MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.
Buy this
Price Non-Member $30.00

Preview this :
Zoom in

, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch122-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch122-2.gif
There is no abstract provided for this chapter. We are in the process of generating a full text preview. Please bookmark and return later.
Citation: Thompson G, GÓmez B. .
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...


Image of FIGURE 1

Mycelial phase of showing tuberculate macroconidia and microconidia. Lactophenol cotton blue stain. Magnification, ∼×245. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f1

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2

GMS stain showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×290. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f2

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3

(A) Calcofluor white wet mount of sputum showing blastoconidia of . Original magnification, ×475. Courtesy of the American Society of Clinical Pathology. (B) Calcofluor white wet mount of sputum showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×255. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f3

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4

Mycelial phase of . Magnification, ∼×240. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f4

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5

Blastoconidia of . GMS stain. Magnification, ∼×290. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f5

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6

Mycelial phase of showing alternating arthroconidia. Lactofuchsin stain. Magnification, ∼×250. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f6

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7

KOH preparation of pus from a lesion showing spherule and endospores. Magnification, ∼×290. Reprinted with permission of Oxford University Press from . doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f7

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 8

Wet mount showing blastoconidia of . Magnification, ∼×290. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f8

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 9

adiaspore in mouse tissue. PAS stain. Magnification, ∼×280. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch122.f9

Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint


1. Peterson SW,, Sigler L. 1998. Molecular genetic variation in Emmonsia crescens and Emmonsia parva, etiologic agents of adiaspiromycosis, and their phylogenetic relationship to Blastomyces dermatitidis (Ajellomyces dermatitidis) and other systemic fungal pathogens. J Clin Microbiol 36:29182925.
2. Untereiner WA,, Scott JA,, Naveau FA,, Sigler L,, Bachewich J,, Angus A. 2004. The Ajellomycetaceae, a new family of vertebrate-associated Onygenales. Mycologia 96:812821.
3. Mandel MA,, Barker BM,, Kroken S,, Rounsley SD,, Orbach MJ. 2007. Genomic and population analyses of the mating type loci in Coccidioides species reveal evidence for sexual reproduction and gene acquisition. Eukaryot Cell 6:11891199.
4. Hawksworth DL. 2011. A new dawn for the naming of fungi: impacts of decisions made in Melbourne in July 2011 on the future publication and regulation of fungal names. IMA Fungus 2:155162.
5. Kasuga T,, White TJ,, Koenig G,, McEwen J,, Restrepo A,, Castañeda E,, da Silva Lacaz C,, Heins-Vaccari EM,, De Freitas RS,, Zancopé-Oliveira RM,, Qin Z,, Negroni R,, Carter DA,, Mikami Y,, Tamura M,, Taylor ML,, Miller GF,, Poonwan N,, Taylor JW. 2003. Phylogeography of the fungal pathogen Histoplasma capsulatum. Mol Ecol 12: 33833401.
6. Balajee AS,, Hurst SF,, Chang LS,, Miles M,, Beeler E,, Hale C,, Kasuga T,, Benedict K,, Chiller T,, Lindsley MD. 2013. Multilocus sequence typing of Histoplasma capsulatum in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from cats living in non-endemic regions reveals a new phylogenetic clade. Med Mycol 51:345351.
7. Meece JK,, Anderson JL,, Fisher MC,, Henk DA,, Sloss BL,, Reed KD. 2011. Population genetic structure of clinical and environmental isolates of Blastomyces dermatitidis, based on 27 polymorphic microsatellite markers. Appl Environ Microbiol 77:51235131.
8. Brown EM,, McTaggart LR,, Zhang SX,, Low DE,, Stevens DA,, Richardson SE. 2013. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a cryptic species Blastomyces gilchristii, sp. nov. within the human pathogenic fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. PLoS One 8:e59237. 10.1371/journal.pone.0059237.
9. Meece JK,, Anderson JL,, Gruszka S,, Sloss BL,, Sullivan B,, Reed KD. 2013. Variation in clinical phenotype of human infection among genetic groups of Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Infect Dis 207:814822.
10. Hirschmann JV. 2007. The early history of coccidioidomycosis: 1892–1945. Clin Infect Dis 44:12021207.
11. Neafsey DE,, Barker BM,, Sharpton TJ,, Stajich JE,, Park DJ,, Whiston E,, Hung CY,, McMahan C,, White J,, Sykes S,, Heiman D,, Young S,, Zeng Q,, Abouelleil A,, Aftuck L,, Bessette D,, Brown A,, FitzGerald M,, Lui A,, Macdonald JP,, Priest M,, Orbach MJ,, Galgiani JN,, Kirkland TN,, Cole GT,, Birren BW,, Henn MR,, Taylor JW,, Rounsley SD. 2010. Population genomic sequencing of Coccidioides fungi reveals recent hybridization and transposon control. Genome Res 20:938946.
12. Fisher MC,, Koenig GL,, White TJ,, Taylor JW. 2002. Molecular and phenotypic description of Coccidioides posadasii sp. nov., previously recognized as the non-California population of Coccidioides immitis. Mycologia 94:7384.
13. Engelthaler DM,, Chiller T,, Schupp JA,, Colvin J,, Beckstrom-Sternberg SM,, Driebe EM,, Moses T,, Tembe W,, Sinari S,, Beckstrom-Sternberg JS,, Christoforides A,, Pearson JV,, Carpten J,, Keim P,, Peterson A,, Terashita D,, Balajee SA. 2011. Next-generation sequencing of Coccidioides immitis isolated during cluster investigation. Emerg Infect Dis 17:227232.
14. Sharpton TJ,, Stajich JE,, Rounsley SD,, Gardner MJ,, Wortman JR,, Jordar VS,, Maiti R,, Kodira CD,, Neafsey DE,, Zeng Q,, Hung CY,, McMahan C,, Muszewska A,, Grynberg M,, Mandel MA,, Kellner EM,, Barker BM,, Galgiani JN,, Orbach MJ,, Kirkland TN,, Cole GT,, Henn MR,, Birren BW,, Taylor JW. 2009. Comparative genomic analyses of the human fungal pathogens Coccidioides and their relatives. Genome Res 19:17221731.
15. Matute DR,, McEwen JG,, Puccia R,, Montes BA,, San-Blas G,, Bagagli E,, Rauscher JT,, Restrepo A,, Morais F,, Niño-Vega G,, Taylor JW. 2006. Cryptic speciation and recombination in the fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as revealed by gene genealogies. Mol Biol Evol 23:6573.
