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Chapter 146 : Trematodes

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Abstract:

The chapter provides information on trematodes (digeneans) infecting humans. The trematodes are considered systematically by sites of infection, and information on blood flukes, lung flukes, live flukes, and intestinal flukes is provided.

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146
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FIGURE 1

Five species of are known to infect humans. Infection with , , , or adults occur in mesenteric veins; adults occur in the vesicle plexus. Humans are infected after cercarial penetration of the skin. After penetration, the cercariae shed their bifurcated tails, and the resulting schistosomula enter capillaries and lymphatic vessels en route to the lungs. After several days, the worms migrate to the portal venous system, where they mature and unite. Pairs of worms then migrate to the site of patent infection. Egg production commences 4 to 6 weeks after infection. Eggs pass from the lumen of blood vessels into adjacent tissues, and many then pass through the intestinal or bladder mucosa and are shed in the feces or urine (see the text). In freshwater, the eggs hatch, releasing miracidia that, in turn, infect specific freshwater snails ( Table 1 ). Reprinted from the ( ) with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch146.f1

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Life cycles of five different foodborne trematodes including intestinal flukes (, , and ), a liver fluke (), and a lung fluke (). Reprinted from ( ) with permission. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch146.f2

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Eggs of schistosome species (magnification, ×600). (A) ; (B) egg with typical lateral spine not in view; (C) ; (D) ; (E) ; (F) . (Panels C through E are from ; used with permission.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch146.f3

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146
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Image of FIGURE 4
FIGURE 4

Eggs of trematode parasites. (A) (magnification, ×500); (B) (magnification, ×1,500); (C) (magnification, ×1,500); (D) (magnification, ×1,500); (E) (magnification, ×600); (F) (magnification, ×750). (Panels B through D are from ; used with permission.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch146.f4

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Geographical distribution, intermediate hosts, and egg morphology of the major schistosomes infecting humans

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Geographical distribution, hosts, and life cycles of lung and hepatic digeneans of humans

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Digeneans of the human intestine

Citation: Jones M, Keiser J, McManus D. 2015. Trematodes, p 2479-2492. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch146

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