MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this
Price Non-Member $30.00

Preview this :
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch107-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch107-2.gif
There is no abstract provided for this chapter. We are in the process of generating a full text preview. Please bookmark and return later.
Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. .
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

A negative-stain electron micrograph demonstrates the two forms of the brick-shaped monkeypox virus from a cell culture. The surfaces of M (mulberry) virions are covered with short, whorled filaments, while C (capsular)-form virions penetrated by stain present as a sharply defined, dense core surrounded by several laminated zones of differing densities. Image 3945 from the CDC Public Health Image Library; courtesy of C. Goldsmith, I. Damon, and S. Zaki. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch107.f1

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

Vaccinia virus (“Dryvax”) CPE in FHRK-4 cells. (A) Early CPE; (B) mature CPE. Courtesy of V. Olson. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch107.f2

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

Monkeypox virus (Congo Basin clade, v79-I-005) CPE in FRHK-4 cells. (A) Early CPE; (B) mature CPE with syncytia. Courtesy of V. Olson. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch107.f3

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Moss B,. 2007. Poxviridae and their replication, p 29052947. In Knipe DM,, Howley PM,, Griffin DE,, Lamb RA,, Martin MA,, Roizman B,, Straus SE (ed), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
2. Reed KD,, Melski JW,, Graham MB,, Regnery RL,, Sotir MJ,, Wegner MV,, Kazmierczak JJ,, Stratman EJ,, Li Y,, Fairley JA,, Swain GR,, Olson VA,, Sargent EK,, Kehl SC,, Frace MA,, Kline R,, Foldy SL,, Davis JP,, Damon IK. 2004. The detection of monkeypox in humans in the Western Hemisphere. N Engl J Med 350:342350.
3. Moss B. 2006. Poxvirus entry and membrane fusion. Virology 344:4854.
4. Smith GL,, Law M. 2004. The exit of vaccinia virus from infected cells. Virus Res 106:189197.
5. Smith GL,, Murphy BJ,, Law M. 2003. Vaccinia virus motility. Annu Rev Microbiol 57:323342.
6. Smith GL,, Vanderplasschen A,, Law M. 2002. The formation and function of extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus. J Gen Virol 83:29152931.
7. Damon I,. Poxviruses, p 29472977. In Knipe DM,, Howley PM,, Griffin DE,, Lamb RA,, Martin MA,, Roizman B,, Straus SE (ed), Fields Virology, 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA.
8. Pepose JS,, Esposito JJ,. 1996. Molluscum contagiosum, Orf, and vaccinia virus ocular infections in humans, p 846856. In Pepose JS,, Holland GN,, Wilhelmus KR (ed), Ocular Infections and Immunity. Mosby Year Book, Inc, St. Louis, MO.
9. Porter CD,, Blake NW,, Cream JJ,, Archard LC,. 1992. Molluscum contagiosum virus, p 233257. In Wright D,, Archard LC (ed), Molecular and Cellular Biology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Chapman and Hall, London, United Kingdom.
10. Fenner F,, Henderson DA,, Arita I,, Jezek Z,, Ladnyi I. 1988. Smallpox and Its Eradication. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
11. Breman JG,. 2000. Monkeypox: an emerging infection for humans?, p 4567. In Scheld WM,, Craig WA,, Hughes JM (ed), Emerging Infections 4. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
12. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1997. Human monkeypox—Kasai Oriental, Democratic Republic of Congo, February 1996–October 1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 46:11681171.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1997. Human monkeypox—Kasai Oriental, Zaire, 1996–1997. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 46:304307.
14. Hutin YJ,, Williams RJ,, Malfait P,, Pebody R,, Loparev VN,, Ropp SL,, Rodriguez M,, Knight JC,, Tshioko FK,, Khan AS,, Szczeniowski MV,, Esposito JJ. 2001. Outbreak of human monkeypox, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1996 to 1997. Emerg Infect Dis 7:434438.
15. Nalca A,, Rimoin AW,, Bavari S,, Whitehouse CA. 2005. Reemergence of monkeypox: prevalence, diagnostics, and countermeasures. Clin Infect Dis 41:17651771.
16. Meyer H,, Perrichot M,, Stemmler M,, Emmerich P,, Schmitz H,, Varaine F,, Shungu R,, Tshioko F,, Formenty P. 2002. Outbreaks of disease suspected of being due to human monkeypox virus infection in the Democratic Republic of Congo in 2001. J Clin Microbiol 40:29192921.
17. Learned LA,, Reynolds MG,, Wassa DW,, Li Y,, Olson VA,, Karem K,, Stempora LL,, Braden ZH,, Kline R,, Likos A,, Libama F,, Moudzeo H,, Bolanda JD,, Tarangonia P,, Boumandoki P,, Formenty P,, Harvey JM,, Damon IK. 2005. Extended interhuman transmission of monkeypox in a hospital community in the Republic of the Congo, 2003. Am J Trop Med Hyg 73:428434.
18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2003. Update: multistate outbreak of monkeypox—Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Missouri, Ohio, and Wisconsin, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52:642646.
19. Likos AM,, Sammons SA,, Olson VA,, Frace AM,, Li Y,, Olsen-Rasmussen M,, Davidson W,, Galloway R,, Khristova ML,, Reynolds MG,, Zhao H,, Carroll DS,, Curns A,, Formenty P,, Esposito JJ,, Regnery RL,, Damon IK. 2005. A tale of two clades: monkeypox viruses. J Gen Virol 86: 26612672.
20. Chen N,, Li G,, Liszewski MK,, Atkinson JP,, Jahrling PB,, Feng Z,, Schriewer J,, Buck C,, Wang C,, Lefkowitz EJ,, Esposito JJ,, Harms T,, Damon IK,, Roper RL,, Upton C,, Buller RM. 2005. Virulence differences between monkeypox virus isolates from West Africa and the Congo basin. Virology 340:4663.
21. Fenner F,, Wittek R,, Dumbell KR. 1989. The Orthopoxviruses. Academic Press, Inc, New York, NY.
22. Lewis FM,, Chernak E,, Goldman E,, Li Y,, Karem K,, Damon IK,, Henkel R,, Newbern EC,, Ross P,, Johnson CC. 2006. Ocular vaccinia infection in laboratory worker, Philadelphia, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis 12:134137.
23. Carroll DS,, Emerson GL,, Li Y,, Sammons S,, Olson V,, Frace M,, Nakazawa Y,, Czerny CP,, Tryland M,, Kolodziejek J,, Nowotny N,, Olsen-Rasmussen M,, Khristova M,, Govil D,, Karem K,, Damon IK,, Meyer H. 2011. Chasing Jenner’s vaccine: revisiting Cowpox Virus classification. PLoS One 6:e23086. 10.1371/journal.pone.0023086.
24. Dumbell K,, Richardson M. 1993. Virological investigations of specimens from buffaloes affected by buffalopox in Maharashtra State, India between 1985 and 1987. Arch Virol 128:257267.
25. Damaso CR,, Esposito JJ,, Condit RC,, Moussatché N. 2000. An emergent poxvirus from humans and cattle in Rio de Janeiro State: Cantagalo virus may derive from Brazilian smallpox vaccine. Virology 277:439449.
26. Schatzmayr HG,, Lemos ER,, Mazur C,, Schubach A,, Majerowicz S,, Rozental T,, Schubach TM,, Bustamante MC,, Barth OM. 2000. Detection of poxvirus in cattle associated with human cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro: preliminary report. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95:625627.