16. Teixeira MM,, Theodoro RC,, de Carvalho MJ,, Fernandes L,, Paes HC,, Hahn RC,, Mendoza L,, Bagagli E,, San-Blas G,, Felipe MS. 2009. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a high level of speciation in the Paracoccidioides genus. Mol Phylogenet Evol 52:273283.
17. Theodoro RC,, Teixeira MM,, Felipe MS,, Paduan KS,, Ribolla PM,, San-Blas G,, Bagagli E. 2012. Genus Paracoccidioides: species recognition and biogeographic aspects. PLoS One 7:e37694. 10.1371/journal.pone.0037694.
18. Teixeira MM,, Theodoro RC,, Derengowski LS,, Nicola AM,, Bagagli E,, Felipe MS. 2013. Molecular and morphological data support the existence of a sexual cycle in species of the genus Paracoccidioides. Eukaryot Cell 12:380389.
19. Herr RA,, Tarcha EJ,, Taborda PR,, Taylor JW,, Ajello L,, Mendoza L. 2001. Phylogenetic analysis of Lacazia loboi places this previously uncharacterized pathogen within the dimorphic onygenales. J Clin Microbiol 39:309314.
20. Desjardins CA,, Champion MD,, Holder JW,, Muszewska A,, Goldberg J,, Bailão AM,, Brigido MM,, Ferreira ME,, Garcia AM,, Grynberg M,, Gujja S,, Heiman DI,, Henn MR,, Kodira CD,, León-Narváez H,, Longo LV,, Ma LJ,, Malavazi I,, Matsuo AL,, Morais FV,, Pereira M,, Rodríguez-Brito S,, Sakthikumar S,, Salem-Izacc SM,, Sykes SM,, Teixeira MM,, Vallejo MC,, Walter ME,, Yandava C,, Young S,, Zeng Q,, Zucker J,, Felipe MS,, Goldman GH,, Haas BJ,, McEwen JG,, Nino-Vega G,, Puccia R,, San-Blas G,, Soares CM,, Birren BW,, Cuomo CA. 2011. Comparative genomic analysis of human fungal pathogens causing paracoccidioidomycosis. PLoS Genet 7:e1002345. 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002345.
21. Sigler L,. 2005. Adiaspiromycosis and other infections caused by Emmonsia species, p 810824. In Merz WG,, Hay RJ (ed), Topley and Wilson’s Microbiology and Microbial Infections, 10th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
22. Anstead GM,, Sutton DA,, Graybill JR. 2012. Adiaspiromycosis causing respiratory failure and a review of human infections due to Emmonsia and Chrysosporium spp. J Clin Microbiol 50:13461354.
23. Kenyon C,, Bonorchis K,, Corcoran C,, Meintjes G,, Locketz M,, Lehloenya R,, Vismer HF,, Naicker P,, Prozesky H,, van Wyk M,, Bamford C,, du Plooy M,, Imrie G,, Dlamini S,, Borman AM,, Colebunders R,, Yansouni CP,, Mendelson M,, Govender NP. 2013. A dimorphic fungus causing disseminated infection in South Africa. N Engl J Med 369: 14161424.
24. Kauffman CA,. 2011. Histoplasmosis, p 321335. In Kauffman CA,, Pappas PG,, Sobel JD,, Dismukes WE (ed), Essentials of Clinical Mycology, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
25. Deepe GSJr,. 2010. Histoplasma capsulatum, p 3305–3318. In Mandell GL,, Bennett JE,, Dollin R (ed), Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases, 7th ed. Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, PA.
26. Lenhart SW,, Schafer MP,, Singal M,, Hajjeh RA. 2004. Histoplasmosis: Protecting Workers at Risk. DHHS (NIOSH) publication no. 2005-109. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Washington, DC. http://www .cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2005-109/pdfs/2005-109.pdf.
27. Gómez BL. 2011. Histoplasmosis: epidemiology in Latin America. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 5:199205.
28. Reed KD,, Meece JK,, Archer JR,, Peterson AT. 2008. Ecologic niche modeling of Blastomyces dermatitidis in Wisconsin. PLoS One 3:e2034. 10.1371/journal.pone. 0002034.
29. Smith JA,, Kauffman CA. 2010. Blastomycosis. Proc Am Thorac Soc 7:173180.
30. Thompson GR,III. 2011. Pulmonary coccidioidomycosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med 32:754763.
31. Brown J,, Benedict K,, Park BJ,, Thompson GRIII. 2013. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology. Clin Epidemiol 5:185197.
32. Restrepo A,, González A,, Agudelo CA,. 2011. Paracoccidioidomycosis, p 367385. In Kauffman CA,, Pappas PG,, Sobel JD,, Dismukes WE (ed), Essentials of Clinical Mycology, 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.
33. Restrepo A,, Gómez BL,, Tobón A. 2012. Paracoccidioidomycosis: Latin America’s own fungal disorder. Curr Fungal Infect Rep 6:303311.
