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Chapter 125 : Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*

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Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Eumycetoma is a chronic, granulomatous, progressive subcutaneous fungal disease characterized by the production of large masses of fungal organisms called grains, which are discharged through sinus tracts. Eumycetoma is more frequently seen in tropical and subtropical regions and less frequently in temperate countries. Several hyaline and dematiaceous fungi can cause eumycetoma, and their distributions are greatly affected by climate, especially rainfall. The identification of these fungal species is not always easy, and in many cases species identification needs experience and access to special laboratory testing such as PCR and DNA sequencing. Unfortunately, these tests are not always available in areas of endemicity. The management of eumycetoma is difficult, and response to antifungal drugs is always poor. In this chapter, fungi frequently reported from eumycetoma cases are described. The taxonomy of some previously reported species is updated, and new species from well-confirmed cases are also described. In this chapter, the available information about the natural habitat of causative agents, pathogenesis, isolation, identification procedures, and antifungal susceptibility data are discussed.

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

(Top left) Slide culture on potato dextrose agar showing geniculate conidiogenous cell and septate, curved conidia. Magnification, ×160. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f1

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(Top right) Geniculate conidiogenous cell bearing smooth, predominantly four-celled conidia. Magnification, ×160. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f2

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

(Middle left) Ostiolate conidiomata (pycnidia) containing numerous cylindric conidia. Magnification, ×250. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f3

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

(Middle right) Lateral, septate conidiophore bearing closely annellated conidiogenous cell producing smooth, nonseptate, ellipsoidal to cylindric conidia. Magnification, ×160. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f4

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

(Bottom left) Slide culture on SDA showing erect, septate conidiophore, phialidic conidiogenous cell, and slightly curved conidia. Magnification, ×160. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f5

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

(Bottom right) Slide culture on soil extract agar showing lateral phialides and globose conidia. Magnification, ×250. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f6

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

(Top left) Cross section of an ascocarp showing the ascomatal wall of interwoven hyphae and containing dark asci and ascospores. Magnification, ×250. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f7

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 8
FIGURE 8

(Top right) Globose, nonostiolate, ruptured cleistothecium containing ellipsoid to oblate ascospores. Magnification, ×160. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f8

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 9
FIGURE 9

(Bottom left) Slide culture on potato dextrose agar showing lateral, single, egg-shaped to clavate, truncate conidia. Magnification, ×160. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f9

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Image of FIGURE 10
FIGURE 10

(Bottom right) synanamorph of Slide culture on potato dextrose agar showing ropelike bundles of hyphae producing cylindric, smooth conidia. Magnification, ×160. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch125.f10

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Overview of main species causing eumycotic mycetoma

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Current and outdated names of some of species that cause eumycotic mycetoma

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

susceptibilities of mycetoma-causative fungi

Citation: Ahmed A, De Hoog G, van de Sande W. 2015. Fungi Causing Eumycotic Mycetoma*, p 2173-2187. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch125

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