1887

Chapter 121 : Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch121-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch121-2.gif

Abstract:

This chapter reviews current taxonomic changes related to the agents of mucormycosis and entomophthoromycosis and describes epidemiological and clinical features as well as modern diagnostic and therapeutic strategies related to these diseases

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Schematic drawing of morphological structures observed in . Sporangiophores (A) bear sporangia containing sporangiospores (D), can be anchored to the substrate by rhizoids (B), and expand by the means of stolons (C). The columella (E) is produced at the apex of the sporangiophore, and in some species, an apophysis (G) is present. For some species, after liberation of sporangiospores, a thin sporangium membrane may be visible (F). Sporangia with single or few spores are called sporangiola (H), and sporangia with few spores aligned in rows are called merosporangia (I). Thick-walled chlamydospores (J) and oidia (thin-walled swollen vesicles) (K) can be observed. Drawings by Dea Garcia-Hermoso. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f1

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Culture variability of some of the genera of and their branching development. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f2

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Flow diagram for the identification of the different genera of doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f3

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(A) Branched sporangiophores; (B) hemispheric columellae and sporangiospores; (C) pyriform multispored sporangium and marked conical apophysis; (D) sporangiospores. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f4

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

. Sporangiophores with apical branching (A), simple rhizoids (B), and globose sporangia with round and smooth-walled sporangiospores (C and D) are shown. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f5

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Micromorphology of . (A) Sporangiophore; (B) sporangia; (B and C) ellipsoidal sporangiospores; (D) oidia. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f6

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

. (A and B) Mostly unbranched sporangiophores without rhizoids; (C) young sporangiolum; (D to F) recurved stalks arising from terminal vesicles and bearing few-spored sporangiola. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f7

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

. (A) Unbranched sporangiophores bearing multispored sporangia with a vase-shaped apophysis (B and C); (D) cylindrical sporangiospores. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f8

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

. (A and B) Unbranched sporangiophores with dark rhizoids and typical multispored flask-shaped sporangia. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f9

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Typical microscopic features of . (A) melanized sporangiophore arising opposite rhizoids; (B) striate angular sporangiospores. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f10

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Short pigmented sporangiophores arising in pairs in . (A and C) Rhizoids; (B) conical columella; (D) chlamydospores. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f11

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

(A, B, and D) Development of single-spored sporangiola on the surface of globose vesicles, with frequent apical branching (C); (E) mature sporangiola grow to be single echinulate sporangiospores; (F) rhizoids. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f12

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

Short sporangiophores arising from rhizoids (A), terminal vesicles covered by merosporangia (B, C, and E), and merospores (D) characteristic of doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f13

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

. (A) Ten-day-old powdery colony on PDA medium; (B) primary conidia with papilla; (C) passively released secondary conidium (arrow); (D) villose conidium. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f14

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

(A) Ten-day-old wrinkled colony on PDA medium (B); uninucleated hyphal elements; (C) young zygospores. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch121.f15