34. Watts JC,, Callaway CS,, Chandler FW,, Kaplan W. 1975. Human pulmonary adiospiromycosis. Arch Pathol 99:1115.
35. Cuellar-Rodriguez J,, Avery RK,, Lard M,, Budev M,, Gordon SM,, Shrestha NK,, van Duin D,, Oethinger M,, Mawhorter SD. 2009. Histoplasmosis in solid organ transplant recipients: 10 years of experience at a large transplant center in an endemic area. Clin Infect Dis 49:710716.
36. Saccente M,, Woods GL. 2010. Clinical and laboratory update on blastomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 23:367381.
37. Roy M,, Benedict K,, Deak E,, Kirby MA,, McNiel JT,, Sickler CJ,, Eckardt E,, Marx RK,, Heffernan RT,, Meece JK,, Klein BS,, Archer JR,, Theurer J,, Davis JP,, Park BJ. 2013. A large community outbreak of blastomycosis in Wisconsin with geographic and ethnic clustering. Clin Infect Dis 57:655662.
38. Pappas PG,, Threlkeld MG,, Bedsole GD,, Cleveland KO,, Gelfand MS,, Dismukes WE. 1993. Blastomycosis in immunocompromised patients. Medicine (Baltimore) 72:311325.
39. Stagliano D,, Epstein J,, Hickey P. 2007. Fomite-transmitted coccidioidomycosis in an immunocompromised child. Pediatr Infect Dis J 26:454456.
40. Vucicevic D,, Carey EJ,, Blair JE. 2011. Coccidioidomycosis in liver transplant recipients in an endemic area. Am J Transplant 11:111119.
41. Nguyen C,, Barker BM,, Hoover S,, Nix DE,, Ampel NM,, Frelinger JA,, Orbach MJ,, Galgiani JN. 2013. Recent advances in our understanding of the environmental, epidemiological, immunological, and clinical dimensions of coccidioidomycosis. Clin Microbiol Rev 26:505525.
42. Schneider E,, Hajjeh RA,, Spiegel RA,, Jibson RW,, Harp EL,, Marshall GA,, Gunn RA,, McNeil MM,, Pinner RW,, Baron RC,, Burger RC,, Hutwagner LC,, Crump C,, Kaufman L,, Reef SE,, Feldman GM,, Pappagianis D,, Werner SB. 1997. A coccidioidomycosis outbreak following the Northridge, Calif, earthquake. JAMA 277:904908.
43. Ampel NM. 2007. The complex immunology of human coccidioidomycosis. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:245258.
44. Kenyon C,, Corcoran C,, Govender NP. 2014. An emmonsia species causing disseminated infection in South Africa. N Engl J Med 370:284.
45. Chapman SW,, Dismukes WE,, Proia LA,, Bradsher RW,, Pappas PG,, Threlkeld MG,, Kauffman CA, Infectious Diseases Society of America. 2008. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of blastomycosis: 2008 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 46:18011812.
46. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Increase in coccidioidomycosis—California, 20002007. 2009. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 58:105109.
47. Sunenshine RH,, Anderson S,, Erhart L,, Vossbrink A,, Kelly PC,, Engelthaler D,, Komatsu K. 2007. Public health surveillance for coccidioidomycosis in Arizona. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:96102.
48. Kim MM,, Blair JE,, Carey EJ,, Wu Q,, Smilack JD. 2009. Coccidioidal pneumonia, Phoenix, Arizona, USA, 2000–2004. Emerg Infect Dis 15:397401.
49. Vincent T,, Galgiani JN,, Huppert M,, Salkin D. 1993. The natural history of coccidioidal meningitis: VA–Armed Forces cooperative studies, 1955–1958. Clin Infect Dis 16: 247254.
50. Pelegrín I,, Ayats J,, Xiol X,, Cuenca-Estrella M,, Jucglà A,, Boluda S,, Fernàndez-Sabé N,, Rafecas A,, Gudiol F,, Cabellos C. 2011. Disseminated adiaspiromycosis: case report of a liver transplant patient with human immunodeficiency infection, and literature review. Transpl Infect Dis 13:507514.
51. Mendes MO,, Moraes MA,, Renoiner EI,, Dantas MH,, Lanzieri TM,, Fonseca CF,, Luna EJ,, Hatch DL. 2009. Acute conjunctivitis with episcleritis and anterior uveitis linked to adiaspiromycosis and freshwater sponges, Amazon region, Brazil, 2005. Emerg Infect Dis 15:633639.
52. Wheat LJ. 2006. Improvements in diagnosis of histoplasmosis. Expert Opin Biol Ther 6:12071221.
53. Mathisen G,, Shelub A,, Truong J,, Wigen C. 2010. Coccidioidal meningitis: clinical presentation and management in the fluconazole era. Medicine(Baltimore) 89:251284.
54. Connolly PA,, Durkin MM,, Lemonte AM,, Hackett EJ,, Wheat LJ. 2007. Detection of Histoplasma antigen by quantitative enzyme immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol 14: 15871591.
