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Chapter 145 : Cestodes

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Cestodes, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Cestodes are segmented flatworms and have as their key characteristic a flattened body composed of the head or scolex (bearing the fixation organs—suckers, hooks, and bothria), the neck (where the cellular reproduction occurs, to form the strobila), and the strobila, formed by numerous segments or proglottids. Cestode tapeworms live in the lumen of the small intestine with the head or scolex as the only fixation organ, attached to the mucosa, so they develop cephalic fixation organs like hooks, suckers, or shallow grooves as longitudinal suction sulci (bothria). They absorb nutrients from the host’s intestine both at the head and through their tegument, and they thus also develop a specialized tegument. Four species of cestode tapeworms inhabit the human intestine with frequency: , , , and . They differ widely in size, intermediate host, and other characteristics, from the 12-m to the 3-cm . In addition, a number of cestode larvae can produce human disease if infective tapeworm eggs are ingested, mainly cysticercosis (), cystic hydatid disease (), and alveolar hydatid disease (). Rarer larval cestode infections affecting humans include coenurosis (), sparganosis (), and cysticercosis by . Tapeworms and especially tapeworm larval infections still represent an important cause of morbidity and mortality, not only in most underdeveloped countries but also in industrialized countries, particularly in rural areas or among immigrants from areas of endemicity.

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2015. Cestodes, p 2471-2478. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch145
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Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Scolices (top), gravid proglottids (middle) and eggs (bottom) of , , , and (left to right). Note the coiled, central uterus in , the absence of hooks in the scolex of , and the similar appearances of the eggs of and . Morphological characteristics shown for are similar to those of doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch145.f1

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2015. Cestodes, p 2471-2478. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch145
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Larval cestodes infecting the human host. (Top left) cysticerci in the human brain (neurocysticercosis), shown in a noncontrasted CT scan of the brain; (top right) hydatid in the human liver (hydatid disease) as seen on liver ultrasound (kind contribution of Enrico Brunetti, Università di Pavia, Pavia, Italy); (bottom left) alveolar hydatid disease in human liver (kind courtesy of K. Buttenschoen and P. Kern, University Hospital Ulm, Ulm, Germany); (bottom right) coenurus showing multiple scolices in the cystic wall. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch145.f2

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2015. Cestodes, p 2471-2478. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch145
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Some characteristics of main cestodes infecting humans

Citation: Garcia H, Jimenez J, Escalante H. 2015. Cestodes, p 2471-2478. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch145

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