, Schnitzler P,, Katus HA,, Dengler TJ. 2008. Epstein-Barr virus load in whole blood is associated with immunosuppression, but not with post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease in stable adult heart transplant patients. Transplant Int 21:963971.
141. Bakker NA,, Verschuuren EA,, Erasmus ME,, Hepkema BG,, Veeger NJ,, Kallenberg CG,, van der Bij W. 2007. Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load monitoring late after lung transplantation: a surrogate marker of the degree of immunosuppression and a safe guide to reduce immunosuppression. Transplantation 83:433438.
142. Green M,, Cacciarelli TV,, Mazariegos GV,, Sigurdsson L,, Qu L,, Rowe DT,, Reyes J. 1998. Serial measurement of Epstein-Barr viral load in peripheral blood in pediatric liver transplant recipients during treatment for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Transplantation 66: 16411644.
143. Haque T,, Wilkie GM,, Jones MM,, Higgins CD,, Urquhart G,, Wingate P,, Burns D,, McAulay K,, Turner M,, Bellamy C,, Amlot PL,, Kelly D,, MacGilchrist A,, Gandhi MK,, Swerdlow AJ,, Crawford DH. 2007. Allogeneic cytotoxic T-cell therapy for EBV-positive posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease: results of a phase 2 multicenter clinical trial. Blood 110:11231131.
144. Oertel S,, Trappe RU,, Zeidler K,, Babel N,, Reinke P,, Hummel M,, Jonas S,, Papp-Vary M,, Subklewe M,, Dorken B,, Riess H,, Gartner B. 2006. Epstein-Barr viral load in whole blood of adults with posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder after solid organ transplantation does not correlate with clinical course. Ann Hematol 85:478484.
145. Yang J,, Tao Q,, Flinn IW,, Murray PG,, Post LE,, Ma H,, Piantadosi S,, Caligiuri MA,, Ambinder RF. 2000. Characterization of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells in patients with posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease: disappearance after rituximab therapy does not predict clinical response. Blood 96:40554063.
146. Bonnet F,, Jouvencel AC,, Parrens M,, Leon MJ,, Cotto E,, Garrigue I,, Morlat P,, Beylot J,, Fleury H,, Lafon ME. 2006. A longitudinal and prospective study of Epstein-Barr virus load in AIDS-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma. J Clin Virol 36:258263.
147. Plentz A,, Jilg W,, Kochanowski B,, Ibach B,, Knoll A. 2008. Detection of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and correlation with clinical symptoms. Infection 36: 158162.
148. Studahl M,, Hagberg L,, Rekabdar E,, Bergstrom T. 2000. Herpesvirus DNA detection in cerebral spinal fluid: differences in clinical presentation between alpha-, beta-, and gamma-herpesviruses. Scand J Infect Dis 32:237248.
149. Weinberg A,, Li S,, Palmer M,, Tyler KL. 2002. Quantitative CSF PCR in Epstein-Barr virus infections of the central nervous system. Ann Neurol 52:543548.
150. Corcoran C,, Rebe K,, van der Plas H,, Myer L,, Hardie DR. 2008. The predictive value of cerebrospinal fluid Epstein-Barr viral load as a marker of primary central nervous system lymphoma in HIV-infected persons. J Clin Virol 42:433436.
151. Macedo C,, Donnenberg A,, Popescu I,, Reyes J,, Abu-Elmagd K,, Shapiro R,, Zeevi A,, Fung JJ,, Storkus WJ,, Metes D. 2005. EBV-specific memory CD8+ T cell phenotype and function in stable solid organ transplant patients. Transplant Immunol 14:109116.
152. Smets F,, Latinne D,, Bazin H,, Reding R,, Otte JB,, Buts JP,, Sokal EM. 2002. Ratio between Epstein-Barr viral load and anti-Epstein-Barr virus specific T-cell response as a predictive marker of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease. Transplantation 73:16031610.
153. Clave E,, Agbalika F,, Bajzik V,, Peffault de Latour R,, Trillard M,, Rabian C,, Scieux C,, Devergie A,, Socie G,, Ribaud P,, Ades L,, Ferry C,, Gluckman E,, Charron D,, Esperou H,, Toubert A,, Moins-Teisserenc H. 2004. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation in allogeneic stem-cell transplantation: relationship between viral load, EBV-specific T-cell reconstitution and rituximab therapy. Transplantation 77:7684.