55. Hage CA,, Kirsch EJ,, Stump TE,, Kauffman CA,, Goldman M,, Connolly P,, Johnson PC,, Wheat LJ,, Baddley JW. 2011. Histoplasma antigen clearance during treatment of histoplasmosis in patients with AIDS determined by a quantitative antigen enzyme immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:661666.
56. Scheel CM,, Samayoa B,, Herrera A,, Lindsley MD,, Benjamin L,, Reed Y,, Hart J,, Lima S,, Rivera BE,, Raxcaco G,, Chiller T,, Arathoon E,, Gómez BL. 2009. Development and evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria in immunocompromised patients. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:852858.
57. Cloud JL,, Bauman SK,, Neary BP,, Ludwig KG,, Ashwood ER. 2007. Performance characteristics of a polyclonal enzyme immunoassay for the quantitation of Histoplasma antigen in human urine samples. Am J Clin Pathol 128:1822.
58. Theel ES,, Jespersen DJ,, Harring J,, Mandrekar J,, Binnicker MJ. 2013. Evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum antigen from urine specimens. J Clin Microbiol 51:35553559.
59. McKinsey DS,, McKinsey JP,, Northcutt N,, Sarria JC. 2009. Interlaboratory discrepancy of antigenuria results in 2 patients with AIDS and histoplasmosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 63:111114.
60. Girouard G,, Lachance C,, Pelletier R. 2007. Observations on (1-3)-β-d-glucan detection as a diagnostic tool in endemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma or Blastomyces. J Med Microbiol 56:10011002.
61. Xavier MO,, Pasqualotto AC,, Cardoso IC,, Severo LC. 2009. Cross-reactivity of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis, Histoplasma capsulatum, and Cryptococcus species in the commercial Platelia Aspergillus enzyme immunoassay. Clin Vaccine Immunol 16:132133.
62. Durkin M,, Witt J,, Lemonte A,, Wheat B,, Connolly P. 2004. Antigen assay with the potential to aid in diagnosis of blastomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 42:48734875.
63. Wheat J,, Wheat H,, Connolly P,, Kleiman M,, Supparatpinyo K,, Nelson K,, Bradsher R,, Restrepo A. 1997. Cross-reactivity in Histoplasma capsulatum variety capsulatum antigen assays of urine samples from patients with endemic mycoses. Clin Infect Dis 24:11691171.
64. Durkin M,, Connolly P,, Kuberski T,, Myers R,, Kubak BM,, Bruckner D,, Pegues D,, Wheat LJ. 2008. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis with use of the Coccidioides antigen enzyme immunoassay. Clin Infect Dis 47:e69e73.
65. Kirsch EJ,, Greene RT,, Prahl A,, Rubin SI,, Sykes JE,, Durkin MM,, Wheat LJ. 2012. Evaluation of Coccidioides antigen detection in dogs with coccidioidomycosis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 19:343345.
66. Thompson GRIII,, Bays DJ,, Johnson SM,, Cohen SH,, Pappagianis D,, Finkelman MA. 2012. Serum (1→3)-β-d-glucan measurement in coccidioidomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 50:30603062.
67. Gómez BL,, Figueroa JI,, Hamilton AJ,, Ortiz B,, Robledo MA,, Hay RJ,, Restrepo A. 1997. Use of monoclonal antibodies in diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis: new strategies for detection of circulating antigens. J Clin Microbiol 35:32783283.
68. Marques da Silva SH,, Colombo AL,, Blotta MH,, Lopes JD,, Queiroz-Telles F,, Camargo ZP. 2003. Detection of circulating gp43 antigen in serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with paracoccidioidomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 41:36753680.
69. Gómez BL,, Figueroa JI,, Hamilton AJ,, Diez S,, Rojas M,, Tobón AM,, Hay RJ,, Restrepo A. 1998. Antigenemia in patients with paracoccidioidomycosis: detection of the 87-kilodalton determinant during and after antifungal therapy. J Clin Microbiol 36:33093316.
70. Bialek R,, Feucht A,, Aepinus C,, Just-Nübling G,, Robertson VJ,, Knobloch J,, Hohle R. 2002. Evaluation of two nested PCR assays for detection of Histoplasma capsulatum DNA in human tissue. J Clin Microbiol 40:16441647.
71. Maubon D,, Simon S,, Aznar C. 2007. Histoplasmosis diagnosis using a polymerase chain reaction method. Application on human samples in French Guiana, South America. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 58:441444.
