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Citation: Visvesvara G. .
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Image of FIGURES 1 through 4
FIGURES 1 through 4

( ) Trophozoite, phase contrast (note the uroid and filaments at the arrow); ( ) trophozoite, trichrome stain; ( ) biflagellate, phase contrast; ( ) smooth-walled cyst, phase contrast (note the pore at the arrow). All magnifications, approximately ×835. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch139.f1-4

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Image of FIGURES 5 and 6
FIGURES 5 and 6

. ( ) Trophozoite, phase contrast (note the acanthopodia at the arrow); ( ) double-walled cyst, phase contrast. Both magnifications, approximately ×835. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch139.f5-6

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Image of FIGURES 7 and 8
FIGURES 7 and 8

( ) Trophozoite, phase contrast; ( ) cyst, phase contrast. Both magnifications, approximately ×1,140. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch139.f7-8

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Image of FIGURE 9

Large numbers of trophozoites (arrows) in a section of CNS tissue, showing extensive necrosis and destruction of brain tissue. Magnification, approximately ×564. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch139.f9

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Image of FIGURE 10

trophozoites (arrows) and a cyst (arrowhead) around a blood vessel in a section of CNS tissue from a GAE patient. Magnification, approximately ×489. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch139.f10

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Image of FIGURE 11

trophozoites and a cyst (arrowhead) in a brain section from a GAE patient. Note the double (small arrow) and triple (large arrow) nucleolar elements within the nuclei of the trophozoites. Magnification, approximately ×413. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch139.f11

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Image of FIGURE 12

Immunofluorescence localization of in a brain section from a GAE patient. Note the fluorescent amebae (arrows) around blood vessels. Magnification, approximately ×188. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch139.f12

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73. Yagi S,, Booton GC,, Visvesvara GS,, Schuster FL. 2005. Detection of mitochondrial 16S ribosomal DNA in clinical specimens by PCR. J Clin Microbiol 43:31923197.
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76. Herman EK,, Greninger AL,, Visvesvara GS,, Marciano-Cabral F,, Dacks JB,, Chiu CY. 2013. The mitochondrial genome and a 60Kb nuclear DNA segment from Naegleria fowleri, the causative agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. J Eukaryot Microbiol 60:179191.
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81. Schuster FL, Honarmand S,, Visvesvara GS,, Glaser CA. 2006. Detection of antibodies against free-living amebae Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba spp. in a population of encephalitis patients. Clin Infect Dis 42:12601265.
82. Kucerova Z,, Sriram R,, Wilkins PP,, Visvesvara GS. 2011. Identification of antigenic targets for immunodetection of Balamuthia mandrillaris infection. Clin Vaccine Immunol 18:12971301.
83. Martínez DY,, Seas C,, Bravo F,, Legua P,, Ramos C,, Cabello AM,, Gotuzzo E. 2010. Successful treatment of Balamuthia mandrillaris amoebic infection with extensive neurological and cutaneous involvement. Clin Infect Dis 51:e7e11. 10.1086/653609.
84. Linum WM,, Ahmad M,, Cope JR,, Chu C,, Visvesvara GS,, da Silva AJ,, Qvarnstrom Y,, Green J. 2015. Successful treatment of an adolescent with Naegleria fowleri primary meningoencephalitis. Pediatrics 135:e744748.

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