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817381.mcm11.ch121
1. Hibbett DS,, Binder M,, Bischoff JF,, Blackwell M,, Cannon PF,, Eriksson OE,, Huhndorf S,, James T,, Kirk PM,, Lucking R,, Thorsten Lumbsch H,, Lutzoni F,, Matheny PB,, McLaughlin DJ,, Powell MJ,, Redhead S,, Schoch CL,, Spatafora JW,, Stalpers JA,, Vilgalys R,, Aime MC,, Aptroot A,, Bauer R,, Begerow D,, Benny GL,, Castlebury LA,, Crous PW,, Dai YC,, Gams W,, Geiser DM,, Griffith GW,, Gueidan C,, Hawksworth DL,, Hestmark G,, Hosaka K,, Humber RA,, Hyde KD,, Ironside JE,, Koljalg U,, Kurtzman CP,, Larsson KH,, Lichtwardt R,, Longcore J,, Miadlikowska J,, Miller A,, Moncalvo JM,, Mozley-Standridge S,, Oberwinkler F,, Parmasto E,, Reeb V,, Rogers JD,, Roux C,, Ryvarden L,, Sampaio JP,, Schussler A,, Sugiyama J,, Thorn RG,, Tibell L,, Untereiner WA,, Walker C,, Wang Z,, Weir A,, Weiss M,, White MM,, Winka K,, Yao YJ,, Zhang N. 2007. A higher-level phylogenetic classification of the Fungi. Mycol Res 111:509547.
2. O’Donnell K,, Lutzoni F,, Ward TJ,, Benny GL. 2001. Evolutionary relationships among mucoralean fungi (Zygomycota): evidence for family polyphyly on a large scale. Mycologia 93:286296.
3. Voigt K,, Cigelnik E,, O’Donnell K. 1999. Phylogeny and PCR identification of clinically important Zygomycetes based on nuclear ribosomal-DNA sequence data. J Clin Microbiol 37:39573964.
4. Voigt K,, Wostemeyer J. 2001. Phylogeny and origin of 82 zygomycetes from all 54 genera of the Mucorales and Mortierellales based on combined analysis of actin and translation elongation factor EF-1alpha genes. Gene 270:113120.
5. Hoffmann K,, Pawlowska J,, Walther G,, Wrzosek M,, de Hoog GS,, Benny GL,, Kirk PM,, Voigt K. 2013. The family structure of the Mucorales: a synoptic revision based on comprehensive multigene-genealogies. Persoonia 30: 5776.
6. Garcia-Hermoso D,, Hoinard D,, Gantier JC,, Grenouillet F,, Dromer F,, Dannaoui E. 2009. Molecular and phenotypic evaluation of Lichtheimia corymbifera (formerly Absidia corymbifera) complex isolates associated with human mucormycosis: rehabilitation of L. ramosa. J Clin Microbiol 47:38623870.
7. Hoffmann K,, Discher S,, Voigt K. 2007. Revision of the genus Absidia (Mucorales, Zygomycetes) based on physiological, phylogenetic, and morphological characters; thermotolerant Absidia spp. form a coherent group, Mycocladiaceae fam. nov. Mycol Res 111:11691183.
8. Alastruey-Izquierdo A,, Hoffmann K,, de Hoog GS,, Rodriguez-Tudela JL,, Voigt K,, Bibashi E,, Walther G. 2010. Species recognition and clinical relevance of the zygomycetous genus Lichtheimia (syn. Absidia pro parte, Mycocladus). J Clin Microbiol 48:21542170.
9. Alvarez E,, Stchigel AM,, Cano J,, Sutton DA,, Fothergill AW,, Chander J,, Salas V,, Rinaldi MG,, Guarro J. 2010. Molecular phylogenetic diversity of the emerging mucoralean fungus Apophysomyces: proposal of three new species. Rev Iberoam Micol 27:8089.
10. Alvarez E,, Cano J,, Stchigel AM,, Sutton DA,, Fothergill AW,, Salas V,, Rinaldi MG,, Guarro J. 2011. Two new species of Mucor from clinical samples. Med Mycol 49:6272.
11. Ma LJ,, Ibrahim AS,, Skory C,, Grabherr MG,, Burger G,, Butler M,, Elias M,, Idnurm A,, Lang BF,, Sone T,, Abe A,, Calvo SE,, Corrochano LM,, Engels R,, Fu J,, Hansberg W,, Kim JM,, Kodira CD,, Koehrsen MJ,, Liu B,, Miranda-Saavedra D,, O’Leary S,, Ortiz-Castellanos L,, Poulter R,, Rodriguez-Romero J,, Ruiz-Herrera J,, Shen YQ,, Zeng Q,, Galagan J,, Birren BW,, Cuomo CA,, Wickes BL. 2009. Genomic analysis of the basal lineage fungus Rhizopus oryzae reveals a whole-genome duplication. PLoS Genet 5:e1000549.
12. Humber RA. 2012. Entomophthoromycota: a new phylum and reclassification of entomophthoroid fungi. Mycotaxon 120:477492.
13. Gryganskyi AP,, Humber RA,, Smith ME,, Miadlikowska J,, Wu S,, Voigt K,, Walther G,, Anishchenko IM,, Vilgalys R. 2012. Molecular phylogeny of the Entomophthoromycota. Mol Phylogenet Evol 65:682694.
14. de Hoog GS,, Guarro J,, Gené J,, Figueras MJ. 2011. Atlas of Clinical Fungi CD-ROM, 3.1. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
15. Gryganskyi AP,, Humber RA,, Smith ME,, Hodge K,, Huang B,, Voigt K,, Vilgalys R. 2013. Phylogenetic lineages in Entomophthoromycota. Persoonia 30:94105.
16. Ribes JA,, Vanover-Sams CL,, Baker DJ. 2000. Zygomycetes in human disease. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:236301.
17. Lanternier F,, Dannaoui E,, Morizot G,, Elie C,, Garcia-Hermoso D,, Huerre M,, Bitar D,, Dromer F,, Lortholary O. 2012. A global analysis of mucormycosis in France: the RetroZygo Study (2005–2007). Clin Infect Dis 54(Suppl 1):S35S43.
18. Neblett Fanfair R,, Benedict K,, Bos J,, Bennett SD,, Lo YC,, Adebanjo T,, Etienne K,, Deak E,, Derado G,, Shieh WJ,, Drew C,, Zaki S,, Sugerman D,, Gade L,, Thompson EH,, Sutton DA,, Engelthaler DM,, Schupp JM,, Brandt ME,, Harris JR,, Lockhart SR,, Turabelidze G,, Park BJ. 2012. Necrotizing cutaneous mucormycosis after a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, in 2011. N Engl J Med 367:22142225.
19. Warkentien T,, Rodriguez C,, Lloyd B,, Wells J,, Weintrob A,, Dunne JR,, Ganesan A,, Li P,, Bradley W,, Gaskins LJ,, Seillier-Moiseiwitsch F,, Murray CK,, Millar EV,, Keenan B,, Paolino K,, Fleming M,, Hospenthal DR,, Wortmann GW,, Landrum ML,, Kortepeter MG,, Tribble DR. 2012. Invasive mold infections following combat-related injuries. Clin Infect Dis 55:14411449.
20. Kwon-Chung K,, Bennett J. 1982. Medical Mycology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA.