72. Muñoz C,, Gómez BL,, Tobón A,, Arango K,, Restrepo A,, Correa MM,, Muskus C,, Cano LE,, González A. 2010. Validation and clinical application of a molecular method for the identification of Histoplasma capsulatum in human specimens in Colombia, South America. Clin Vaccine Immunol 17:6267.
73. Imhof A,, Schaer C,, Schoedon G,, Schaer DJ,, Walter RB,, Schaffner A,, Schneemann M. 2003. Rapid detection of pathogenic fungi from clinical specimens using LightCycler real-time fluorescence PCR. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:558560.
74. Buitrago MJ,, Canteros CE,, Frías De León G,, González Á,, Marques-Evangelista De Oliveira M,, Muñoz CO,, Ramirez JA,, Toranzo AI,, Zancope-Oliveira R,, Cuenca-Estrella M. 2013. Comparison of PCR protocols for detecting Histoplasma capsulatum DNA through a multicenter study. Rev Iberoam Micol 11: S1130S1406.
75. Sidamonidze K,, Peck MK,, Perez M,, Baumgardner D,, Smith G,, Chaturvedi V,, Chaturvedi S. 2012. Real-time PCR assay for identification of Blastomyces dermatitidis in culture and in tissue. J Clin Microbiol 50:17831786.
76. Babady NE,, Buckwalter SP,, Hall L,, Le Febre KM,, Binnicker MJ,, Wengenack NL. 2011. Detection of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum from culture isolates and clinical specimens by use of real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 49:32043208.
77. Vucicevic D,, Blair JE,, Binnicker MJ,, McCullough AE,, Kusne S,, Vikram HR,, Parish JM,, Wengenack NL. 2010. The utility of Coccidioides polymerase chain reaction testing in the clinical setting. Mycopathologia 170:345351.
78. Thompson GR,, Sharma S,, Bays DJ,, Pruitt R,, Engelthaler DM,, Bowers J,, Driebe EM,, Davis M,, Libke R,, Cohen SH,, Pappagianis D. 2013. Coccidioidomycosis: adenosine deaminase levels, serologic parameters, culture results, and polymerase chain reaction testing in pleural fluid. Chest 143:776781.
79. Teles FR,, Martins ML. 2011. Laboratorial diagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis and new insights for the future of fungal diagnosis. Talanta 85:22542264.
80. Buitrago MJ,, Merino P,, Puente S,, Gomez-Lopez A,, Arribi A,, Zancopé-Oliveira RM,, Gutierrez MC,, RodriguezTudela JL,, Cuenca-Estrella M. 2009. Utility of real-time PCR for the detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis DNA in the diagnosis of imported paracoccidioidomycosis. Med Mycol 47:879882.
81. Bialek R,, Ibricevic A,, Aepinus C,, Najvar LK,, Fothergill AW,, Knobloch J,, Graybill JR. 2000. Detection of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in tissue samples by a nested PCR assay. J Clin Microbiol 38:29402942.
82. Semighini CP,, Camargo ZP,, Puccia R,, Goldman MH,, Goldman GH. 2002. Molecular identification of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis by 5’ nuclease assay. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 44:383386.
83. Dot JM,, Debourgogne A,, Champigneulle J,, Salles Y,, Brizion M,, Puyhardy JM,, Collomb J,, Plénat F,, Machouart M. 2009. Molecular diagnosis of disseminated adiaspiromycosis due to Emmonsia crescens. J Clin Microbiol 47:12691273.
84. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2009. Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, 5th ed, p 170181. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA. http://www.cdc.gov/biosafety/publications/bmbl5/bmbl5_sect_viii_b.pdf.
85. Stevens DA,, Clemons KV,, Levine HB,, Pappagianis D,, Baron EJ,, Hamilton JR,, Deresinski SC,, Johnson N. 2009. Expert opinion: what to do when there is Coccidioides exposure in a laboratory. Clin Infect Dis 49:919923.
86. Hall GS,, Pratt-Rippin K,, Washington JA. 1992. Evaluation of a chemiluminescent probe assay for identification of Histoplasma capsulatum isolates. J Clin Microbiol 30:30033004.
87. Padhye AA,, Smith G,, McLaughlin D,, Standard PG,, Kaufman L. 1992. Comparative evaluation of a chemiluminescent DNA probe and an exoantigen test for rapid identification of Histoplasma capsulatum. J Clin Microbiol 30:31083111.
88. Stockman L,, Clark KA,, Hunt JM,, Roberts GD. 1993. Evaluation of commercially available acridinium ester-labeled chemiluminescent DNA probes for culture identification of Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Histoplasma capsulatum. J Clin Microbiol 31:845850.
