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Image of FIGURE 1

(A) The intact infectious HBV virion and the empty particles are shown. The two HBV particles (right) comprised of HBsAg are shown as elongated or tubular particle and as spherical particles. These particles vastly outnumber the virions. (Designed by the University of Kansas Graphic Design Department, 2009.) (B) Electron micrograph of serum showing the presence of three distinct morphologic entities: 17- to 25-nm-diameter pleomorphic, spherical particles (a); tubular or filamentous forms with diameters similar to those of the small particles (b); and 42- to 47-nm-diameter double-shelled spherical particles representing the HBV virion (Dane particle) (c). Magnification, ×10. (C) Diagrammatic representation of HBV coding regions. The functioning genome is a double-stranded circular DNA molecule, shown in the middle. RNA transcripts (arrows) are generated using both the plus-strand [(+)Strand] and minus-strand [(−)Strand] DNA templates. The largest transcript codes for the viral polymerase shown around the genome as the P transcript. The transcript for surface antigen (S) is produced as three separate transcripts, pre-S1, pre-S2, and S. The core protein is translated from the C transcript. HBeAg is encoded within the HB core gene. The transactivating protein is coded by the X transcript. (Designed by the University of Kansas Graphic Design Department, 2009.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch108.f1

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Worldwide distribution of chronic hepatitis B (CDC). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch108.f2

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Typical sequence of serologic markers in patients with acute HBV infection with resolution of symptoms. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch108.f3

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Typical sequence of serologic markers in patients with HBV infection that progresses to chronicity. In patients with chronic HBV infection, both HBsAg and IgG anti-HBc remain persistently detectable, generally for life. HBeAg is variably present in these patients. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch108.f4

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Serologic course of HDV infection, with resolution when the virus is acquired as a coinfection with HBV. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch108.f5

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Serologic course of HDV infection when the virus is acquired as a superinfection with HBV. Symptoms and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are shown to indicate the intermittent nature of symptoms and liver involvement. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch108.f6

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HBV markers in different stages of infection and convalescence

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Molecular assays used to detect HBV nucleic acid

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HBV genotypes and geographic circulation

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Antiviral agents and HBV mutations associated with resistance


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