1887

Chapter 22 : Streptococcus

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

Streptococcus, Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch22-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch22-2.gif

Abstract:

The genus currently comprises >100 recognized species, and this number can certainly be expected to rise with the increasing availability of next-generation sequencing technologies. More than 10 novel species have been validly published in the last 5 years alone. Most of these were found in the oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract of various mammals and so far have not been shown to play a role in human infections. This chapter focuses on well-known and novel streptococcal species found in human specimens and covers changes that have been applied to the taxonomy of streptococci in recent years.

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2015. Streptococcus, p 383-402. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch22
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Colony morphology of selected streptococci. (A) strain ATCC12344; (B) clinical isolate of ; (C) clinical isolate of subsp. (Lancefield group G); (D) mixed culture of (ATCC12395, open arrow) and clinical isolate of subsp. (closed arrow) (note the difference in colony size); (E) clinical isolate of (note the central depression of the colonies); (F) clinical isolate of (note the mucoid appearance of colonies). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch22.f1

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2015. Streptococcus, p 383-402. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

CAMP factor test. Arrowhead-shaped zone of hemolysis in the zone of the beta-hemolysin. (A) Clinical isolate of a weakly beta-hemolytic strain. (B) Beta-hemolytic strain O90R. (C) Nonhemolytic strain R268. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch22.f2