27. Marques JT,, Trindade GD,, Da Fonseca FG,, Dos Santos JR,, Bonjardim CA,, Ferreira PC,, Kroon EG. 2001. Characterization of ATI, TK and IFN-α/βR genes in the genome of the BeAn 58058 virus, a naturally attenuated wild Orthopoxvirus. Virus Genes 23:291301.
28. Nagasse-Sugahara TK,, Kisielius JJ,, Ueda-Ito M,, Curti SP,, Figueiredo CA,, Cruz AS,, Silva MM,, Ramos CH,, Silva MC,, Sakurai T,, Salles-Gomes LF. 2004. Human vaccinia-like virus outbreaks in São Paulo and Goiás States, Brazil: virus detection, isolation and identification. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 46:315322.
29. Trindade GS,, da Fonseca FG,, Marques JT,, Diniz S,, Leite JA,, De Bodt S,, Van der Peer Y,, Bonjardim CA,, Ferreira PC,, Kroon EG. 2004. Belo Horizonte virus: a vaccinia-like virus lacking the A-type inclusion body gene isolated from infected mice. J Gen Virol 85:20152021.
30. da Fonseca FG,, Trindade GS,, Silva RL,, Bonjardim CA,, Ferreira PC,, Kroon EG. 2002. Characterization of a vaccinia-like virus isolated in a Brazilian forest. J Gen Virol 83:223228.
31. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2009. Human vaccinia infection after contact with a raccoon rabies vaccine bait—Pennsylvania, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58:12041207.
32. Rupprecht CE,, Blass L,, Smith K,, Orciari LA,, Niezgoda M,, Whitfield SG,, Gibbons RV,, Guerra M,, Hanlon CA. 2001. Human infection due to recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus. N Engl J Med 345:582586.
33. Baxby D,, Bennett M,, Getty B. 1994. Human cowpox 1969–93: a review based on 54 cases. Br J Dermatol 131: 598607.
34. Bennett M,, Gaskell CJ,, Baxby D,, Gaskell RM,, Kelly DF,, Naidoot J. 1990. Feline cowpox virus infection. J Small Anim Pract 31:167173.
35. Campe H,, Zimmermann P,, Glos K,, Bayer M,, Bergemann H,, Dreweck C,, Graf P,, Weber BK,, Meyer H,, Büttner M,, Busch U,, Sing A. 2009. Cowpox virus transmission from pet rats to humans, Germany. Emerg Infect Dis 15: 777780.
36. Bennett M,, Crouch AJ,, Begon M,, Duffy B,, Feore S,, Gaskell RM,, Kelly DF,, McCracken CM,, Vicary L,, Baxby D. 1997. Cowpox in British voles and mice. J Comp Pathol 116:3544.
37. Rouhandeh H,. 1988. Yaba virus, p 115. In Darai G (ed), Virus Diseases in Laboratory and Captive Animals. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston, MA.
38. Fenner F,, Nakano JH,. 1988. Poxviridae: the poxviruses, p 177207. In Lennette EH,, Halonen P,, Murphy FA (ed), Laboratory Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases, vol 2. Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Diseases. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
39. Karem KL,, Reynolds M,, Braden Z,, Lou G,, Bernard N,, Patton J,, Damon IK. 2005. Characterization of acute-phase humoral immunity to monkeypox: use of immunoglobulin M enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of monkeypox infection during the 2003 North American outbreak. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:867872.
40. Dhar AD,, Werchniak AE,, Li Y,, Brennick JB,, Goldsmith CS,, Kline R,, Damon I,, Klaus SN. 2004. Tanapox infection in a college student. N Engl J Med 350:361366.
41. Stich A,, Meyer H,, Köhler B,, Fleischer K. 2002. Tanapox: first report in a European traveller and identification by PCR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 96:178179.