21. Rammaert B,, Lanternier F,, Zahar JR,, Dannaoui E,, Bougnoux ME,, Lecuit M,, Lortholary O. 2012. Healthcare-associated mucormycosis. Clin Infect Dis 54(Suppl 1):S44S54.
22. Guarro J,, Chander J,, Alvarez E,, Stchigel AM,, Robin K,, Dalal U,, Rani H,, Punia RS,, Cano JF. 2011. Apophysomyces variabilis infections in humans. Emerg Infect Dis 17:134135.
23. Chayakulkeeree M,, Ghannoum MA,, Perfect JR. 2006. Zygomycosis: the re-emerging fungal infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25:215229.
24. Kontoyiannis DP,, Lionakis MS,, Lewis RE,, Chamilos G,, Healy M,, Perego C,, Safdar A,, Kantarjian H,, Champlin R,, Walsh TJ,, Raad II. 2005. Zygomycosis in a tertiary-care cancer center in the era of Aspergillus-active antifungal therapy: a case-control observational study of 27 recent cases. J Infect Dis 191:13501360.
25. Marty FM,, Cosimi LA,, Baden LR. 2004. Breakthrough zygomycosis after voriconazole treatment in recipients of hematopoietic stem-cell transplants. N Engl J Med 350: 950952.
26. Prabhu RM,, Patel R. 2004. Mucormycosis and entomophthoramycosis: a review of the clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Clin Microbiol Infect 10(Suppl 1):3147.
27. Marr KA,, Carter RA,, Crippa F,, Wald A,, Corey L. 2002. Epidemiology and outcome of mould infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Clin Infect Dis 34:909917.
28. Bitar D,, Van Cauteren D,, Lanternier F,, Dannaoui E,, Che D,, Dromer F,, Descenclos J,, Lortholary O. 2009. Increasing incidence of zygomycosis (mucormycosis), France, 1997–2006. Emerg Infect Dis 15:13951401.
29. Bitar D,, Morizot G,, Van Cauteren D,, Dannaoui E,, Lanternier F,, Lortholary O,, Dromer F. 2012. Estimating the burden of mucormycosis infections in France (2005–2007) through a capture-recapture method on laboratory and administrative data. Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique 60:383387.
30. Bitar D,, Lortholary O,, Dromer F,, Coignard B,, Che D. 2013. Invasive fungal infections in hospital discharge data, metropolitan France, 2001–2010: incidence, lethality and trends. Bull Epidemiol Hebd 2013:109114.
31. Rees JR,, Pinner RW,, Hajjeh RA,, Brandt ME,, Reingold AL. 1998. The epidemiological features of invasive mycotic infections in the San Francisco Bay area, 1992–1993: results of population-based laboratory active surveillance. Clin Infect Dis 27:11381147.
32. Torres-Narbona M,, Guinea J,, Martinez-Alarcon J,, Munoz P,, Gadea I,, Bouza E. 2007. Impact of zygomycosis on microbiology workload: a survey study in Spain. J Clin Microbiol 45:20512053.
33. Roden MM,, Zaoutis TE,, Buchanan WL,, Knudsen TA,, Sarkisova TA,, Schaufele RL,, Sein M,, Sein T,, Chiou CC,, Chu JH,, Kontoyiannis DP,, Walsh TJ. 2005. Epidemiology and outcome of zygomycosis: a review of 929 reported cases. Clin Infect Dis 41:634653.
34. Lanternier F,, Lortholary O. 2009. Zygomycosis and diabetes mellitus. Clin Microbiol Infect 15(Suppl 5):2125.
35. Chakrabarti A,, Das A,, Mandal J,, Shivaprakash MR,, George VK,, Tarai B,, Rao P,, Panda N,, Verma SC,, Sakhuja V. 2006. The rising trend of invasive zygomycosis in patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. Med Mycol 44:335342.
36. Zaoutis TE,, Roilides E,, Chiou CC,, Buchanan WL,, Knudsen TA,, Sarkisova TA,, Schaufele RL,, Sein M,, Sein T,, Prasad PA,, Chu JH,, Walsh TJ. 2007. Zygomycosis in children: a systematic review and analysis of reported cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:723727.
37. Singh N,, Aguado JM,, Bonatti H,, Forrest G,, Gupta KL,, Safdar N,, John GT,, Pursell KJ,, Munoz P,, Patel R,, Fortun J,, Martin-Davila P,, Philippe B,, Philit F,, Tabah A,, Terzi N,, Chatelet V,, Kusne S,, Clark N,, Blumberg E,, Julia MB,, Humar A,, Houston S,, Lass-Florl C,, Johnson L,, Dubberke ER,, Barron MA,, Lortholary O. 2009. Zygomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients: a prospective, matched case-control study to assess risks for disease and outcome. J Infect Dis 200:10021011.
38. Chamilos G,, Marom EM,, Lewis RE,, Lionakis MS,, Kontoyiannis DP. 2005. Predictors of pulmonary zygomycosis versus invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cancer. Clin Infect Dis 41:6066.
39. Pagano L,, Caira M,, Candoni A,, Offidani M,, Fianchi L,, Martino B,, Pastore D,, Picardi M,, Bonini A,, Chierichini A,, Fanci R,, Caramatti C,, Invernizzi R,, Mattei D,, Mitra ME,, Melillo L,, Aversa F,, Van Lint MT,, Falcucci P,, Valentini CG,, Girmenia C,, Nosari A. 2006. The epidemiology of fungal infections in patients with hematologic malignancies: the SEIFEM-2004 study. Haematologica 91:10681075.
40. Nosari A,, Oreste P,, Montillo M,, Carrafiello G,, Draisci M,, Muti G,, Molteni A,, Morra E. 2000. Mucormycosis in hematologic malignancies: an emerging fungal infection. Haematologica 85:10681071.
41. Pagano L,, Offidani M,, Fianchi L,, Nosari A,, Candoni A,, Piccardi M,, Corvatta L,, D’Antonio D,, Girmenia C,, Martino P,, Del Favero A. 2004. Mucormycosis in hematologic patients. Haematologica 89:207214.
42. Kontoyiannis DP,, Wessel VC,, Bodey GP,, Rolston KV. 2000. Zygomycosis in the 1990s in a tertiary-care cancer center. Clin Infect Dis 30:851856.
