1887

Chapter 137 : and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch137-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch137-2.gif

Abstract:

Human leishmaniasis is caused by parasites transmitted primarily by sand fly bites. The parasite resides and multiplies within macrophages of the host. The infection is categorized into cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis. Diagnosis can be made from the clinical presentation, microscopically, and by culture, real-time PCR, serology, and antigen detection, depending on the resources available. Clinicians may have to use many different diagnostic methods to detect the infection due to the low number of parasites in specimens. Some infections may self-cure, while others will need to be treated depending on the number of lesions and whether the leishmaniasis is mucocutaneous or visceral. Trypanosomiasis is limited to the Americas and Africa. African trypanosomiasis is caused by and , with 10,000 new cases each year. The infection is acquired from tsetse fly bites. Diagnosis is similar to that for infections. Individuals infected with may be asymptomatic, whereas infections with have greater pathogenicity, especially if the infection enters the central nervous system. Therapy can be successful if administered early in the disease, although the drugs can be quite toxic. American trypanosomiasis is caused by acquired from a reduviid bug, although the infection can be food or blood borne. There are three phases of disease: acute, indeterminate, and chronic. Diagnostic methods are similar to those for infections. The blood supply and organ donors are screened for the presence of antibody to prevent infections.

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Life cycle stages of spp. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f1

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(A) amastigotes from a splenic press preparation (Giemsa stain); (B) in liver (hematoxylin and eosin stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f2

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

promastigotes (Giemsa stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f3

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Life cycle stages of trypanosomes. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f4

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 5
FIGURE 5

(A and B) trypomastigotes; (C and D) trypomastigotes. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f5

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 6
FIGURE 6

epimastigotes (Giemsa stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f6

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 7
FIGURE 7

amastigotes in heart muscle (hematoxylin and eosin stain). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch137.f7

