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Chapter 123 : , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses

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Abstract:

Superficial fungal infections constitute some of the most common infectious conditions and include dermatophytosis (tinea corporis, tinea capitis, tinea pedis, and tinea unguium) and pityriasis versicolor, as well as rarer disorders like tinea nigra and black and white piedra. The etiologic agents of dermatophytosis are classified, along with some nonpathogenic relatives, in three genera: , , and . Dermatophytes are keratinophilic fungi that are capable of invading the keratinous tissues of living animals. They are grouped into three categories based on host preference and natural habitat: (i) anthropophilic species almost exclusively infect humans, with animals being rarely infected; (ii) geophilic species are soil-associated organisms that can occasionally cause infections in humans and other animals; and (iii) zoophilic species are essentially pathogens of nonhuman mammals, although animal-to-human transmission is not uncommon. This chapter describes the taxonomy, epidemiology, transmission, and clinical significance of dermatophytes. The methods of diagnosis of dermatophyte infections, including specimen collection, transport, and processing; the microscopic examination and culture of clinical specimens from suspected cases of dermatophytosis; and the conventional (phenotypic) and molecular methods of identification of the causative agents, are discussed in detail. Attention is also given to the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and identification of the causative agents for those superficial infections in which the causative fungi colonize the cornified layers of the epidermis or the suprafollicular portion of the hair (tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, black piedra, and white piedra).

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Dermatophyte hyphae in skin scraping. NaOH mount. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f1

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

, ectothrix type of hair invasion. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f2

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

, endothrix type of hair invasion. Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f3

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Hair infected by from a patient with favus. Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f4

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

Smooth-walled macroconidia of . Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f5

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

Macroconidia and microconidia of complex on SGA with 5% NaCl. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f6

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

Smooth-walled macroconidia of Afro-Asiatic type () from primary isolate on SGA. Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f7

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

Long, narrow macroconidium and clavate to pyriform microconidia of . Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f8

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

Clavate macroconidium, microconidia, and intermediate conidia of . Phase contrast; magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f9

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

Microconidia with typical refractile cytoplasm of . Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f10

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 11
FIGURE 11

Characteristic chlamydospores produced by or BCP-milk solids-yeast extract agar. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f11

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 12
FIGURE 12

Macroconidia of on SGA. Note the absence of microconidia. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f12

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 13
FIGURE 13

Macroconidia of on SGA with 3% NaCl. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f13

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 14
FIGURE 14

Macroconidia of with rough, thick walls. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f14

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 15
FIGURE 15

Macroconidia of , showing thick walls and pseudosepta. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f15

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 16
FIGURE 16

Macroconidia of . Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f16

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 17
FIGURE 17

Rough-walled macroconidium of on SGA with 3% NaCl. Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f17

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 18
FIGURE 18

(a) complex: “nodular” variant of (formerly ), SGA, 12 days, showing typical bright yellow pigmentation. (b) complex: granular, zoophilic type (mating tester strain of ), 14 days. (c) , SGA, 10 days, surface showing cottony white mycelium. (d) , SGA, 10 days, reverse showing typical red pigment. (e) , SGA, 14 days, surface showing low velvety texture, mixed white and brownish mycelium. (f) , SGA, 14 days, reverse showing mixture of mahogany red-brown and sulfur yellow coloration. (g) , SGA, 10 days, relatively flat colony showing pale striate margin and yellowish pigment near colony center. (h) Brown filaments of in NaOH mount of scraping from tinea nigra. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f18

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 19
FIGURE 19

in skin scrapings from a lesion of tinea versicolor (Kane’s stain). Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f19

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 20
FIGURE 20

Culture of on Littman oxgall agar overlaid with oil. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f20

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 21
FIGURE 21

Microscopic appearance of yeast cells on Littman oxgall overlaid with olive oil. Magnification, ×400. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f21

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 22
FIGURE 22

Black piedra nodules on scalp hair. NaOH mount. Magnification, ×100. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f22

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 23
FIGURE 23

White piedra nodule on hair from the groin. Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f23

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Image of FIGURE 24
FIGURE 24

Arthroconidia from a crushed nodule of white piedra. Magnification, ×1,000. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch123.f24

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Important characteristics of clinically isolated dermatophytes and dermatophytoids

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Grouping of dermatophytes on the basis of host preference and natural habitat

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Hair invasion by dermatophytes on the human host

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Dermatophyte nutritional response as elucidated by agars

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Sequence of procedures for phenotypic identification of dermatophytes in pure culture

Citation: Borman A, Summerbell R. 2015. , , , and Agents of Superficial Mycoses, p 2128-2152. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch123

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