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Chapter 148 : Arthropods of Medical Importance

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Abstract:

In addition to their roles as vectors of infectious agents, the diverse group of animals that comprise arthropods may indirectly or directly cause injury that requires diagnosis and treatment. Such injuries include itching, dermal necrosis, anaphylaxis, and systemic toxicosis. The ubiquity of arthropods implies that they may be a frequent cause for clinical attention; reducing exposure is often sufficient to prevent or treat disease.

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 1

Phylogeny of arthropods. (Reprinted from with permission of Elsevier Publishing.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f1

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 2

Bedbugs. (Left) (bedbug). Bar, 2 mm. (Source: Department of Tropical Public Health, Harvard School of Public Health). (Right) Immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction to bedbug bites acquired in a 4-star hotel in Dupont Circle, Washington, DC, in December 2005. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f2

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 3

Tungiasis. (A) Low-power section of dermal lesion showing flea uterus filled with developing eggs. (B and C) Demonstration of progressive edema and secondary bacterial infection of lesion. (Reprinted from .) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f3

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 4

Lice. (A) Head louse nits; (B) body louse; (C) pubic louse; (D) vagabond’s disease. (Source: Department of Tropical Public Health, Harvard School of Public Health). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f4

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 5

Tick hypostome, showing recurved denticles. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f5

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 6

Key to major tick genera in the United States. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f6

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 7

Scabies. Diagram of feeding lesion and adult female mite. Chronic scabies affecting the hands. (Reprinted from .) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f7

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 8

Myiasis. Key characters of some myiasis-producing fly larvae. Row 1, mature larva of a muscoid fly. (Source: R. Hegner et al., Appleton Century Inc., New York, NY, 1938.) Row 2, larva of , the rat-tailed maggot; , the human botfly (with an enlarged view of a posterior spiracle); and , the latrine fly. Rows 3 and 4, appearance of posterior spiracles of some species that produce accidental, facultative, or obligatory myiasis. (Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f8

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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FIGURE 9

Gradual engorgement of feeding ixodid ticks. (Left) Four-day feeding sequence of nymphal . (Reprinted from , with permission from Elsevier.) (Right) Scutal index of engorgement for . (Reprinted from with permission of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch148.f9

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Summary of the major arthropod genera serving as vectors or scalars of infectious agents

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Likely human-biting ticks and possible tick-borne infections by global region

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Key to the common arthropod classes, subclasses, and orders of medical importance, adult stages only

Citation: Telford S. 2015. Arthropods of Medical Importance, p 2505-2525. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch148

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