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817381.mcm11.ch137
1. Disch J,, Pedras MJ,, Orsini M,, Pirmez C,, de Oliveria MC,, Castro M,, Rabello A. 2005. Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus kDNA amplification for the diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 51:185190.
2. Silveira FT,, Lainson R,, Corbett CEP. 2004. Clinical and immunopathological spectrum of American cutaneous leishmaniasis with special reference to the disease in Amazonian Brazil: a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 99:239251.
3. World Health Organization. 2005. A new form of human trypanosomiasis in India. Wkly Epidemiol Rec 80:6263.
4. Faber WR,, Oskam L,, van Gool T,, Kroon NCM,, Knegt-Junk KJ,, Hofwegen H,, van der Wal AC,, Kager PA. 2003. Value of diagnostic techniques for cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Am Acad Dermatol 49:7074.
5. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2003. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in U.S. military personnel—Southwest/Central Asia, 2002–2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 52:10091012.
6. Cupolillo E,, Medina-Acosta E,, Noyes H,, Momen H,, Grimaldi G,Jr. 2000. A revised classification for Leishmania and Endotrypanum. Parasitol Today 16:142144.
7. Mauricio IL,, Stothard JR,, Miles MA. 2000. A strange case of Leishmania chagasi. Parasitol Today 16:188189.
8. Olivier M,, Gregory DJ,, Forget G. 2005. Subversion mechanisms by which Leishmania parasites can escape the host immune response: a signaling point of view. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:293305.
9. Wilson ME,, Jeronimo SMB,, Pearson RD. 2005. Immunopathogenesis of infection with the visceralizing Leishmania species. Microb Pathog 38:147160.
10. Centers for Disease Control. 1992. Viscerotropic leishmaniasis in persons returning from Operation Desert Storm 1990–1991. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 41:131134.
11. Clarke CF,, Bradley KK,, Wright JH,, J Glowicz. 2013. Case report: emergence of autochthonous cutaneous leishmaniasis in northeastern Texas and southeastern Oklahoma. Am J Trop Med Hyg 88:157161.
12. Wright NA,, Davis LE,, Aftergut KS,, Parrish CA,, Cockerell CJ. 2008. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Texas: a northern spread of endemic areas. J Am Acad Dermatol 58:650652.
13. Harhay MO,, Olliaro PL,, Costa DL,, Costa CHN. 2011. Urban parasitology: visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. Trends Parasitol 27:403409.
14. Magill AJ. 2005. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in the returning traveler. Infect Dis Clin North Am 19:241266.
15. Harms G,, Feldmeier H. 2005. The impact of HIV infection on tropical diseases. Infect Dis Clin North Am 19:121135.
16. Trudel N,, Garg R,, Messier N,, Sundar S,, Quellette M,, Tremblay MJ. 2008. Intracellular survival of Leishmania spp. that cause visceral leishmaniasis is significantly reduced by HIV-1 protease inhibitors. J Infect Dis 198:12921298.
17. Antinori S,, Cascio A,, Parravicini C,, Bianchi R,, Corbellino M. 2008. Leishmaniasis among organ transplant recipients. Lancet Infect Dis 8:191199.
18. Oliveira RA,, Silva LSV,, Carvalho VP,, Coutinho AF,, Pinheiro FG,, Lima CG,, Leandro JE,Jr,, Silva GB,Jr,, Daher EF. 2008. Visceral leishmaniasis after renal transplantation: report of 4 cases in northeastern Brazil. Transpl Infect Dis 10:364368.
19. Gomes AHS,, Armelin IM,, Menon SZ,, Pereira-Chioccola VL. 2008. Leishmania (V.) braziliensis: detection by PCR in biopsies from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis. Exp Parasitol 119:319324.
20. Maldonado C,, Albino S,, Vettorazzi L,, Salomone O,, Zlocowski JC,, Abiega C,, Amuchastegui M,, Cordoba R,, Alvarellos T. 2004. Using polymerase chain reaction in early diagnosis of reactivated Trypanosoma cruzi infection after heart transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant 23:13451348.
21. Mugasa CM,, Adams ER,, Boer KR,, Dyserinck HC,, P Buscher,, Schallig HDHF,, Leeflang MMG. 2012. Diagnostic accuracy of molecular amplification tests for human African trypanosomiasis—systematic review. PLoS Neglect Trop Dis 6:e1438. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001438.
22. Reithinger R,, Dujardin J. 2007. Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniasis: current status and future applications. J Clin Microbiol 45:2125.
