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Chapter 104 : Human Papillomaviruses

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Human Papillomaviruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Papillomaviruses (PVs) are small, nonenveloped DNA viruses that contain a circular (or episomal) double-stranded genome and an icosahedral capsid structure. The majority of identified human PVs (HPVs) with clinical significance are found in the genus , which includes types infecting the genital and nongenital mucosal and genital cutaneous surfaces as well as the genotypes associated with human cancers. The vast majority of HPV infections at all sites are subclinical and asymptomatic but can also cause a variety of cancers, including cervical, vaginal, penile, anal, and oropharyngeal cancer. This chapter will describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and clinical syndromes associated with HPV infections. The role of HPV testing in cervical cancer screening, current guidelines for HPV testing, and the methodologies available for both detection and genotyping of HPV will be explained.

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
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FIGURE 1

Photograph of KA. LSILs on Pap smears are characterized by high nucleus/cytoplasm ratios and the presence of KA, which is defined as the presence of nuclear atypia as well as a clearly defined perinuclear halo in cervical epithelial cells. Photograph courtesy of Patricia Wasserman, Division of Cytopathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, North Shore-LIJ Health System, Lake Success, NY. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch104.f1

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology 2006 consensus conference recommendations for HPV type 16 or 18 detection (from http://www.asccp.org/pdfs/consensus/clinical_update_20090408.pdf). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch104.f2

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Human alphapapillomavirus genotype diversity and clinical manifestations

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Clinical indications for appropriate use of HPV tests

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

FDA-approved molecular assays for the detection and/or genotyping of high-risk HPV DNA

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

hybridization tests for HPV detection

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Non-FDA-approved DNA/mRNA-based assays for the detection and limited genotyping of high-risk HPV DNA

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Non-FDA-approved DNA-based HPV detection and high-level genotyping assays

Citation: Ginocchio C, Gravitt P, Smith J. 2015. Human Papillomaviruses, p 1783-1802. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch104

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