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Chapter 127 : , , , and

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Abstract:

In the past 100 years the microbial pathogens described in this chapter have been classified either as fungal and/or para-fungal protistan pathogens. Based on their apparent epidemiological connection with water, they were at one point also placed in a new category of hydrophilic infectious agents. However, based on taxonomic and other morphological characteristics, these three anomalous species were not well understood. This frustrating situation fueled a strong controversy that has only recently been solved with the advent of molecular methodologies. Despite the recent finding that both and are protistan pathogens, they are still studied by medical mycologists, continuing a historical tradition. More recently, the finding of an oomycete in the genus affecting mammalian hosts alerted the medical community to the presence of a novel pathogen phenotypically similar to the fungi and indistinguishable from the clinical and pathological features displayed by during infection. Based on rDNA phylogenetic analysis, the evolutionary location of the microbial pathogens discussed in this chapter is illustrated.

Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. 2015. , , , and , p 2196-2208. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch127
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Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Phylogenetic location of the four microbial pathogens studied in this chapter using small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Forming a sister group, the algae and stramenopilans are placed basal to the plants. The latter includes the mammalian pathogenic Oomycetes spp. and spp. They develop hyphal-like elements, vesicles with biflagellate zoospores, and oogonia. is placed at the point where the animals and fungi diverge (red circle). This uncultivated protist is characterized by the development of spherical phenotypes with endoconidia. is an anomalous, uncultivated, ascomycetous fungus developing yeast-like cells in chains. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f1

Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. 2015. , , , and , p 2196-2208. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch127
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

. Histological sections stained with H&E (A) and silver stain (B) show the typical morphological features found in patients with cutaneous lacaziosis. (A) yeast-like cells are poorly stained with H&E and are observed as empty round structures surrounded by an area of granulomatous reaction (bar, 8 μm). (B) The presence of abundant lemon-shaped yeast-like branching cells in chains connected with slender tubules is the main feature of in silver-stained sections (bar, 13 μm). (C) A wet mount preparation in 10% KOH shows numerous yeast-like cells in chains, some of them containing small dancing bodies in their cytoplasm (bar, 10 μm). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f2

Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. 2015. , , , and , p 2196-2208. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch127
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

. (A) Colony of on SDA showing a submerged colony with few aerial mycelia. (B) Slender sparsely septate hyphae without fruiting bodies. (C) Four vesicles of containing numerous unhatched zoospores. (D) Several eosinophils are observed around the stained hyphae of from a case of human subcutaneous pythiosis. Note the eosinophilic reaction (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon) around the hypha (arrow). (E) Silver-stained hyphae showing the typical feature of in infected hosts. Bars: (B) 40 μm; (C) 50 μm; (D) 25 μm; (E) 20 μm. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f3

Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. 2015. , , , and , p 2196-2208. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch127
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

sp. (A) Colony of sp. on SDA isolated from biopsied dog tissue. sp. produces cream to white submerged colonies at 25 and 37°C. (B) Microscopically, ribbon-type hyphae are found in samples collected from agar. In lactophenol blue stain, the presence of large spherical and oval structures is common in some isolates (bar, 60 μm). However, some strains may develop only hyphae. (C) 10% KOH preparation from biopsied tissue depicting several broader hyphal elements without septa (bar, 18 μm). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f4

Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. 2015. , , , and , p 2196-2208. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch127
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Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

. (A) H&E-stained mature sporangia with endospores and numerous juvenile sporangia of different sizes. Magnification, ×10. (B) A collapsed sporangium in U-shaped and juvenile sporangia with prominent nuclei and nucleoli (long and short arrows, respectively). Magnification, ×30. (C) Mature sporangium releasing endospores through a cell wall pore. Magnification, ×30. (D) Wright-Giemsa impression smear from a dog with nasal rhinosporidiosis. An immature collapsed sporangium may be observed in the lower section. Numerous endospores surrounded by a clear halo are shown near the top. Magnification, ×70. Panel D is courtesy of W. A. Meier. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f5

Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. 2015. , , , and , p 2196-2208. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch127
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Taxonomic, epidemiological, clinical, and mycological features of the unusual microbes , spp., and

Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. 2015. , , , and , p 2196-2208. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch127

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