23. Ismail A,, Kharazrni A,, Permin H,, el Hassan AM. 1997. Detection and characterization of Leishmania in tissues of patients with post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis using a specific monoclonal antibody. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 91:283285.
24. Antinori S,, Gianelli E,, Calatini S,, Longhi E,, Gramiccia M,, Corbellino M. 2004. Cutaneous leishmaniasis: an increasing threat for travelers. Clin Microbiol Infect 11:343346.
25. Arora SK,, Gupta S,, Bhardwaj S,, Sachdeva N,, Sharma NL. 2008. An epitope-specific PCR test for diagnosis of Leishmania donovani infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 102:4145.
26. Cruz I,, Millet A,, Carrillo E,, Chenik M,, Salotra P,, Verma S,, Veland N,, Jara M,, Adaui V,, Castrillon C,, Arevalo J,, Moreno J,, Canavate C. 2013. An approach for interlaboratory comparison of conventional and real-time PCR assays for diagnosis of human leishmaniasis. Exp Parasitol 134: 281289.
27. Gangneux J,, Menotti J,, Lorenzo E,, Sarfati C,, Blanche H,, Bui H,, Pratlong E,, Garin Y,, Derouin F. 2003. Prospective value of PCR amplification and sequencing for diagnosis and typing of Old World Leishmania infections in an area of nonendemicity. J Clin Microbiol 41:14191422.
28. Garcia A,, Jamonneau V,, Magnus E,, Laveissere C,, Lejon V,, N’Guessan P,, N’Dri L,, van Meirvenne N,, Buscher P. 2000. Follow-up of card agglutination trypanosomiasis test (CATT) positive but apparently aparasitaemic individuals in Cote d’Ivoire: evidence for a complex and heterogeneous population. Trop Med Int Health 5:786793.
29. Jara M,, Adaui V,, Valencia BM,, Martinez D,, Alba M,, Castrillon C,, Cruz M,, Cruz I,, Van der Auwera G,, Llanos-Cuentas A,, Dujardin J,, Arevalo J. 2013. Real-time PCR assay for detection and quantification of Leishmania (Viannia) organisms in skin and mucosal lesions: exploratory study of parasite load and clinical parameters. J Clin Microbiol 51:19261833.
30. Mahdi M,, Elamim EM,, Melville SE,, Musa AM,, Blackwell JM,, Mukhtar MM,, Elhassan AM,, Ibrahim ME. 2005. Sudanese mucosal leishmaniasis: isolation of a parasite within the Leishmania donovani complex that differs genotypically from L. donovani causing classical visceral leishmaniasis. Infect Genet Evol 5:2933.
31. Motazedian M,, Fakhar M,, Motazedian MH,, Hatam G,, Mikaeili F. 2008. A urine-based polymerase chain reaction method for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis in immunocompetent patients. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 60:151154.
32. Oliveira JGS,, Novais FO,, de Oliveira CI,, da Cruz AC,Jr,, Campos LF,, da Rocha AV,, Boaventura V,, Noronha A,, Costa JML,, Barral A. 2005. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is highly sensitive for diagnosis of mucosal leishmaniasis. Acta Trop 94:5559.
33. Paiva BR,, Passos LN,, Falqueto A,, Malfronte RS,, de Andrade HF,Jr. 2004. Single step polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the diagnosis of the Leishmania (Viannia) subgenus. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 46:335338.
34. Romero GAS,, Guerra MVF,, Paes MG,, Cupolillo E,, Toaldo CB,, Macedo VO,, Fernandes O. 2001. Sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis. Acta Trop 79:225229.
35. Sreenivas G,, Raju BVS,, Singh R,, Selvapandiyan A,, Duncan R,, Sarkar D,, Nakhasi HL,, Salotra P. 2004. DNA polymorphism assay distinguishes isolates of Leishmania donovani that cause kala-azar from those that cause post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in humans. J Clin Microbiol 42:17391741.
36. Vergel C,, Walker J,, Saravia NG. 2005. Amplification of human DNA by primers targeted to Leishmania kinetoplast DNA and post-genome considerations in the detection of parasites by a polymerase chain reaction. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:423429.
37. Verma S,, Avishek K,, Sharma V,, Negi NS,, Ramesh V,, Salotra P. 2013. Application of loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the sensitive and rapid diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 10:e1016. doi:10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2013.01.011.
38. Volpini AC,, Passos VMA,, Oliveira GC,, Romanha AJ. 2004. PCR-RFLP to identify Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis causing American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Acta Trop 90:3137.
39. Zelazny AM,, Fedorko DP,, Li L,, Neva EA,, Fischer SH. 2005. Evaluation of 7SL RNA gene sequences for the identification of Leishmania spp. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:415420.