43. Kontoyiannis DP,, Marr KA,, Park BJ,, Alexander BD,, Anaissie EJ,, Walsh TJ,, Ito J,, Andes DR,, Baddley JW,, Brown JM,, Brumble LM,, Freifeld AG,, Hadley S,, Herwaldt LA,, Kauffman CA,, Knapp K,, Lyon GM,, Morrison VA,, Papanicolaou G,, Patterson TF,, Perl TM,, Schuster MG,, Walker R,, Wannemuehler KA,, Wingard JR,, Chiller TM,, Pappas PG. 2010. Prospective surveillance for invasive fungal infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, 2001–2006: overview of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET) Database. Clin Infect Dis 50:10911100.
44. Neofytos D,, Horn D,, Anaissie E,, Steinbach W,, Olyaei A,, Fishman J,, Pfaller M,, Chang C,, Webster K,, Marr K. 2009. Epidemiology and outcome of invasive fungal infection in adult hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: analysis of Multicenter Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance registry. Clin Infect Dis 48:265273.
45. Blin N,, Morineau N,, Gaillard F,, Morin O,, Milpied N,, Harousseau JL,, Moreau P. 2004. Disseminated mucormycosis associated with invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in a patient treated for post-transplant high-grade non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Leuk Lymphoma 45:21612163.
46. Imhof A,, Balajee SA,, Fredricks DN,, Englund JA,, Marr KA. 2004. Breakthrough fungal infections in stem cell transplant recipients receiving voriconazole. Clin Infect Dis 39:743746.
47. Safdar A,, O’Brien S,, Kouri IF. 2004. Efficacy and feasibility of aerosolized amphotericin B lipid complex therapy in caspofungin breakthrough pulmonary zygomycosis. Bone Marrow Transplant 34:467468.
48. Girmenia C,, Moleti ML,, Micozzi A,, Iori AP,, Barberi W,, Foa R,, Martino P. 2005. Breakthrough Candida krusei fungemia during fluconazole prophylaxis followed by breakthrough zygomycosis during caspofungin therapy in a patient with severe aplastic anemia who underwent stem cell transplantation. J Clin Microbiol 43:53955396.
49. Pappas PG,, Alexander BD,, Andes DR,, Hadley S,, Kauffman CA,, Freifeld A,, Anaissie EJ,, Brumble LM,, Herwaldt L,, Ito J,, Kontoyiannis DP,, Lyon GM,, Marr KA,, Morrison VA,, Park BJ,, Patterson TF,, Perl TM,, Oster RA,, Schuster MG,, Walker R,, Walsh TJ,, Wannemuehler KA,, Chiller TM. 2010. Invasive fungal infections among organ transplant recipients: results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET). Clin Infect Dis 50:11011111.
50. Skiada A,, Pagano L,, Groll A,, Zimmerli S,, Dupont B,, Lagrou K,, Lass-Florl C,, Bouza E,, Klimko N,, Gaustad P,, Richardson M,, Hamal P,, Akova M,, Meis JF,, Rodriguez-Tudela JL,, Roilides E,, Mitrousia-Ziouva A,, Petrikkos G. 2011. Zygomycosis in Europe: analysis of 230 cases accrued by the registry of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (ECMM) Working Group on Zygomycosis between 2005 and 2007. Clin Microbiol Infect 17:18591867.
51. Wahba H,, Truong MT,, Lei X,, Kontoyiannis DP,, Marom EM. 2008. Reversed halo sign in invasive pulmonary fungal infections. Clin Infect Dis 46:17331737.
52. Georgiadou SP,, Sipsas NV,, Marom EM,, Kontoyiannis DP. 2011. The diagnostic value of halo and reversed halo signs for invasive mold infections in compromised hosts. Clin Infect Dis 52:11441155.
53. Marchiori E,, Marom EM,, Zanetti G,, Hochhegger B,, Irion KL,, Godoy MC. 2012. Reversed halo sign in invasive fungal infections: criteria for differentiation from organizing pneumonia. Chest 142:14691473.
54. Sun HY,, Aguado JM,, Bonatti H,, Forrest G,, Gupta KL,, Safdar N,, John GT,, Pursell KJ,, Munoz P,, Patel R,, Fortun J,, Martin-Davila P,, Philippe B,, Philit F,, Tabah A,, Terzi N,, Chatelet V,, Kusne S,, Clark N,, Blumberg E,, Julia MB,, Humar A,, Houston S,, Lass-Florl C,, Johnson L,, Dubberke ER,, Barron MA,, Lortholary O,, Singh N. 2009. Pulmonary zygomycosis in solid organ transplant recipients in the current era. Am J Transplant 9:21662171.
55. Almaslamani M,, Taj-Aldeen SJ,, Garcia-Hermoso D,, Dannaoui E,, Alsoub H,, Alkhal A. 2009. An increasing trend of cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Mycocladus corymbifer (formerly Absidia corymbifera): report of two cases and review of primary cutaneous Mycocladus infections. Med Mycol 47:532538.
56. Vitrat-Hincky V,, Lebeau B,, Bozonnet E,, Falcon D,, Pradel P,, Faure O,, Aubert A,, Piolat C,, Grillot R,, Pelloux H. 2009. Severe filamentous fungal infections after widespread tissue damage due to traumatic injury: six cases and review of the literature. Scand J Infect Dis 41:491500.
57. Cornely OA,, Maertens J,, Winston DJ,, Perfect J,, Ullmann AJ,, Walsh TJ,, Helfgott D,, Holowiecki J,, Stockelberg D,, Goh YT,, Petrini M,, Hardalo C,, Suresh R,, Angulo-Gonzalez D. 2007. Posaconazole vs. fluconazole or itraconazole prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia. N Engl J Med 356:348359.
58. Ullmann AJ,, Lipton JH,, Vesole DH,, Chandrasekar P,, Langston A,, Tarantolo SR,, Greinix H,, Morais de Azevedo W,, Reddy V,, Boparai N,, Pedicone L,, Patino H,, Durrant S. 2007. Posaconazole or fluconazole for prophylaxis in severe graft-versus-host disease. N Engl J Med 356:335347.
59. Walsh TJ,, Kontoyiannis DP. 2008. What is the role of combination therapy in management of zygomycosis? Clin Infect Dis 47:372374.
60. Lanternier F,, Lortholary O. 2008. Liposomal amphotericin B: what is its role in 2008? Clin Microbiol Infect 14(Suppl 4):7183.
61. Bjorkholm M,, Runarsson G,, Celsing F,, Kalin M,, Petrini B,, Engervall P. 2001. Liposomal amphotericin B and surgery in the successful treatment of invasive pulmonary mucormycosis in a patient with acute T-lymphoblastic leukemia. Scand J Infect Dis 33:316319.