89. Brandt ME,, Gaunt D,, Iqbal N,, McClinton S,, Hambleton S,, Sigler L. 2005. False-positive Histoplasma capsulatum Gen-Probe chemiluminescent test result caused by a Chrysosporium species. J Clin Microbiol 43:14561458.
90. Padhye AA,, Smith G,, Standard PG,, McLaughlin D,, Kaufman L. 1994. Comparative evaluation of chemiluminescent DNA probe assays and exoantigen tests for rapid identification of Blastomyces dermatitidis and Coccidioides immitis. J Clin Microbiol 32:867870.
91. Sutton DA. 2007. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis by culture: safety considerations, traditional methods, and susceptibility testing. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1111:315325.
92. Valesco M. 2008. Stability of frozen, heat-killed cultures of Coccidioides immitis as positive-control material in the Gen-Probe AccuProbe Coccidioides immitis culture identification test. J Clin Microbiol 46:1565.
93. Gori S,, Drouhet E,, Gueho E,, Huerre M,, Lofaro A,, Parenti M,, Dupont B. 1998. Cutaneous disseminated mycosis in a patient with AIDS due to a new dimorphic fungus. J Mycol Med 8:5763.
94. Taylor JW,, Geiser DM,, Burt A,, Koufopanou V. 1999. The evolutionary biology and population genetics underlying fungal strain typing. Clin Microbiol Rev 12:126146.
95. Muniz MM,, Pizzini CV,, Peralta JM,, Reiss E,, Zancopé-Oliveira RM. 2001. Genetic diversity of Histoplasma capsulatum strains isolated from soil, animals, and clinical specimens in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, by a PCR-based random amplified polymorphic DNA assay. J Clin Microbiol 39:44874494.
96. Karimi K,, Wheat LJ,, Connolly P,, Cloud G,, Hajjeh R,, Wheat E,, Alves K,, da Silva Lacaz C,, Keath E. 2002. Differences in histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States and Brazil. J Infect Dis 186:16551660.
97. Muniz MM,, Tavares PM,, Meyer W,, Nosanchuk JD,, Zancope-Oliveira RM. 2010. Comparison of different DNA-based methods for molecular typing of Histoplasma capsulatum. Appl Environ Microbiol 76:44384447.
98. McCullough MJ,, DiSalvo AF,, Clemons KV,, Park P,, Stevens DA. 2000. Molecular epidemiology of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Clin Infect Dis 30:328335.
99. Meece JK,, Anderson JL,, Klein BS,, Sullivan TD,, Foley SL,, Baumgardner DJ,, Brummitt CF,, Reed KD. 2010. Genetic diversity in Blastomyces dermatitidis: implications for PCR detection in clinical and environmental samples. Med Mycol 48:285290.
100. Koufopanou V,, Burt A,, Taylor JW. 1997. Concordance of gene genealogies reveals reproductive isolation in the pathogenic fungus Coccidioides immitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94:54785482.
101. Jewell K,, Cheshier R,, Cage GD. 2008. Genetic diversity among clinical Coccidioides spp. isolates in Arizona. Med Mycol 246:449455.
102. Nascimento E,, Martinez R,, Lopes AR,, de Souza Bernardes LA,, Barco CP,, Goldman MH,, Taylor JW,, McEwen JG,, Nobrega MP,, Nobrega FG,, Goldman GH. 2004. Detection and selection of microsatellites in the genome of Paracocccidioides brasiliensis as molecular markers for clinical and epidemiological studies. J Clin Microbiol 42:50075014.
103. Lindsley MD,, Warnock DW,, Morrison CJ,. 2006. Serological and molecular diagnosis of fungal infection, p 569605. In Rose NR,, Hamilton RG,, Detrick B (ed), Manual of Molecular and Clinical Laboratory Immunology, 7th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
104. Guimarães AJ,, Pizzini CV,, De Abreu Almeida M,, Peralta JM,, Nosanchuk JD,, Zancopé-Oliveira RM. 2010. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified, deglycosylated histoplasmin for different clinical manifestations of histoplasmosis. Microbiol Res (Pavia) 2:10.4081/mr.2009.e1. 10.4081/mr.2010.e1.
105. Klein BS,, Hogan LH,, Jones JM. 1993. Immunologic recognition of a 25-amino acid repeat arrayed in tandem on a major antigen of Blastomyces dermatitidis. J Clin Invest 92:330337.
106. Klein BS,, Vergeront JM,, Kaufman L,, Bradsher RW,, Kumar UN,, Mathai G,, Varkey B,, Davis JP. 1987. Serological tests for blastomycosis: assessments during a large point-source outbreak in Wisconsin. J Infect Dis 155:262268.