40. Haouas N,, Chargui N,, Chaker E,, Ben Said M,, Babba H,, Belhadj S,, Kallel K,, Pratlong E,, Dedet JP,, Mezhoud H,, Azaiez R. 2005. Anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tunisia: presence of Leishmania killicki outside its original focus of Tataouine. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 99:499501.
41. Jamjoom MB,, Ashford RW,, Bates PA,, Chance ML,, Kemp SJ,, Watts PC,, Noyes HA. 2004. Leishmania donovani is the only cause of visceral leishmaniasis in East Africa; previous descriptions of L. infantum and “L. archibaldi” from this region are a consequence of convergent evolution in the isoenzyme data. Parasitology 129:399409.
42. Wastling SL,, Welburn SC. 2011. Diagnosis of human sleeping sickness: sense & sensitivity. Trends Parasitol 27:394402.
43. Foulet F,, Botterel F,, Buffet P,, Morizot G,, Rivollet D,, Deniau M,, Pratlong F,, Costa J,, Bretagne S. 2007. Detection and identification of Leishmania species from clinical specimens using real-time PCR assay and sequencing of the cytochrome b gene. J Clin Microbiol 45:21102115.
44. Almeida ME,, Steurer FJ,, Koru O,, Herwaldt BL,, Pieniazek NJ,, da Silva AJ. 2011. Identification of Leishmania spp. by molecular amplification and DNA sequencing analysis of a fragment of rRNA internal transcribed spacer 2. J Clin Microbiol 49:31433149.
45. Graca GC,, Volpini AC,, Romero GAS,, Neto MPO,, Hueb M,, Porrozzi R,, Boite MC,, Cupolillo E. 2012. Development and validation of PCR-based assays for diagnosis of American cutaneous leishmaniasis and identification of the parasite species. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 107:664674.
46. Neitzke-Abreu HC,, Venazzi MS,, Bernal MVZ,, Reinhold-Castro KR,, Vagetti F,, Mota CA,, Silva NR,, Aristides SMA,, Silveira TGV,, Lonardoni MVC. 2013. Detection of DNA from Leishmania (Viannia): accuracy of polymerase chain reaction for the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS One 8:e62473. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0062473.
47. Auwera G,, Ravel C,, Verweij JJ,, Bart A,, Schonian G,, Felger I. 2014. Evaluation of four single-locus markers for Leishmania species discrimination by sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 52:10981104.
48. Garcia LS (ed). 2010. Clinical Microbiology Procedures Handbook, 3rd ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
49. Salotra P,, Sreenivas G,, Pogue GP,, Lee N,, Nakhasi HL,, Ramesh V,, Negi NS. 2001. Development of a species-specific PCR assay for detection of Leishmania donovani in clinical samples from patients with kala-azar and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 39:849854.
50. Napier L. 1922. A new serum test for kala-azar. Indian J Med Res 9:830846.
51. Bern C,, Jha S,, Joshi AB,, Thakur GD,, Bista MB. 2000. Use of the recombinant K39 dipstick test and the direct agglutination test in a setting endemic for visceral leishmaniasis in Nepal. Am J Trop Med Hyg 63:153157.
52. Brito MEF,, Mendonca MG,, Gomes YM,, Jardim ML,, Abath FGC. 2000. Identification of potentially diagnostic Leishmania braziliensis antigens in human cutaneous leishmaniasis by immunoblot analysis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 7:318321.
53. Saha S,, Mazumdar T,, Anam K,, Ravindran R,, Bairagi B,, Saba B,, Goswami R,, Pramanik N,, Guha SK,, Kar S,, Banerjee D,, Ali N. 2005. Leishmania promastigote membrane antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting for differential diagnosis of Indian post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. J Clin Microbiol 43:12691277.
54. Bhattacharyya T,, Boelaert M,, Miles MA. 2013. Comparison of visceral leishmaniasis diagnostic antigens in African and Asian Leishmania donovani reveals extensive diversity and region-specific polymorphisms. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2057. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002057.
55. Braz RES,, Nascimento ET,, Martins DRA,, Wilson ME,, Pearson RD,, Reed SG,, Jeronimo SMB. 2002. The sensitivity and specificity of Leishmania chagasi recombinant K39 antigen in the diagnosis of American visceral leishmaniasis and in differentiating active from subclinical infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg 67:344348.
56. Toz SO,, Chang KP,, Ozbel Y,, Alkan MZ. 2004. Diagnostic value of RK39 dipstick in zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in Turkey. J Parasitol 90:14841486.