62. Parkyn T,, McNinch AW,, Riordan T,, Mott M. 2000. Zygomycosis in relapsed acute leukaemia. J Infect 41:265268.
63. Skiada A,, Lanternier F,, Groll AH,, Pagano L,, Zimmerli S,, Herbrecht R,, Lortholary O,, Petrikkos GL. 2013. Diagnosis and treatment of mucormycosis in patients with hematological malignancies: guidelines from the 3rd European Conference on Infections in Leukemia (ECIL 3). Haematologica 98:492504.
64. Cornely OA,, Arikan-Akdagli S,, Dannaoui E,, Groll AH,, Lagrou K,, Chakrabarti A,, Lanternier F,, Pagano L,, Skiada A,, Akova M,, Arendrup MC,, Boekhout T,, Chowdhary A,, Cuenca-Estrella M,, Freiberger T,, Guinea J,, Guarro J,, de Hoog S,, Hope W,, Johnson E,, Kathuria S,, Lackner M,, Lass-Flörl M,, Lortholary O,, Meis JF,, Meletiadis J,, Munoz P,, Richardson M,, Roilides E,, Tortorano AM,, Ullmann AJ,, van Diepeningen A,, Verweij P,, Petrikkos G. 2014. ESCMID and ECMM Joint Clinical Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Mucormycosis 2013. Clin Microbiol Infect 20(Suppl 3):526.
65. Chamilos G,, Lewis RE,, Kontoyiannis DP. 2008. Delaying amphotericin B-based frontline therapy significantly increases mortality among patients with hematologic malignancy who have zygomycosis. Clin Infect Dis 47:503509.
66. Marchetti O,, Lamoth F,, Mikulska M,, Viscoli C,, Verweij P,, Bretagne S. 2012. ECIL recommendations for the use of biological markers for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases in leukemic patients and hematopoietic SCT recipients. Bone Marrow Transplant 47:846854.
67. Arendrup MC,, Bille J,, Dannaoui E,, Ruhnke M,, Heussel CP,, Kibbler C. 2012. ECIL-3 classical diagnostic procedures for the diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases in patients with leukaemia. Bone Marrow Transplant 47:10301045.
68. Glazer M,, Nusair S,, Breuer R,, Lafair J,, Sherman Y,, Berkman N. 2000. The role of BAL in the diagnosis of pulmonary mucormycosis. Chest 117:279282.
69. Nosari A,, Anghilieri M,, Carrafiello G,, Guffanti C,, Marbello L,, Montillo M,, Muti G,, Ribera S,, Vanzulli A,, Nichelatti M,, Morra E. 2003. Utility of percutaneous lung biopsy for diagnosing filamentous fungal infections in hematologic malignancies. Haematologica 88:14051409.
70. Hazen KC,. 1998. Mycology and aerobic actinomycetes, p 255. In Isenberg HD (ed), Essential Procedures for Clinical Microbiology. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
71. Lass-Florl C. 2009. Zygomycosis: conventional laboratory diagnosis. Clin Microbiol Infect 15(Suppl 5):6065.
72. Frater JL,, Hall GS,, Procop GW. 2001. Histologic features of zygomycosis: emphasis on perineural invasion and fungal morphology. Arch Pathol Lab Med 125:375378.
73. Guarner J,, Brandt ME. 2011. Histopathologic diagnosis of fungal infections in the 21st century. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:247280.
74. Almyroudis NG,, Sutton DA,, Fothergill AW,, Rinaldi MG,, Kusne S. 2007. In vitro susceptibilities of 217 clinical isolates of zygomycetes to conventional and new antifungal agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:25872590.
75. Walsh TJ,, Gamaletsou MN,, McGinnis MR,, Hayden RT,, Kontoyiannis DP. 2012. Early clinical and laboratory diagnosis of invasive pulmonary, extrapulmonary, and disseminated mucormycosis (zygomycosis). Clin Infect Dis 54 (Suppl 1):S55S60.
76. Buitrago MJ,, Aguado JM,, Ballen A,, Bernal-Martinez L,, Prieto M,, Garcia-Reyne A,, Garcia-Rodriguez J,, Rodriguez-Tudela JL,, Cuenca-Estrella M. 2013. Efficacy of DNA amplification in tissue biopsy samples to improve the detection of invasive fungal disease. Clin Microbiol Infect 19:E271E277.
77. Cabaret O,, Toussain G,, Abermil N,, Alsamad IA,, Botterel F,, Costa JM,, Papon JF,, Bretagne S. 2011. Degradation of fungal DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sinus fungal balls hampers reliable sequence-based identification of fungi. Med Mycol 49:329332.
78. Schwarz P,, Bretagne S,, Gantier JC,, Garcia-Hermoso D,, Lortholary O,, Dromer F,, Dannaoui E. 2006. Molecular identification of zygomycetes from culture and experimentally infected tissues. J Clin Microbiol 44:340349.
79. Bialek R,, Konrad F,, Kern J,, Aepinus C,, Cecenas L,, Gonzalez GM,, Just-Nubling G,, Willinger B,, Presterl E,, Lass-Florl C,, Rickerts V. 2005. PCR based identification and discrimination of agents of mucormycosis and aspergillosis in paraffin wax embedded tissue. J Clin Pathol 58: 11801184.
80. Rickerts V,, Just-Nubling G,, Konrad F,, Kern J,, Lambrecht E,, Bohme A,, Jacobi V,, Bialek R. 2006. Diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients by seminested PCR assay of tissue samples. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 25:813.
81. Rickerts V,, Mousset S,, Lambrecht E,, Tintelnot K,, Schwerdtfeger R,, Presterl E,, Jacobi V,, Just-Nubling G,, Bialek R. 2007. Comparison of histopathological analysis, culture, and polymerase chain reaction assays to detect invasive mold infections from biopsy specimens. Clin Infect Dis 44:10781083.
82. Hata DJ,, Buckwalter SP,, Pritt BS,, Roberts GD,, Wengenack NL. 2008. Real-time PCR method for detection of zygomycetes. J Clin Microbiol 46:23532358.
83. Hayden RT,, Qian X,, Procop GW,, Roberts GD,, Lloyd RV. 2002. In situ hybridization for the identification of filamentous fungi in tissue section. Diagn Mol Pathol 11:119126.