42. Robinson AJ,, Lyttle DJ,. 1992. Parapoxviruses: their biology and potential as recombinant vaccine vectors, p 285327. In Binn MM,, Smith GL (ed), Recombinant Poxviruses. CRC Press, Inc, Boca Raton, FL.
43. Clark C,, McIntyre PG,, Evans A,, McInnes CJ,, Lewis-Jones S. 2005. Human sealpox resulting from a seal bite: confirmation that sealpox virus is zoonotic. Br J Dermatol 152:791793.
44. Jezek Z,, Fenner F. 1988. Human monkeypox. Monogr Virol 17:1140.
45. Seward JF,, Galil K,, Damon I,, Norton SA,, Rotz L,, Schmid S,, Harpaz R,, Cono J,, Marin M,, Hutchins S,, Chaves SS,, McCauley MM. 2004. Development and experience with an algorithm to evaluate suspected smallpox cases in the United States, 2002–2004. Clin Infect Dis 39:14771483.
46. Huhn GD,, Bauer AM,, Yorita K,, Graham MB,, Sejvar J,, Likos A,, Damon IK,, Reynolds MG,, Kuehnert MJ. 2005. Clinical characteristics of human monkeypox, and risk factors for severe disease. Clin Infect Dis 41:17421751.
47. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2001. Vaccinia (smallpox) vaccination: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 50:122.
48. Kelly CD,, Egan C,, Davis SW,, Samsonoff WA,, Musser KA,, Drabkin P,, Miller JR,, Taylor J,, Cirino NM. 2004. Laboratory confirmation of generalized vaccinia following smallpox vaccination. J Clin Microbiol 42:13731375.
49. Knight JC,, Novembre F,, Brown DR,, Goldsmith CS,, Esposito JJ. 1989. Studies on tanapox virus. Virology 172: 116124.
50. Jezek Z,, Arita I,, Szczeniowski M,, Paluku KM,, Ruti K,, Nakano JH. 1985. Human tanapox in Zaire: clinical and epidemiological observations on cases confirmed by laboratory studies. Bull World Health Organ 63:10271035.
51. Nuñez A,, Funes JM,, Agromayor M,, Moratilla M,, Varas AJ,, Lopez-Estebaranz JL,, Esteban M,, Martin-Gallardo A. 1996. Detection and typing of molluscum contagiosum virus in skin lesions by using a simple lysis method and polymerase chain reaction. J Med Virol 50:342349.
52. Smee DF. 2008. Progress in the discovery of compounds inhibiting orthopoxviruses in animal models. Antivir Chem Chemother 19:115124.
53. Huggins J,, Goff A,, Hensley L,, Mucker E,, Shamblin J,, Wlazlowski C,, Johnson W,, Chapman J,, Larsen T,, Twenhafel N,, Karem K,, Damon IK,, Byrd CM,, Bolken TC,, Jordan R,, Hruby D. 2009. Nonhuman primates are protected from smallpox virus or monkeypox virus challenges by the antiviral drug ST-246. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:26202625.
54. Vora S,, Damon I,, Fulginiti V,, Weber SG,, Kahana M,, Stein SL,, Gerber SI,, Garcia-Houchins S,, Lederman E,, Hruby D,, Collins L,, Scott D,, Thompson K,, Barson JV,, Regnery R,, Hughes C,, Daum RS,, Li Y,, Zhao H,, Smith S,, Braden Z,, Karem K,, Olson V,, Davidson W,, Trindade G,, Bolken T,, Jordan R,, Tien D,, Marcinak J. 2008. Severe eczema vaccinatum in a household contact of a smallpox vaccinee. Clin Infect Dis 46:15551561.
55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 2009. Progressive vaccinia in a military smallpox vaccinee—United States, 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58: 532536.
56. Nitsche A,, Buttner M,, Wilhelm S,, Pauli G,, Meyer H. 2006. Real-time PCR detection of parapoxvirus DNA. Clin Chem 52:316319.
57. Moriello KA,, Cooley J. 2001. Difficult dermatologic diagnosis. Contagious viral pustular dermatitis (orf), goatpox, dermatophilosis, dermatophytosis, bacterial pyoderma, and mange. J Am Vet Med Assoc 218:1920.
58. Nakano JH,. 1978. Comparitive diagnosis of poxvirus diseases, p 267339. In Kurstak E,, Kurstak C (ed), Comparitive Diagnosis of Viral Diseases, vol 1. Academic Press, Inc, New York, NY.