57. Welch RJ,, Anderson BL,, Litwin CM. 2008. Rapid immunochromatographic strip test for detection of anti-K39 immunoglobulin G antibodies for diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:14831484.
58. Boarino A,, Scalone A,, Gradoni L,, Ferroglio E,, Vitale E,, Zanatta R,, Giuffrida MG,, Rosati S. 2005. Development of recombinant chimeric antigen expressing immunodominant B epitopes of Leishmania infantum for serodiagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 12:647653.
59. Karp CL,, Auwaerter PG. 2007. Coinfection with HIV and tropical infectious diseases. I. Protozoal pathogens. Clin Infect Dis 45:12081213.
60. Attar ZJ,, Chance ML,, el-Safi S,, Carney J,, Azazy A,, El-Hadi M,, Dourado C,, Hommel M. 2001. Latex agglutination test for the detection of urinary antigens in visceral leishmaniasis. Acta Trop 78:1116.
61. van der Snoek EM,, Robinson DJ,, van Hellemond JJ,, Neumann HAM. 2008. A review of photodynamic therapy in cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 22:918922.
62. Soto J,, Toledo J,, Vega J,, Berman J. 2005. Short report: efficacy of pentavalent antimony for treatment of Colombian cutaneous leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg 72:421422.
63. Unger A,, O’Neal S,, Machado PRL,, Guimaraes LH,, Morgan DJ,, Schriefer A,, Bacellar O,, Glesby MJ,, Carvalho DM. 2009. Association of treatment of American cutaneous leishmaniasis prior to ulcer development with high rate of failure in Northeastern Brazil. Am J Trop Med Hyg 80:574579.
64. Palumbo E. 2008. Oral miltefosine treatment in children with visceral leishmaniasis: a brief review. Braz J Infect Dis 12:24.
65. Schraner C,, Hasse B,, Hasse U,, Baumann D,, Faeh A,, Burg G,, Grimm F,, Mathis A,, Weber R,, Gunthard HF. 2005. Successful treatment with miltefosine of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in a severely immunocompromised patient infected with HIV-1. Clin Infect Dis 40:120124.
66. Kyambadde JW,, Enyaru JCK,, Matovu E,, Odit M,, Carasco JF. 2000. Detection of trypanosomes in suspected sleeping sickness patients in Uganda using the polymerase chain reaction. Bull W H O 78:119124.
67. Murray HW. 2005. Prevention of relapse after chemotherapy in a chronic intracellular infection: mechanisms in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. J Immunol 174:49164923.
68. Mendonca MG,, deBrito MEF,, Rodrigues EHG,, Bandeira V,, Jardim ML,, Abath FGC. 2004. Persistence of Leishmania parasites in scars after clinical cure of American cutaneous leishmaniasis: is there a sterile cure? J Infect Dis 189:10181023.
69. Pizzuto M,, Piazza M,, Senese D,, Scalamogna C,, Calattini S,, Corsico L,, Persico T,, Adriani B,, Magni C,, Guaraldi G,, Gaiera G,, Ludovisi A,, Gramiccia M,, Galli M,, Moroni M,, Corbellino M,, Antinori S. 2001. Role of PCR in diagnosis and prognosis of visceral leishmaniasis in patients coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1. J Clin Microbiol 39:357361.
70. Kun HA,, Moore A,, Mascola L,, Steurer F,, Lawrence G,, Kubak B,, Radhakrishna S,, Leiby D,, Herron R,, Mone T,, Hunter R,, Kuehnert M, Chagas Disease in Transplant Recipients Investigation Team. 2009. Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi by heart transplantation. Clin Infect Dis 48:15341540.
71. Coura JR. 2007. Chagas’ disease: what is known and what is needed—a background article. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 102:113122.
72. Navrn TR,, Roberto RR,, Juranek DD,, Limpakarnjanarat K,, Mortenson EW,, Clover JR,, Yescott RE,, Taclindo C,, Stuerer F,, Allain D. 1985. Human and sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in California. Am J Public Health 75:366369.
73. Aparicio IM,, Scharfstein J,, Lima APCA. 2004. A new cruzipain-mediated pathway of human cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi requires trypomastigote membranes. Infect Immun 72:58925902.
74. Barnabe C,, Yaegar R,, Pung O,, Tibayrenc M. 2001. Trypanosoma cruzi: a considerable phylogenic divergence indicates that the agent of Chagas disease is indigenous to the native fauna of the United States. Exp Parasitol 99:7379.
75. Barrett MP,, Burchmore RJS,, Stich A,, Lazzari JO,, Frasch AC,, Cazzulo JJ,, Krishna S. 2003. The trypanosomiasis. Lancet 362:14691480.