84. Rickerts V,, Khot PD,, Myerson D,, Ko DL,, Lambrecht E,, Fredricks DN. 2011. Comparison of quantitative real time PCR with sequencing and ribosomal RNA-FISH for the identification of fungi in formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. BMC Infect Dis 11:202.
85. Millon L,, Larosa F,, Lepiller Q,, Legrand F,, Rocchi S,, Daguindau E,, Scherer E,, Bellanger AP,, Leroy J,, Grenouillet F. 2013. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of circulating DNA in serum for early diagnosis of mucormycosis in immunocompromised patients. Clin Infect Dis 56:e95e101.
86. Schwarz P,, Lortholary O,, Dromer F,, Dannaoui E. 2007. Carbon assimilation profiles as a tool for identification of zygomycetes. J Clin Microbiol 45:14331439.
87. Etienne KA,, Gillece J,, Hilsabeck R,, Schupp JM,, Colman R,, Lockhart SR,, Gade L,, Thompson EH,, Sutton DA,, Neblett-Fanfair R,, Park BJ,, Turabelidze G,, Keim P,, Brandt ME,, Deak E,, Engelthaler DM. 2012. Whole genome sequence typing to investigate the Apophysomyces outbreak following a tornado in Joplin, Missouri, 2011. PLoS One 7:e49989.
88. Gomes MZ,, Lewis RE,, Kontoyiannis DP. 2011. Mucormycosis caused by unusual mucormycetes, non-Rhizopus, -Mucor, and -Lichtheimia species. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:411445.
89. Chakrabarti A,, Singh R. 2011. The emerging epidemiology of mould infections in developing countries. Curr Opin Infect Dis 24:521526.
90. Padhye AA,, Ajello L. 1988. Simple method of inducing sporulation by Apophysomyces elegans and Saksenaea vasiformis. J Clin Microbiol 26:18611863.
91. Gams W,, Hoekstra E,, Aptroot A. 1998. CBS Course of Mycology. Centraalbureau voor Schimmelcultures, Baarn, The Netherlands.
92. Ellis D,, Davis S,, Alexiou H,, Handke R,, Bartley R. 2007. Descriptions of Medical Fungi, 2nd ed. Mycology Unit, Women’s and Children’s Hospital, Adelaide, Australia.
93. Hoffmann K,, Walther G,, Voight K. 2009. Mycocladus vs. Lichtheimia: a correction (Lichtheimiaceae fam. nov., Mucorales, Mucoromycotina). Mycol Res 113:277278.
94. St-Germain G,, Summerbell R. 1996. Identifying Filamentous Fungi. A Clinical Laboratory Handbook. Star Publishing Company, Belmont, CA.
95. Lu XL,, Najafzadeh MJ,, Dolatabadi S,, Ran YP,, Gerrits van den Ende AH,, Shen YN,, Li CY,, Xi LY,, Hao F,, Zhang QQ,, Li RY,, Hu ZM,, Lu GX,, Wang JJ,, Drogari-Apiranthitou M,, Klaassen C,, Meis JF,, Hagen F,, Liu WD,, de Hoog GS. 2013. Taxonomy and epidemiology of Mucor irregularis, agent of chronic cutaneous mucormycosis. Persoonia 30:4856.
96. Schipper MAA. 1976. On Mucor circinelloides, Mucor racemosus and related species. Stud Mycol 12:140.
97. Alvarez E,, Garcia-Hermoso D,, Sutton DA,, Cano JF,, Stchigel AM,, Hoinard D,, Fothergill AW,, Rinaldi MG,, Dromer F,, Guarro J. 2010. Molecular phylogeny and proposal of two new species of the emerging pathogenic fungus Saksenaea. J Clin Microbiol 48:44104416.
98. Schipper MAA. 1984. A revision of the genus Rhizopus I. The Rhizopus stolonifer-group and Rhizopus oryzae. Stud Mycol 25:119.
99. Alvarez E,, Sutton DA,, Cano J,, Fothergill AW,, Stchigel A,, Rinaldi MG,, Guarro J. 2009. Spectrum of zygomycete species identified in clinically significant specimens in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 47:16501656.
100. Schipper MAA,, Stalpers JA. 1984. A revision of the genus Rhizopus II. The Rhizopus microsporus group. Stud Mycol 25:3034.
101. Walther G,, Pawlowska J,, Alastruey-Izquierdo A,, Wrzosek M,, Rodriguez-Tudela JL,, Dolatabadi S,, Chakrabarti A,, de Hoog GS. 2013. DNA barcoding in Mucorales: an inventory of biodiversity. Persoonia 30:1147.
102. Lemmer K,, Losert H,, Rickerts V,, Just-Nubling G,, Sander A,, Kerkmann ML,, Tintelnot K. 2002. Molecular biological identification of Cuninghamella spec. Mycoses 45(Suppl 1):3136.
103. Garcia-Rodriguez J,, Quiles-Melero I,, Humala-Barbier K,, Monzon A,, Cuenca-Estrella M. 2012. Isolation of Cunninghamella blakesleeana in an immunodepressed patient. Mycoses 55:463465.
104. Holland J. 1997. Emerging zygomycoses of humans: Saksenaea vasiformis and Apophysomyces elegans. Curr Top Med Mycol 8:2734.
105. Garcia-Hermoso D,, Dannaoui E,. 2007. The Zygomycetes, p 159183. In Kavanagh K (ed), New Insights in Medical Mycology. Springer Science, New York, NY.
106. Schoch CL,, Seifert KA,, Huhndorf S,, Robert V,, Spouge JL,, Levesque CA,, Chen W. 2012. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region as a universal DNA barcode marker for Fungi. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:62416246.
107. Balajee SA,, Borman AM,, Brandt ME,, Cano J,, Cuenca-Estrella M,, Dannaoui E,, Guarro J,, Haase G,, Kibbler CC,, Meyer W,, O’Donnell K,, Petti CA,, Rodriguez-Tudela JL,, Sutton D,, Velegraki A,, Wickes BL. 2009. Sequence-based identification of Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Mucorales species in the clinical mycology laboratory: where are we and where should we go from here? J Clin Microbiol 47:877884.
108. Abe A,, Sone T,, Sujaya IN,, Saito K,, Oda Y,, Asano K,, Tomita F. 2003. rDNA ITS sequence of Rhizopus oryzae: its application to classification and identification of lactic acid producers. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 67:17251731.
109. Chakrabarti A,, Ghosh A,, Prasad GS,, David JK,, Gupta S,, Das A,, Sakhuja V,, Panda NK,, Singh SK,, Das S,, Chakrabarti T. 2003. Apophysomyces elegans: an emerging zygomycete in India. J Clin Microbiol 41:783788.
110. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi: Approved Standard. Document M-38A2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
