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Chapter 102 : Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8

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Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Human herpesviruses 6A and 6B (HHV-6A and HHV-6B) and human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) are viruses of the genus in the betaherpesvirus subfamily, along with human cytomegalovirus. Roseoloviruses share many features of their genomic architecture and genetic content and the ability to replicate and establish latent infections in lymphocytes. Clinically, they cause febrile rash illnesses in young children and are associated with a variety of neurologic disorders. They are opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. HHV-6A has been identified during early-life febrile disease in Africa and in Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; its clinical spectrum remains to be fully defined. HHV-6B is the main cause of roseola and related febrile rash illnesses in young children and is often active during posttransplant acute limbic encephalitis. HHV-7 causes a subset of roseola cases, and along with HHV-6B, has been identified in children with febrile status epilepticus. Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), or Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, belongs to the gammaherpesvirus subfamily (as does Epstein-Barr virus). HHV-8 causes Kaposi’s sarcoma, multicentric Castleman’s disease, and primary effusion lymphoma, all of which are more likely to occur in HHV-8-seropositive individuals who are immunocompromised. Diagnosis of these viruses most often involves detection of their genomes by PCR, complemented by immunohistochemistry. Roseolovirus diagnosis is most often employed in the context of acute neurologic illnesses in young children and in organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. HHV-8 diagnosis is employed in distinguishing Kaposi’s sarcoma from its mimickers and for definitive diagnosis of its associated lymphoproliferative disorders.

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2015. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1754-1768. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch102
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FIGURE 1

Child with roseola during primary HHV-6B infection. Photo courtesy of Stephen Dewhurst, University of Rochester. Previously published in reference . doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch102.f1

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2015. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1754-1768. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch102
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Disease associations for HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2015. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1754-1768. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch102
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TABLE 2

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2015. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1754-1768. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch102
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Commercial sources of reagents and assays

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2015. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1754-1768. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch102
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Some commercial sources for HHV-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 testing

Citation: Pellett P, Tipples G. 2015. Human Herpesviruses 6, 7, and 8, p 1754-1768. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch102

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