76. Campos RF,, Guerreiro MLS,, Sobral KDSC,, Lima RDCPC,, Andrade SG. 2005. Response to chemotherapy with benznidazole of clones isolated from the 21SF strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (biodeme type II, Trypanosoma cruzi II). Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 38:142146.
77. Higuera SL,, Guhl F,, Ramirez JD. 2013. Identification of Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) through the implementation of a high-resolution melting (HRM) genotyping assay. Parasit Vectors 6:112117
78. Zulantay I,, Apt W,, Gil LC,, Rocha C,, Mundaca K,, Solari A,, Sanchez G,, Rodriguez C,, Martinez G,, de Pablos LM,, Sandoval L,, Rodriguez J,, Vilchez S,, Osuna A. 2007. The PCR-based detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in the faeces of Triatoma infestans fed on patients with chronic American trypanosomiasis gives higher sensitivity and a quicker result than routine xenodiagnosis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol 101:673679.
79. Da-Cruz AM,, Igreja RP,, Dantas W,, Junqueira ACV,, Pacheco S,, Silva-Goncalves AJ,, Pirmez C. 2004. Long-term follow-up of co-infected HIV and Trypanosoma cruzi Brazilian patients. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 98:728733.
80. Freitas JM,, Lages-Silva E,, Crema E,, Pena SDJ,, Macedo MM. 2005. Real time PCR strategy for the identification of major lineages of Trypanosoma cruzi directly in chronically infected human tissues. Int J Parasitol 35:411417.
81. Saez-Alquezar A,, Sabino EC,, Salles N,, Chamone DF,, Hulstaert F,, Pottel H,, Stoops E,, Zrein M. 2000. Serological confirmation of Chagas’ disease by a recombinant and peptide antigen line immunoassay: INNO-LIA Chagas. J Clin Microbiol 38:851854.
82. Theis JH. 1990. Latin American immigrants—blood donation and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. Am Heart J 120:14831484.
83. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2007. Blood donor screening for Chagas’ disease—United States, 2006–2007. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 56:141143.
84. Milei J,, Guerri-Guttenberg RA,, Grana DA,, Storino R. 2009. Prognostic impact of Chagas disease in the United States. Am Heart J 157:2229.
85. Pereira KS,, Schmidt FL,, Guaraldo AM,, Franco RM,, Dias VL,, Passos LA. 2009. Chagas’ disease as a foodborne illness. J Food Prot 72:441446.
86. D’Avila DA,, Macedo AM,, Valadares HMS,, Gontijo ED,, de Castro AM,, Machado CR,, Chiari E,, Galvao LMC. 2009. Probing population dynamics of Trypanosoma cruzi during progression of the chronic phase in chagasic patients. J Clin Microbiol 47:17181725.
87. Strout RG. 1962. A method for concentrating haemoflagellates. J Parasitol 48:100.
88. Chiaramonte MG,, Frank FM,, Furer GM,, Taranto NJ,, Margni RA,, Malchiodi EL. 1999. Polymerase chain reaction reveals Trypanosoma cruzi infection suspected by serology in cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis patients. Acta Trop 72:295308.
89. Britto C,, Cardoso MA,, Vanni CMM,, Hasslocher-Moreno A,, Xavier SS,, Oelemann W,, Santoro A,, Pirmez C,, Morel CM,, Wincker P. 1995. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in human blood samples as tool for diagnosis and treatment evaluation. Parasitology 110:241247.
90. Duffy T,, Bisio M,, Altcheh J,, Burgos JM,, Diez M,, Levin MJ,, Favaloro RR,, Freiilij H,, Schijman AB. 2009. Accurate real-time PCR strategy for monitoring bloodstream parasitic loads in Chagas disease patients. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e419. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0000419.
91. Diez M,, Favaloro L,, Bertolotti A,, Burgos JM,, Vigliano C,, Lastra MP,, Levin MJ,, Arnedo A,, Nagel C,, Schijman AG,, Favaloro RR. 2007. Usefulness of PCR strategies for early diagnosis of Chagas’ disease reactivation and treatment follow-up in heart transplantation. Am J Transplant 7:1163311640.
92. Qvarnstrom Y,, Schijman AG,, Veron V,, Aznar C,, Steurer F,, Silva AJ. 2012. Sensitive and specific detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in clinical specimens using a multi-target real-time PCR approach. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1689. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001689.
93. Zingales B,, Miles MA,, Campbell DA,, Tibayrene M,, Macedo AM,, Teixeira MMG,, Schijman AG,, Llewellyn MS,, Lages-Silva E,, Machado CR,, Andrade SG,, Sturm NR. 2012. The revised Trypanosoma cruzi subspecific nomenclature: rationale, epidemiological relevance and research applications. Infect Genetics Evol 12:240253.
