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Citation: Vilela R, Mendoza L. .
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Phylogenetic location of the four microbial pathogens studied in this chapter using small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Forming a sister group, the algae and stramenopilans are placed basal to the plants. The latter includes the mammalian pathogenic Oomycetes spp. and spp. They develop hyphal-like elements, vesicles with biflagellate zoospores, and oogonia. is placed at the point where the animals and fungi diverge (red circle). This uncultivated protist is characterized by the development of spherical phenotypes with endoconidia. is an anomalous, uncultivated, ascomycetous fungus developing yeast-like cells in chains. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f1

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. Histological sections stained with H&E (A) and silver stain (B) show the typical morphological features found in patients with cutaneous lacaziosis. (A) yeast-like cells are poorly stained with H&E and are observed as empty round structures surrounded by an area of granulomatous reaction (bar, 8 μm). (B) The presence of abundant lemon-shaped yeast-like branching cells in chains connected with slender tubules is the main feature of in silver-stained sections (bar, 13 μm). (C) A wet mount preparation in 10% KOH shows numerous yeast-like cells in chains, some of them containing small dancing bodies in their cytoplasm (bar, 10 μm). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f2

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. (A) Colony of on SDA showing a submerged colony with few aerial mycelia. (B) Slender sparsely septate hyphae without fruiting bodies. (C) Four vesicles of containing numerous unhatched zoospores. (D) Several eosinophils are observed around the stained hyphae of from a case of human subcutaneous pythiosis. Note the eosinophilic reaction (Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon) around the hypha (arrow). (E) Silver-stained hyphae showing the typical feature of in infected hosts. Bars: (B) 40 μm; (C) 50 μm; (D) 25 μm; (E) 20 μm. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f3

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sp. (A) Colony of sp. on SDA isolated from biopsied dog tissue. sp. produces cream to white submerged colonies at 25 and 37°C. (B) Microscopically, ribbon-type hyphae are found in samples collected from agar. In lactophenol blue stain, the presence of large spherical and oval structures is common in some isolates (bar, 60 μm). However, some strains may develop only hyphae. (C) 10% KOH preparation from biopsied tissue depicting several broader hyphal elements without septa (bar, 18 μm). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f4

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. (A) H&E-stained mature sporangia with endospores and numerous juvenile sporangia of different sizes. Magnification, ×10. (B) A collapsed sporangium in U-shaped and juvenile sporangia with prominent nuclei and nucleoli (long and short arrows, respectively). Magnification, ×30. (C) Mature sporangium releasing endospores through a cell wall pore. Magnification, ×30. (D) Wright-Giemsa impression smear from a dog with nasal rhinosporidiosis. An immature collapsed sporangium may be observed in the lower section. Numerous endospores surrounded by a clear halo are shown near the top. Magnification, ×70. Panel D is courtesy of W. A. Meier. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch127.f5

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Taxonomic, epidemiological, clinical, and mycological features of the unusual microbes , spp., and


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