107. Klein BS,, Kuritsky JN,, Chappell WA,, Kaufman L,, Green J,, Davies SF,, Williams JE,, Sarosi GA. 1986. Comparison of the enzyme immunoassay, immunodiffusion, and complement fixation tests in detecting antibody in human serum to the A antigen of Blastomyces dermatitidis. Am Rev Respir Dis 133:144148.
108. Sekhon AS,, Kaufman L,, Kobayashi GS,, Moledina NH,, Jalbert M. 1995. The value of the Premier enzyme immunoassay for diagnosing Blastomyces dermatitidis infections. J Med Vet Mycol 33:123125.
109. Pappagianis D. 2001. Serologic studies in coccidioidomycosis. Semin Respir Infect 16:242250.
110. Blair JE,, Mendoza N,, Force S,, Chang YH,, Grys TE. 2013. Clinical specificity of the enzyme immunoassay test for coccidioidomycosis varies according to the reason for its performance. Clin Vaccine Immunol 20:9598.
111. Díez S,, Gómez BL,, McEwen JG,, Restrepo A,, Hay RJ,, Hamilton AJ. 2003. Combined use of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis recombinant 27-kilodalton and purified 87-kilodalton antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for serodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. J Clin Microbiol 41:15361542.
112. Fernandes VC,, Coitinho JB,, Veloso JM,, Araújo SA,, Pedroso EP,, Goes AM. 2011. Combined use of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis recombinant rPb27 and rPb40 antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunodiagnosis of paracoccidioidomycosis. J Immunol Methods 367:7884.
113. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Filamentous Fungi; Approved Standard—2nd Edition. CLSI Document M38-A2. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
114. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. 2008. Reference Method for Broth Dilution Antifungal Susceptibility Testing of Yeasts; Approved Standard—3rd Edition. CLSI Document M27-A3. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
115. Wheat LJ,, Connolly P,, Smedema M,, Brizendine E,, Hafner R, AIDS Clinical Trials Group and the Mycoses Study Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. 2001. Emergence of resistance to fluconazole as a cause of failure during treatment of histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome. Clin Infect Dis 33:19101913.
116. Kriesel JD,, Sutton DA,, Schulman S,, Fothergill AW,, Rinaldi MG. 2008. Persistent pulmonary infection with an azole-resistant Coccidioides species. Med Mycol 46:607610.
117. Li RK,, Ciblak MA,, Nordoff N,, Pasarell L,, Warnock DW,, McGinnis MR. 2000. In vitro activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin B against Blastomyces dermatitidis, Coccidioides immitis, and Histoplasma capsulatum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 44:17341736.
118. McGinnis MR,, Pasarell L,, Sutton DA,, Fothergill AW,, Cooper CRJr,, Rinaldi MG. 1997. In vitro evaluation of voriconazole against some clinically important fungi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:18321834.
119. Thompson GRIII,, Wiederhold NP. 2010. Isavuconazole: a comprehensive review of spectrum of activity of a new triazole. Mycopathologia 170:291313.
120. Espinel-Ingroff A. 1998. Comparison of in vitro activities of the new triazole SCH56592 and the echinocandins MK-0991 (L-743,872) and LY303366 against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and yeasts. J Clin Microbiol 36:29502956.
121. González GM,, Tijerina R,, Najvar LK,, Bocanegra R,, Luther M,, Rinaldi MG,, Graybill JR. 2001. Correlation between antifungal susceptibilities of Coccidioides immitis in vitro and antifungal treatment with caspofungin in a mouse model. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:18541859.
122. González GM,, Tijerina R,, Najvar LK,, Bocanegra R,, Rinaldi M,, Loebenberg D,, Graybill JR. 2002. In vitro and in vivo activities of posaconazole against Coccidioides immitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 46:13521356.
123. Verghese S,, Arjundas D,, Krishnakumar KC,, Padmaja P,, Elizabeth D,, Padhye AA,, Warnock DW. 2002. Coccidioidomycosis in India: report of a second imported case. Med Mycol 40:307309.


Generic image for table

susceptibilities of dimorphic fungi to antifungal agents


This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error