59. Nakano JH,. 1979. Poxviruses, p 257308. In Lennette EH,, Schmidt NJ (ed), Diagnostic Procedures for Viral, Rickettsial, and Chlamydial Infections, 5th ed. American Public Health Association, Inc, Washington, DC.
60. Gelderblom HR,, Hazelton PR. 2000. Specimen collection for electron microscopy. Emerg Infect Dis 6:433434.
61. Long GW,, Nobel JJr,, Murphy FA,, Herrmann KL,, Lourie B. 1970. Experience with electron microscopy in the differential diagnosis of smallpox. Appl Microbiol 20:497504.
62. Townsend MB,, MacNeil A,, Reynolds MG,, Hughes CM,, Olson VA,, Damon IK,, Karem KL. 2013. Evaluation of the Tetracore Orthopox BioThreat® antigen detection assay using laboratory grown orthopoxviruses and rash illness clinical specimens. J Virol Methods 187:3742.
63. Li Y,, Meyer H,, Zhao H,, Damon IK. 2010. GC content-based pan-pox universal PCR assays for poxvirus detection. J Clin Microbiol 48:268276.
64. Torfason EG,, Gunadóttir S. 2002. Polymerase chain reaction for laboratory diagnosis of orf virus infections. J Clin Virol 24:7984.
65. Shchelkunov SN,, Gavrilova EV,, BabkinIV. 2005. Multiplex PCR detection and species differentiation of orthopoxviruses pathogenic to humans. Mol Cell Probes 19:18.
66. Stemmler M,, Neubauer H,, Meyer H. 2001. Comparison of closely related orthopoxvirus isolates by random amplified polymorphic DNA and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 48:647654.
67. Fedorko DP,, Preuss JC,, Fahle GA,, Li L,, Fischer SH,, Hohman P,, Cohen JI. 2005. Comparison of methods for detection of vaccinia virus in patient specimens. J Clin Microbiol 43:46024606.
68. Westwood JC,, Phipps P,, Boulter EA. 1957. The titration of vaccinia virus on the chorioallantoic membrane of the developing chick embryo. J Hyg (Lond) 55:123139.
69. World Health Organization. 1960. Guide to the Laboratory Diagnosis of Smallpox for Smallpox Eradication Programmes. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
70. Cole GA,, Blanden RV,. 1982. Immunology of poxviruses, p 119. In Nahmias AJ,, O’Reilly RJ (ed), Comprehensive Immunology, vol 9. Plenum Press, New York, NY.
71. Sejvar JJ,, Chowdary Y,, Schomogyi M,, Stevens J,, Patel J,, Karem K,, Fischer M,, Kuehnert MJ,, Zaki SR,, Paddock CD,, Guarner J,, Shieh WJ,, Patton JL,, Bernard N,, Li Y,, Olson VA,, Kline RL,, Loparev VN,, Schmid DS,, Beard B,, Regnery RR,, Damon IK. 2004. Human monkeypox infection: a family cluster in the midwestern United States. J Infect Dis 190:18331840.
72. Hammarlund E,, Lewis MW,, Carter SV,, Amanna I,, Hansen SG,, Strelow LI,, Wong SW,, Yoshihara P,, Hanifin JM,, Slifka MK. 2005. Multiple diagnostic techniques identify previously vaccinated individuals with protective immunity against monkeypox. Nat Med 11:10051011.
73. Dubois ME,, Hammarlund E,, Slifka MK. 2012. Optimization of peptide-based ELISA for serological diagnostics: a retrospective study of human monkeypox infection. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 12:400409.
74. Roumillat LF,, Patton JL,, Davis ML. 1984. Monoclonal antibodies to a monkeypox virus polypeptide determinant. J Virol 52:290292.
75. Hughes LJ,, Goldstein J,, Pohl J,, Hooper JW,, Lee Pitts R,, Townsend MB,, Bagarozzi D,, Damon IK,, Karem KL. 2014. A highly specific monoclonal antibody against monkeypox virus detects the heparin binding domain of A27. Virology 464–465:264273.
