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Chapter 133 : Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology

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Abstract:

This chapter covers various approaches and diagnostic methods currently in use for diagnosis of parasitic infections. If clinical specimens have been properly collected and processed according to specific specimen rejection and acceptance criteria, the examination of prepared wet mounts, concentrated specimens, permanent stained smears, blood films, and various culture materials provides detailed information leading to parasite identification and confirmation of the suspected etiologic agent. Although other tests such as immunoassay and amplification-based diagnostic kits continue to become available commercially, most medical parasitology diagnostic work depends on the knowledge and microscopy skills of the microbiologist.

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133
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References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817381.mcm11.ch133
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26. Mathis A,, Deplazes P. 1995. PCR and in vitro cultivation for detection of Leishmania spp. in diagnostic samples from humans and dogs. J Clin Microbiol 33:11451149.
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31. World Health Organization. 2014. Malaria rapid diagnostic test performance: summary results of WHO product testing of malaria RDTs: Round 1-5 (2008-2013) http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/atoz/9789241507554summary_eng.pdf?
32. Aldeen WE,, Carroll K,, Robison A,, Morrison M,, Hale D. 1998. Comparison of nine commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for detection of Giardia lamblia in fecal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 36:13381340.
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34. Garcia LS,, Shimizu RY. 2000. Detection of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens using the ColorPAC combination rapid solid-phase qualitative immunochromatographic assay. J Clin Microbiol 38:12671268.
35. Garcia LS,, Shimizu RY,, Bernard CN. 2000. Detection of Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, and Cryptosporidium parvum antigens in human fecal specimens using the Triage parasite panel enzyme immunoassay. J Clin Microbiol 38:33373340.

Tables

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TABLE 1

Body sites and possible parasites recovered

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133
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TABLE 2

Commercially available kits for immunodetection of parasitic organisms or antigens in stool samples

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133
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TABLE 3

Commercially available kits or antigens for immunodetection of specific serum antibodies

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133
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TABLE 4

Specimen preparation and procedures, recommended stain(s) and relevant parasites, and additional information

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133
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TABLE 5

Fecal specimens for parasites: options for collection and processing

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133
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TABLE 6

Approaches to stool parasitology: test ordering

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133
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TABLE 7

Fecal fixatives: pros and cons

Citation: Shimizu R, Garcia L. 2015. Specimen Collection, Transport, and Processing: Parasitology, p 2293-2309. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch133

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