111. Rodriguez-Tudela J,, Donelly J,, Arendrup M,, Arikan S,, Barchiesi F,, Bille J,, Chryssanthou E,, Cuenca-Estrella M,, Dannaoui E,, Denning D,, Fegeler W,, Gaustad P,, Lass-Florl C,, Moore C,, Richardson M,, Schmalreck A,, Velegraki A,, Verweij P. 2008. EUCAST Technical Note on the method for the determination of broth dilution minimum inhibitory concentrations of antifungal agents for conidia-forming moulds. Clin Microbiol Infect 14:982984.
112. Espinel-Ingroff A. 2006. Comparison of three commercial assays and a modified disk diffusion assay with two broth microdilution reference assays for testing zygomycetes, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp., and Cryptococcus neoformans with posaconazole and amphotericin B. J Clin Microbiol 44:36163622.
113. Dannaoui E,, Meis JF,, Mouton JW,, Verweij PE. 2002. In vitro susceptibilities of Zygomycota to polyenes. J Antimicrob Chemother 49:741744.
114. Dannaoui E,, Meletiadis J,, Mouton JW,, Meis JF,, Verweij PE. 2003. In vitro susceptibilities of zygomycetes to conventional and new antifungals. J Antimicrob Chemother 51:4552.
115. Sun QN,, Fothergill AW,, McCarthy DI,, Rinaldi MG,, Graybill JR. 2002. In vitro activities of posaconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B, and fluconazole against 37 clinical isolates of zygomycetes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:15811582.
116. Torres-Narbona M,, Guinea J,, Martinez-Alarcon J,, Pelaez T,, Bouza E. 2007. In vitro activities of amphotericin B, caspofungin, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole against 45 clinical isolates of zygomycetes: comparison of CLSI M38-A, Sensititre YeastOne, and the Etest. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 51:11261129.
117. Vitale RG,, de Hoog GS,, Schwarz P,, Dannaoui E,, Deng S,, Machouart M,, Voigt K,, van de Sande WW,, Dolatabadi S,, Meis JF,, Walther G. 2012. Antifungal susceptibility and phylogeny of opportunistic members of the order Mucorales. J Clin Microbiol 50:6675.
118. Dannaoui E,, Meis JF,, Loebenberg D,, Verweij PE. 2003. Activity of posaconazole in treatment of experimental disseminated zygomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:36473650.
119. Ibrahim AS,, Avanessian V,, Spellberg B,, Edwards JEJr. 2003. Liposomal amphotericin B, and not amphotericin B deoxycholate, improves survival of diabetic mice infected with Rhizopus oryzae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:33433344.
120. Sun QN,, Najvar LK,, Bocanegra R,, Loebenberg D,, Graybill JR. 2002. In vivo activity of posaconazole against Mucor spp. in an immunosuppressed-mouse model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:23102312.
121. Dannaoui E,, Mouton JW,, Meis JF,, Verweij PE. 2002. Efficacy of antifungal therapy in a nonneutropenic murine model of zygomycosis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:19531959.
122. Salas V,, Pastor FJ,, Calvo E,, Alvarez E,, Sutton DA,, Mayayo E,, Fothergill AW,, Rinaldi MG,, Guarro J. 2012. In vitro and in vivo activities of posaconazole and amphotericin B in a murine invasive infection by Mucor circinelloides: poor efficacy of posaconazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:22462250.
123. Spellberg B,, Edwards JJr,, Ibrahim A. 2005. Novel perspectives on mucormycosis: pathophysiology, presentation, and management. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:556569.
124. Lewis RE,, Liao G,, Wang W,, Prince RA,, Kontoyiannis DP. 2011. Voriconazole pre-exposure selects for breakthrough mucormycosis in a mixed model of Aspergillus fumigatus-Rhizopus oryzae pulmonary infection. Virulence 2:348355.
125. Rodriguez MM,, Pastor FJ,, Sutton DA,, Calvo E,, Fothergill AW,, Salas V,, Rinaldi MG,, Guarro J. 2010. Correlation between in vitro activity of posaconazole and in vivo efficacy against Rhizopus oryzae infection in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 54:16651669.
126. Salas V,, Pastor FJ,, Calvo E,, Sutton DA,, Chander J,, Mayayo E,, Alvarez E,, Guarro J. 2012. Efficacy of posaconazole in a murine model of disseminated infection caused by Apophysomyces variabilis. J Antimicrob Chemother 67:17121715.
127. Salas V,, Pastor FJ,, Calvo E,, Sutton D,, Garcia-Hermoso D,, Mayayo E,, Dromer F,, Fothergill A,, Alvarez E,, Guarro J. 2012. Experimental murine model of disseminated infection by Saksenaea vasiformis: successful treatment with posaconazole. Med Mycol 50:710715.
128. Alastruey-Izquierdo A,, Castelli MV,, Cuesta I,, Zaragoza O,, Monzon A,, Mellado E,, Rodriguez-Tudela JL. 2009. In vitro activity of antifungals against Zygomycetes. Clin Microbiol Infect 15(Suppl 5):7176.
129. Chakrabarti A,, Shivaprakash MR,, Curfs-Breuker I,, Baghela A,, Klaassen CH,, Meis JF. 2010. Apophysomyces elegans: epidemiology, amplified fragment length polymorphism typing, and in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern. J Clin Microbiol 48:45804585.
130. Torres-Narbona M,, Guinea J,, Martinez-Alarcon J,, Munoz P,, Pelaez T,, Bouza E. 2008. Workload and clinical significance of the isolation of zygomycetes in a tertiary general hospital. Med Mycol 46:225230.