76. Edghill-Smith Y,, Golding H,, Manischewitz J,, King LR,, Scott D,, Bray M,, Nalca A,, Hooper JW,, Whitehouse CA,, Schmitz JE,, Reimann KA,, Franchini G. 2005. Smallpox vaccine-induced antibodies are necessary and sufficient for protection against monkeypox virus. Nat Med 11:740747.
77. Earl PL,, Americo JL,, Moss B. 2003. Development and use of a vaccinia virus neutralization assay based on flow cytometric detection of green fluorescent protein. J Virol 77:1068410688.
78. Johnson MC,, Damon IK,, Karem KL. 2008. A rapid, high-throughput vaccinia virus neutralization assay for testing smallpox vaccine efficacy based on detection of green fluorescent protein. J Virol Methods 150:1420.
79. Towbin H,, Staehelin T,, Gordon J. 1992. Electrophoretic transfer of proteins from polyacrylamide gels to nitrocellulose sheets: procedure and some applications. 1979. Biotechnology 24:145149.
80. Conroy JM,, Stevens RW,, Hechemy KE,. 1991. Enzyme immunoassays, p 8792. In Balows A,, Hausler WJ,, Herrmann KL,, Isenberg HD,, Shadomy HJ (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
81. Niedrig M,, Meyer H,, Panning M,, Drosten C. 2006. Follow-up on diagnostic proficiency of laboratories equipped to perform orthopoxvirus detection and quantification by PCR: the second international external quality assurance study. J Clin Microbiol 44:12831287.
82. Ropp SL,, Jin Q,, Knight JC,, Massung RF,, Esposito JJ. 1995. PCR strategy for identification and differentiation of small pox and other orthopoxviruses. J Clin Microbiol 33:20692076.
83. Loparev VN,, Massung RF,, Esposito JJ,, Meyer H. 2001. Detection and differentiation of old world orthopoxviruses: restriction fragment length polymorphism of the crmB gene region. J Clin Microbiol 39:94100.
84. Meyer H,, Ropp SL,, Esposito JJ. 1997. Gene for A-type inclusion body protein is useful for a polymerase chain reaction assay to differentiate orthopoxviruses. J Virol Methods 64:217221.
85. Meyer H,, Ropp SL,, Esposito JJ,. 1998. Poxviruses, p 199211. In Warnes A,, Stephenson J (ed), Methods in Molecular Medicine: Diagnostic Virology Protocols. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
86. Schroeder K,, Nitsche A. 2010. Multicolour, multiplex real-time PCR assay for the detection of human-pathogenic poxviruses. Mol Cell Probes 24:110113.
87. Espy MJ,, Cockerill FRIII,, Meyer RF,, Bowen MD,, Poland GA,, Hadfield TL,, Smith TF. 2002. Detection of smallpox virus DNA by LightCycler PCR. J Clin Microbiol 40:19851988.
88. Sofi Ibrahim M,, Kulesh DA,, Saleh SS,, Damon IK,, Esposito JJ,, Schmaljohn AL,, Jahrling PB. 2003. Real-time PCR assay to detect smallpox virus. J Clin Microbiol 41:38353839.
89. Panning M,, Asper M,, Kramme S,, Schmitz H,, Drosten C. 2004. Rapid detection and differentiation of human pathogenic orthopox viruses by a fluorescence resonance energy transfer real-time PCR assay. Clin Chem 50:702708.
90. Nitsche A,, Ellerbrok H,, Pauli G. 2004. Detection of orthopoxvirus DNA by real-time PCR and identification of variola virus DNA by melting analysis. J Clin Microbiol 42:12071213.
91. Kulesh DA,, Baker RO,, Loveless BM,, Norwood D,, Zwiers SH,, Mucker E,, Hartmann C,, Herrera R,, Miller D,, Christensen D,, Wasieloski LPJr,, Huggins J,, Jahrling PB. 2004. Smallpox and pan-orthopox virus detection by real-time 3′-minor groove binder TaqMan assays on the Roche LightCycler and the Cepheid smart Cycler platforms. J Clin Microbiol 42:601609.
92. Olson VA,, Laue T,, Laker MT,, BabkinIV,, Drosten C,, Shchelkunov SN,, Niedrig M,, Damon IK,, Meyer H. 2004. Real-time PCR system for detection of orthopoxviruses and simultaneous identification of smallpox virus. J Clin Microbiol 42:19401946.