94. Almeida IC,, Covas DT,, Soussumi LM,, Travassos LR. 1997. A highly sensitive and specific chemiluminescent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for diagnosis of active Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Transfusion 37:850857.
95. Castro E. 2009. Chagas’ disease: lessons from routine donation testing. Transfusion Med 19:1623.
96. Cordeiro FD,, Martins-Filho OA,, Rocha MOC,, Adad SJ,, Correa-Oliveira R,, Romanha AJ. 2001. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi immunoglobulin G1 can be a useful tool for diagnosis and prognosis of human Chagas’ disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:112118.
97. Afonso AM,, Ebell MH,, Tarleton RL. 2012. A systematic review of high quality diagnostic tests for Chagas disease. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1881. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001881.
98. Buchovsky AS,, Campetella O,, Russomando G,, Franco L,, Oddone R,, Candia N,, Luquetti A,, Cappa SMG,, Leguizamon MS. 2001. trans-Sialidase inhibition assay, a highly sensitive and specific diagnostic test for Chagas’ disease. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 8:187189.
99. Da Silveira JL,, Umezawa ES,, Luquetti AO. 2001. Chagas’ disease: recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi antigens for serological diagnosis. Trends Parasitol 17:286291.
100. Di Pentima MC,, Edwards MS. 1999. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for IgA antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi in congenital infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg 60:211214.
101. Garcia LS. 2007. Diagnostic Medical Parasitology, 5th ed. ASM Press, Washington, DC.
102. Otani MM,, Vinelli E,, Kirchhoff LV,, del Pozo A,, Sands A,, Vercauteren G,, Sabino EC. 2009. WHO comparative evaluation of serologic assays for Chagas disease. Transfusion 49:10761082.
103. Negrette OS,, Valdez FJS,, Lacunza CD,, Bustos MFG,, Mora MC,, Uncos AD,, Basombrio MA. 2008. Serological evaluation of specific-antibody levels in patients treated for chronic Chagas’ disease. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:297302.
104. Leiby DA,, Herron RM,Jr,, Garratty G,, Herwaldt BL. 2008. Trypanosoma cruzi parasitemia in U.S. blood donors with serologic evidence of infection. J Infect Dis 198:609613.
105. Da Silva FM,, Rodrigues AC,, Campaner M,, Takata CSA,, Brigido MC,, Junqueira ACV,, Coura JR,, Takeda GF,, Shaw JJ,, Teixeira MMG. 2004. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis of Trypanosoma rangeli and allied species from human, monkeys and other sylvatic mammals of the Brazilian Amazon disclosed a new group and a species-specific market. Parasitology 128:283294.
106. Guhl F,, Vallejo GA. 2003. Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) rangeli Tejera, 1920—an updated review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 98:435442.
107. Chiurillo MA,, Crisante G,, Rojas A,, Peralta A,, Dias M,, Guevara P,, Anez N,, Ramirez JL. 2003. Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli infection by duplex PCR assay based on telomeric sequences. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:775779.
108. Da Silva FM,, Noyes H,, Campaner M,, Junqueira ACV,, Coura JR,, Anez N,, Shaw JJ,, Stevens JR,, Teixeira MMG. 2004. Phylogeny, taxonomy and grouping of Trypanosoma rangeli isolates from man, triatomines and sylvatic mammals from widespread geographical origin based on SSU and ITS ribosomal sequences. Parasitology 129:549561.
109. Anthony RL,, Cody TS,, Constantin NT. 1981. Antigenic differentiation of Trypanosoma C7-2i and Trypanosoma rangeli by means of monoclonal-hybridoma antibodies. Am J Trop Med Hyg 30:11911197.
110. Blum JA,, Neumayr AL,, Hatz CF. 2012. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travelers. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 31:905913.
111. Schmid C,, Richer M,, Bilenge CMM,, Josenando T,, Chappuis F,, Manthelot CR,, Nangouma A,, Doua F,, Asumu PN,, Simarro PP,, Burri C. 2005. Effectiveness of a 10-day melarsoprol schedule for the treatment of late-stage human African trypanosomiasis: confirmation from a multinational study (IMPAMEL II). J Infect Dis 191:19221931.
112. Dubois ME,, Demick KP,, Mansfield JM. 2005. Trypanosomes expressing a mosaic variant surface glycoprotein coat escape early detection by the immune system. Infect Immun 73:26902697.