131. De Pauw B,, Walsh TJ,, Donnelly JP,, Stevens DA,, Edwards JE,, Calandra T,, Pappas PG,, Maertens J,, Lortholary O,, Kauffman CA,, Denning DW,, Patterson TF,, Maschmeyer G,, Bille J,, Dismukes WE,, Herbrecht R,, Hope WW,, Kibbler CC,, Kullberg BJ,, Marr KA,, Munoz P,, Odds FC,, Perfect JR,, Restrepo A,, Ruhnke M,, Segal BH,, Sobel JD,, Sorrell TC,, Viscoli C,, Wingard JR,, Zaoutis T,, Bennett JE. 2008. Revised definitions of invasive fungal disease from the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Mycoses Study Group (EORTC/MSG) Consensus Group. Clin Infect Dis 46:18131821.
132. Vikram HR,, Smilack JD,, Leighton JA,, Crowell MD,, De Petris G. 2012. Emergence of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in the United States, with a review of worldwide cases. Clin Infect Dis 54:16851691.
133. Cameron HM,. 1989. Entomophthoromycosis, p 186198. In Mahgoub ES (ed), Tropical Mycosis. Janssen Research Council, Beerse, Belgium.
134. Receveur MC,, Roussin C,, Mienniel B,, Gasnier O,, Riviere JP,, Malvy D,, Lortholary O. 2005. Rhinofacial entomophthoromycosis. About two new cases in Mayotte. Bull Soc Pathol Exot 98:350353.
135. Kimura M,, Yaguchi T,, Sutton DA,, Fothergill AW,, Thompson EH,, Wickes BL. 2011. Disseminated human conidiobolomycosis due to Conidiobolus lamprauges. J Clin Microbiol 49:752756.
136. Gugnani HC. 1999. A review of zygomycosis due to Basidiobolus ranarum. Eur J Epidemiol 15:923929.
137. Zavasky DM,, Samowitz W,, Loftus T,, Segal H,, Carroll K. 1999. Gastrointestinal zygomycotic infection caused by Basidiobolus ranarum: case report and review. Clin Infect Dis 28:12441248.
138. Lyon GM,, Smilack JD,, Komatsu KK,, Pasha TM,, Leighton JA,, Guarner J,, Colby TV,, Lindsley MD,, Phelan M,, Warnock DW,, Hajjeh RA. 2001. Gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in Arizona: clinical and epidemiological characteristics and review of the literature. Clin Infect Dis 32:14481455.
139. Bigliazzi C,, Poletti V,, Dell’Amore D,, Saragoni L,, Colby TV. 2004. Disseminated basidiobolomycosis in an immunocompetent woman. J Clin Microbiol 42:13671369.
140. Gugnani HC. 1992. Entomophthoromycosis due to Conidiobolus. Eur J Epidemiol 8:391396.
141. Bittencourt AL,, Marback R,, Nossa LM. 2006. Mucocutaneous entomophthoramycosis acquired by conjunctival inoculation of the fungus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 75:936938.
142. Walker SD,, Clark RV,, King CT,, Humphries JE,, Lytle LS,, Butkus DE. 1992. Fatal disseminated Conidiobolus coronatus infection in a renal transplant patient. Am J Clin Pathol 98:559564.
143. Sharma NL,, Mahajan VK,, Singh P. 2003. Orofacial conidiobolomycosis due to Conidiobolus incongruus. Mycoses 46:137140.
144. Hussein MR. 2008. Mucocutaneous Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon. J Cutan Pathol 35:979988.
145. Gomez-Munoz MT,, Fernandez-Barredo S,, Martinez-Diaz RA,, Perez-Gracia MT,, Ponce-Gordo F. 2012. Development of a specific polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of Basidiobolus. Mycologia 104:585591.
146. Ben-Ze’ev I,, Kenneth R.1982. Features-criteria of taxonomic value in the Entomophthorales. Mycotaxon 14:393455.
147. Fromentin H,, Ravisse P. 1977. Tropical entomophthoromycoses. Acta Trop 34:375394.
148. Vilela R,, Silva SM,, Riet-Correa F,, Dominguez E,, Mendoza L. 2010. Morphologic and phylogenetic characterization of Conidiobolus lamprauges recovered from infected sheep. J Clin Microbiol 48:427432.
149. Okafor JI,, Testrake D,, Mushinsky HR,, Yangco BG. 1984. A Basidiobolus sp. and its association with reptiles and amphibians in southern Florida. Sabouraudia 22:4751.
150. Yangco BG,, Okafor JI,, TeStrake D. 1984. In vitro susceptibilities of human and wild-type isolates of Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 25:413416.
151. Guarro J,, Aguilar C,, Pujol I. 1999. In-vitro antifungal susceptibilities of Basidiobolus and Conidiobolus spp. strains. J Antimicrob Chemother 44:557560.
152. Taylor GD,, Sekhon AS,, Tyrrell DL,, Goldsand G. 1987. Rhinofacial zygomycosis caused by Conidiobolus coronatus: a case report including in vitro sensitivity to antimycotic agents. Am J Trop Med Hyg 36:398401.
153. Tondolo JS,, de Loreto ES,, Dutra V,, Nakazato L,, de Paula DA,, Zanette RA,, Alves SH,, Santurio JM. 2013. In vitro susceptibility of Conidiobolus lamprauges recovered from sheep to antifungal agents. Vet Microbiol 166:690693.
154. Lelievre L,, Garcia-Hermoso D,, Abdoul H,, Hivelin M,, Chouaki T,, Toubas D,, Mamez AC,, Lantieri L,, Lortholary O,, Lanternier F,, French Mycosis Study Group. 2014. Posttraumatic mucormycosis: a nationwide study in France and review of the literature. Medicine (Baltimore) 93:395404.
155. Alanio A,, Garcia-Hermoso D,, Mercier Delarue S,, Lanternier F,, Gits-Muselli M,, Menotti J,, Denis B,, Bergeron A,, Legrand M,, Lortholary O,, Bretagne S, French Mycosis Study Group. 2015. Molecular identification of Mucorales in human tissues: contribution of PCR electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Clin Infect Microbiol (Epub before print) doi:10.1016/j.cmi.2015.01.017.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Species of (subphylum ) involved in human mucormycosis

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Macroscopic and microscopic features in species involved in human infection

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Main characteristics allowing distinction among species

Citation: Garcia-Hermoso D, Alanio A, Lortholary O, Dromer F. 2015. Agents of Systemic and Subcutaneous Mucormycosis and Entomophthoromycosis, p 2087-2108. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch121

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error