154. Meij P,, van Esser JW,, Niesters HG,, van Baarle D,, Miedema F,, Blake N,, Rickinson AB,, Leiner I,, Pamer E,, Lowenberg B,, Cornelissen JJ,, Gratama JW. 2003. Impaired recovery of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-specific CD8+ T lymphocytes after partially T-depleted allogeneic stem cell transplantation may identify patients at very high risk for progressive EBV reactivation and lymphoproliferative disease. Blood 101:42904297.
155. Sebelin-Wulf K,, Nguyen TD,, Oertel S,, Papp-Vary M,, Trappe RU,, Schulzki A,, Pezzutto A,, Riess H,, Subklewe M. 2007. Quantitative analysis of EBV-specific CD4/CD8 T cell numbers, absolute CD4/CD8 T cell numbers and EBV load in solid organ transplant recipients with PLTD. Transplant Immunol 17:203210.
156. Lawrie CH. 2007. MicroRNAs and haematology: small molecules, big function. Br J Haematol 137:503512.
157. Alencar AJ,, Malumbres R,, Kozloski GA,, Advani R,, Talreja N,, Chinichian S,, Briones J,, Natkunam Y,, Sehn LH,, Gascoyne RD,, Tibshirani R,, Lossos IS. 2011. MicroRNAs are independent predictors of outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients treated with R-CHOP. Clin Cancer Res 17:41254135.
158. Di Lisio L,, Martinez N,, Montes-Moreno S,, Piris-Villaespesa M,, Sanchez-Beato M,, Piris MA. 2012. The role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of B-cell lymphomas. Blood 120:17821790.
159. Martin-Perez D,, Vargiu P,, Montes-Moreno S,, Leon EA,, Rodriguez-Pinilla SM,, Lisio LD,, Martinez N,, Rodriguez R,, Mollejo M,, Castellvi J,, Pisano DG,, Sanchez-Beato M,, Piris MA. 2012. Epstein-Barr virus microRNAs repress BCL6 expression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Leukemia 26:180183.
160. Riley KJ,, Rabinowitz GS,, Yario TA,, Luna JM,, Darnell RB,, Steitz JA. 2012. EBV and human microRNAs co-target oncogenic and apoptotic viral and human genes during latency. EMBO J 31:22072221.
161. Nourse JP,, Crooks P,, Keane C,, Nguyen-Van D,, Mujaj S,, Ross N,, Jones K,, Vari F,, Han E,, Trappe R,, Fink S,, Gandhi MK. 2012. Expression profiling of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded microRNAs from paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed primary Epstein-Barr virus-positive B-cell lymphoma samples. J Virol Methods 184:4654.
162. He ML,, Luo MX,, Lin MC,, Kung HF. 2012. MicroRNAs: potential diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets for EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Biochim Biophys Acta 1825:110.
163. Imig J,, Motsch N,, Zhu JY,, Barth S,, Okoniewski M,, Reineke T,, Tinguely M,, Faggioni A,, Trivedi P,, Meister G,, Renner C,, Grasser FA. 2011. microRNA profiling in Epstein-Barr virus-associated B-cell lymphoma. Nucleic Acids Res 39:18801893.
164. Jun SM,, Hong YS,, Seo JS,, Ko YH,, Yang CW,, Lee SK. 2008. Viral microRNA profile in Epstein-Barr virus-associated peripheral T cell lymphoma. Br J Haematol 142: 320323.
165. Kim do N,, Chae HS,, Oh ST,, Kang JH,, Park CH,, Park WS,, Takada K,, Lee JM,, Lee WK,, Lee SK. 2007. Expression of viral microRNAs in Epstein-Barr virusassociated gastric carcinoma. J Virol 81:10331036.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Materials and methods to be used for prevention, diagnosis, and monitoring of EBV disease and EBV-associated malignancies

Citation: GÄrtners B, Preiksaitis J. 2015. Epstein-Barr Virus, p 1738-1753. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch101
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Overview of commercial products for EBV diagnosis

Citation: GÄrtners B, Preiksaitis J. 2015. Epstein-Barr Virus, p 1738-1753. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch101
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Typical EBV serological profiles using the most frequently employed antigens and Ig isotypes

Citation: GÄrtners B, Preiksaitis J. 2015. Epstein-Barr Virus, p 1738-1753. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch101

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error