93. Carletti F,, Di Caro A,, Calcaterra S,, Grolla A,, Czub M,, Ippolito G,, Capobianchi MR,, Horejsh D. 2005. Rapid, differential diagnosis of orthopox- and herpesviruses based upon real-time PCR product melting temperature and restriction enzyme analysis of amplicons. J Virol Methods 129: 97100.
94. Fedele CG,, Negredo A,, Molero F,, Sanchez-Seco MP,, Tenorio A. 2006. Use of internally controlled real-time genome amplification for detection of variola virus and other orthopoxviruses infecting humans. J Clin Microbiol 44:44644470.
95. Li Y,, Olson VA,, Laue T,, Laker MT,, Damon IK. 2006. Detection of monkeypox virus with real-time PCR assays. J Clin Virol 36:194203.
96. Li Y,, Zhao H,, Wilkins K,, Hughes C,, Damon IK. 2010. Real-time PCR assays for the specific detection of monkeypox virus West African and Congo Basin strain DNA. J Virol Methods 169:223227.
97. Scaramozzino N,, Ferrier-Rembert A,, Favier AL,, Rothlisberger C,, Richard S,, Crance JM,, Meyer H,, Garin D. 2007. Real-time PCR to identify variola virus or other human pathogenic orthopox viruses. Clin Chem 53:606613.
98. Aitichou M,, Javorschi S,, Ibrahim MS. 2005. Two-color multiplex assay for the identification of orthopox viruses with real-time LUX- PCR. Mol Cell Probes 19:323328.
99. Putkuri N,, Piiparinen H,, Vaheri A,, Vapalahti O. 2009. Detection of human orthopoxvirus infections and differentiation of smallpox virus with real-time PCR. J Med Virol 81:146152.
100. Nitsche A,, Steger B,, Ellerbrok H,, Pauli G. 2005. Detection of vaccinia virus DNA on the LightCycler by fluorescence melting curve analysis. J Virol Methods 126:187195.
101. Gavrilova EV,, Shcherbakov DN,, Maksyutov RA,, Shchelkunov SN. 2010. Development of real-time PCR assay for specific detection of cowpox virus. J Clin Virol 49:3740.
102. McCollum AM,, Austin C,, Nawrocki J,, Howland J,, Pryde J,, Vaid A,, Holmes D,, Weil MR,, Li Y,, Wilkins K,, Zhao H,, Smith SK,, Karem K,, Reynolds MG,, Damon IK. 2012. Investigation of the first laboratory-acquired human cowpox virus infection in the United States. J Infect Dis 206:6368.
103. Zimmermann P,, Thordsen I,, Frangoulidis D,, Meyer H. 2005. Real-time PCR assay for the detection of tanapox virus and yaba-like disease virus. J Virol Methods 130:149153.
104. Gallina L,, Dal Pozzo F,, Mc Innes CJ,, Cardeti G,, Guercio A,, Battilani M,, Ciulli S,, Scagliarini A. 2006. A real time PCR assay for the detection and quantification of orf virus. J Virol Methods 134:140145.
105. Lederman ER,, Green GM,, DeGroot HE,, Dahl P,, Goldman E,, Greer PW,, Li Y,, Zhao H,, Paddock CD,, Damon IK. 2007. Progressive orf virus infection in a patient with lymphoma: successful treatment using imiquimod. Clin Infect Dis 44:e100e103.
106. Bora DP,, Venkatesan G,, Bhanuprakash V,, Balamurugan V,, Prabhu M,, Siva Sankar MS,, Yogisharadhya R. 2011. TaqMan real-time PCR assay based on DNA polymerase gene for rapid detection of Orf infection. J Virol Methods 178:249252.
107. Trama JP,, Adelson ME,, Mordechai E. 2007. Identification and genotyping of molluscum contagiosum virus from genital swab samples by real-time PCR and pyrosequencing. J Clin Virol 40:325329.


Generic image for table

Taxonomy of poxviruses that infect humans

Generic image for table

Diagnostic tests for poxviruses

Generic image for table

Conventional PCR assays for orthopoxvirus detection

Generic image for table

Real-time PCR assays for poxvirus detection


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error