113. Balmer O,, Caccone A. 2008. Multiple-strain infections of Trypanosoma brucei across Africa. Acta Trop 107:275279.
114. Blum JA,, Zellweger MJ,, Burri C,, Hatz C. 2008. Cardiac involvement in African and American trypanosomiasis. Lancet Infect Dis 8:631641.
115. Chappuis F,, Loutan L,, Simarro P,, Lejon V,, Buscher P. 2005. Options for field diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:133146.
116. Cattand P,, Miezan BT,, de Rasdt P. 1988. Human African trypanosomiasis: use of double centrifugation of cerebrospinal fluid to detect trypanosomes. Bull W H O 66:8386.
117. Becker S,, Franco JR,, Simarro PP,, Stich A,, Abel PM,, Steverding D. 2004. Real-time PCR for detection of Trypanosoma brucei in human blood samples. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 50:193199.
118. Mitashi P,, Hasker E,, Lejon V,, Kande V,, Muyembe J,, Lutumba P,, Boelaert M. 2012. Human African trypanosomiasis diagnosis in first-line health services of endemic countries, a systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6:e1919. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001919.
119. Simarro PP,, Ruiz JA,, Franco JR,, Josenando T. 1999. Attitude towards CATT-positive individuals without parasitological confirmation in the African trypanosomiasis (T. b. gambiense) focus of Quicama (Angola). Trop Med Int Health 4:858861.
120. Lejon V,, Roger I,, Ngoyi DM,, Menten J,, Robays J,, N’Siesi FX,, Bisser S,, Boelaert M,, Buscher P. 2008. Novel markers for treatment outcome in late-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense trypanosomiasis. Clin Infect Dis 47:1522.
121. Sullivan L,, Wall SJ,, Carrington M,, Ferguson MAJ. 2013. Proteomic selection of immunodiagnostic antigens for human African trypanosomiasis and generation of a prototype lateral flow immunodiagnostic device. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e2087. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002087.
122. Eyford BA,, Ahmad R,, Enyaru JC,, Carr SA,, Pearson TW. 2013. Identification of trypanosome proteins in plasma from African sleeping sickness patients infected with T. B. rhodesiense. PLoS One 8:e71463. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071463.
123. Kennedy PGE. 2013. Clinical features, diagnosis and treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Lancet 12:186194.
124. Barrett SV,, Barrett MP. 2000. Anti-sleeping sickness drugs and cancer chemotherapy. Parasitol Today 16:79.
125. Jannin J,, Cattand P. 2004. Treatment and control of human African trypanosomiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis 17:565570.
126. Moore AC. 2005. Prospects for improving African trypanosomiasis chemotherapy. J Infect Dis 191:17931795.
127. Lejon V,, Büscher P. 2005. Cerebrospinal fluid in human African trypanosomiasis: a key to diagnosis, therapeutic decision and post-treatment follow-up. Trop Med Int Health 10:395403.
128. Truc P,, Jamonneau V,, N’Guessan P,, N’Dri L,, Diallo PB,, Cuny G. 1998. Trypanosoma brucei ssp and T. congolense: mixed human infection in Cote d’Ivoire. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 92:537538.
129. Vanhollebeke B,, Truc P,, Poelvoorde P,, Pays A,, Joshi PP,, Katti R,, Jannin JG,, Pays E. 2006. Human Trypanosoma evansi infection linked to a lack of apolipoprotein L-1. N Engl J Med 355:27522756.
130. Kaur R,, Gupta VK,, Dhariwai AC,, Jain DC,, Shiv L. 2007. A rare case of trypanosomiasis in a two month old infant in Mumbai. J Commun Dis 39:7174.
131. Sarataphan N,, Vongpakorn M,, Nuansrichay B,, Autarkool N,, Keowkarnkah T,, Rodtian P,, Stich RW,, Jittapalpong S. 2007. Diagnosis of a Trypanosoma lewisi-like (Herpetosoma) infection in a sick infant from Thailand. J Med Microbiol 56:11181121.
132. Verma A,, Manchanda S,, Kumar N,, Sharma A,, Goel M,, Banerjee PS,, Garg R,, Singh BP,, Balharbi F,, Lejon V,, Deborggraeve S,, Rana UVS,, J Puliyel. 2011. Case report: Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like infection in a 37-day-old Indian infant. Am J Trop Med 85:221224.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Features of human leishmanial infections

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Characteristics of trypanosomiasis

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Diagnostic methods to detect Chagas’ infections

Citation: Bruckner D, Labarca J. 2015. and , p 2357-2372. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch137

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error