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Chapter 107 : Poxviruses

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Poxviruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Human infections by poxviruses are caused by species from the following genera: , , , and . Some poxviruses, such as variola virus (an orthopoxvirus) and molluscum contagiosum virus (a molluscipoxvirus), have very limited host ranges, causing disease only in humans. Epizoonotic poxviruses, such as monkeypox virus, vaccinia virus, and cowpox virus (all orthopoxviruses) and orf virus (a parapoxvirus), can cause disease in humans but can also infect a variety of other mammals. Poxviruses can differ in mode of transmission, disease severity, and clinical manifestations. For example, variola virus can be transmitted by large-droplet respiratory particles, in addition to direct contact with lesions or scab materials, whereas other poxviruses are transmitted mostly through direct contact. Variola virus has the greatest severity in humans, while other poxviruses such as orf simply cause a localized lesion. Each of the individual viruses is presented in detail, with similarities and differences highlighted. Although there are differences across all poxviruses, their great degree of similarity makes cross-species protection possible through vaccination. This high level of similarity can also make diagnosis through clinical symptoms or common laboratory diagnostic methods difficult. In this chapter, selected biologic-, DNA-, and antigen-based diagnostic techniques are discussed in detail.

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

A negative-stain electron micrograph demonstrates the two forms of the brick-shaped monkeypox virus from a cell culture. The surfaces of M (mulberry) virions are covered with short, whorled filaments, while C (capsular)-form virions penetrated by stain present as a sharply defined, dense core surrounded by several laminated zones of differing densities. Image 3945 from the CDC Public Health Image Library; courtesy of C. Goldsmith, I. Damon, and S. Zaki. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch107.f1

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Vaccinia virus (“Dryvax”) CPE in FHRK-4 cells. (A) Early CPE; (B) mature CPE. Courtesy of V. Olson. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch107.f2

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Monkeypox virus (Congo Basin clade, v79-I-005) CPE in FRHK-4 cells. (A) Early CPE; (B) mature CPE with syncytia. Courtesy of V. Olson. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch107.f3

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Taxonomy of poxviruses that infect humans

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107
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TABLE 2

Diagnostic tests for poxviruses

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107
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TABLE 3

Conventional PCR assays for orthopoxvirus detection

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107
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TABLE 4

Real-time PCR assays for poxvirus detection

Citation: Hughes L, Olson V, Damon I. 2015. Poxviruses, p 1828-1840. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch107

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