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2015. Streptococcus, p 383-402. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch22
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817381.mcm11.ch22
1. Facklam R. 2002. What happened to the streptococci: overview of taxonomic and nomenclature changes. Clin Microbiol Rev 15:613630.
2. Kohler W. 2007. The present state of species within the genera Streptococcus and Enterococcus. Int J Med Microbiol 297:133150.
3. Brandt CM,, Haase G,, Schnitzler N,, Zbinden R,, Lutticken R. 1999. Characterization of blood culture isolates of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis possessing Lancefield’s group A antigen. J Clin Microbiol 37:41944197.
4. Kawamura Y,, Hou XG,, Sultana F,, Miura H,, Ezaki T. 1995. Determination of 16S rRNA sequences of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus gordonii and phylogenetic relationships among members of the genus Streptococcus. Int J Syst Bacteriol 45:406408.
5. Kilian M,, Poulsen K,, Blomqvist T,, Havarstein LS,, Bek-Thomsen M,, Tettelin H,, Sorensen UB. 2008. Evolution of Streptococcus pneumoniae and its close commensal relatives. PLoS One 3:e2683.
6. Arbique JC,, Poyart C,, Trieu-Cuot P,, Quesne G,, Carvalho Mda G,, Steigerwalt AG,, Morey RE,, Jackson D,, Davidson RJ,, Facklam RR. 2004. Accuracy of phenotypic and genotypic testing for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae and description of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol 42:46864696.
7. Keith ER,, Podmore RG,, Anderson TP,, Murdoch DR. 2006. Characteristics of Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae isolated from purulent sputum samples. J Clin Microbiol 44:923927.
8. Kawamura Y,, Hou XG,, Todome Y,, Sultana F,, Hirose K,, Shu SE,, Ezaki T,, Ohkuni H. 1998. Streptococcus peroris sp. nov. and Streptococcus infantis sp. nov., new members of the Streptococcus mitis group, isolated from human clinical specimens. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48(Part 3):921927.
9. Willcox MD,, Zhu H,, Knox KW. 2001. Streptococcus australis sp. nov., a novel oral streptococcus. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51:12771281.
10. Tong H,, Gao X,, Dong X. 2003. Streptococcus oligofermentans sp. nov., a novel oral isolate from caries-free humans. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:11011104.
11. Glazunova OO,, Raoult D,, Roux V. 2006. Streptococcus massiliensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient blood culture. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 56:11271131.
12. Zbinden A,, Mueller NJ,, Tarr PE,, Sproer C,, Keller PM,, Bloemberg GV. 2012. Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov., isolated from blood of patients with endocarditis, meningitis and spondylodiscitis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 62:29412945.
13. Martin V,, Manes-Lazaro R,, Rodriguez JM,, Maldonado-Barragan A. 2011. Streptococcus lactarius sp. nov., isolated from breast milk of healthy women. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 61:10481052.
14. Kilian M,, Mikkelsen L,, Henrichsen J. 1989. Taxonomic study of viridans streptococci: description of Streptococcus gordonii sp. nov. and emended descriptions of Streptococcus sanguis (White and Niven 1946) Streptococcus oralis (Bridge and Sneath 1982) and Streptococcus mitis (Andrews and Horder 1906). Int J Syst Bacteriol 39:471484.
15. Whiley RA,, Beighton D. 1991. Emended descriptions and recognition of Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus anginosus as distinct species. Int J Syst Bacteriol 41:15.
16. Jensen A,, Hoshino T,, Kilian M. 2013. Taxonomy of the Anginosus group of the genus Streptococcus and description of Streptococcus anginosus subsp. whileyi subsp. nov. and Streptococcus constellatus subsp. viborgensis subsp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:25062519.
17. Schlegel L,, Grimont F,, Ageron E,, Grimont PA,, Bouvet A. 2003. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex and related species: description of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus subsp. nov., S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus subsp. nov. and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus subsp. nov. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 53:631645.
18. Devriese LA,, Vandamme P,, Pot B,, Vanrobaeys M,, Kersters K,, Haesebrouck F. 1998. Differentiation between Streptococcus gallolyticus strains of human clinical and veterinary origins and Streptococcus bovis strains from the intestinal tracts of ruminants. J Clin Microbiol 36:35203523.
19. Schlegel L,, Grimont F,, Collins MD,, Regnault B,, Grimont PA,, Bouvet A. 2000. Streptococcus infantarius sp. nov., Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius subsp. nov. and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli subsp. nov., isolated from humans and food. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50 Pt 4:14251434.
20. Rurangirwa FR,, Teitzel CA,, Cui J,, French DM,, McDonough PL,, Besser T. 2000. Streptococcus didelphis sp. nov., a streptococcus with marked catalase activity isolated from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) with suppurative dermatitis and liver fibrosis. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50(Part 2):759765.
21. Greenberg D,, Broides A,, Blancovich I,, Peled N,, Givon-Lavi N,, Dagan R. 2004. Relative importance of nasopharyngeal versus oropharyngeal sampling for isolation of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae from healthy and sick individuals varies with age. J Clin Microbiol 42:46044609.
22. Regev-Yochay G,, Raz M,, Dagan R,, Porat N,, Shainberg B,, Pinco E,, Keller N,, Rubinstein E. 2004. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae by adults and children in community and family settings. Clin Infect Dis 38:632639.
23. Hendley JO,, Sande MA,, Stewart PM,, Gwaltney JM,Jr. 1975. Spread of Streptococcus pneumoniae in families. I. Carriage rates and distribution of types. J Infect Dis 132:5561.
24. Schuchat A,, Hilger T,, Zell E,, Farley MM,, Reingold A,, Harrison L,, Lefkowitz L,, Danila R,, Stefonek K,, Barrett N,, Morse D,, Pinner R. 2001. Active bacterial core surveillance of the emerging infections program network. Emerg Infect Dis 7:9299.
25. Fulde M,, Valentin-Weigand P. 2013. Epidemiology and pathogenicity of zoonotic streptococci. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 368:4981.
26. Vandamme P,, Pot B,, Falsen E,, Kersters K,, Devriese LA. 1996. Taxonomic study of lancefield streptococcal groups C, G, and L (Streptococcus dysgalactiae) and proposal of S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis subsp. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:774781.
27. Vieira V,, Teixeira L,, Zahner V,, Momen H,, Facklam R,, Steigerwalt A,, Brenner D,, Castro A. 1998. Genetic relationships among the different phenotypes of Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48:12311243.
28. Brandt CM,, Spellerberg B. 2009. Human infections due to Streptococcus dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis. Clin Infect Dis 49:766772.
29. Cunningham MW. 2000. Pathogenesis of group A streptococcal infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 13:470511.
30. Efstratiou A. 2000. Group A streptococci in the 1990s. J Antimicrob Chemother 45(Suppl):312.
31. Swedo SE,, Leonard HL,, Mittleman BB,, Allen AJ,, Rapoport JL,, Dow SP,, Kanter ME,, Chapman F,, Zabriskie J. 1997. Identification of children with pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infections by a marker associated with rheumatic fever. Am J Psychiatry 154:110112.
32. Stevens DL. 2001. Invasive streptococcal infections. J Infect Chemother 7:6980.
33. Musser JM,, Gray BM,, Schlievert PM,, Pichichero ME. 1992. Streptococcus pyogenes pharyngitis: characterization of strains by multilocus enzyme genotype, M and T protein serotype, and pyrogenic exotoxin gene probing. J Clin Microbiol 30:600603.
34. Davies HD,, McGeer A,, Schwartz B,, Green K,, Cann D,, Simor AE,, Low DE. 1996. Invasive group A streptococcal infections in Ontario, Canada. Ontario Group A Streptococcal Study Group. N Engl J Med 335:547554.
35. Verani JR,, McGee L,, Schrag SJ. 2010. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease—revised guidelines from CDC, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep 59:136.
36. Farley M. 1995. Group B streptococcal infection in older patients. Spectrum of disease and management strategies. Drugs Aging 6:293300.
37. Barnham M,, Thornton TJ,, Lange K. 1983. Nephritis caused by Streptococcus zooepidemicus (Lancefield group C). Lancet i:945948.
38. Haidan A,, Talay SR,, Rohde M,, Sriprakash KS,, Currie BJ,, Chhatwal GS. 2000. Pharyngeal carriage of group C and group G streptococci and acute rheumatic fever in an Aboriginal population. Lancet 356:11671169.
39. CDC. 2008. Invasive pneumococcal disease in children 5 years after conjugate vaccine introduction—eight states, 1998-2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 57:144148.
40. Kellner JD,, Vanderkooi OG,, MacDonald J,, Church DL,, Tyrrell GJ,, Scheifele DW. 2009. Changing epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Canada, 1998-2007: update from the Calgary-area Streptococcus pneumoniae research (CASPER) study. Clin Infect Dis 49:205212.
41. Richter SS,, Heilmann KP,, Dohrn CL,, Riahi F,, Beekmann SE,, Doern GV. 2009. Changing epidemiology of antimicrobial-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in the United States, 2004-2005. Clin Infect Dis 48:e23e33.
42. Dagan R,, Patterson S,, Juergens C,, Greenberg D,, Givon-Lavi N,, Porat N,, Gurtman A,, Gruber WC,, Scott DA. 2013. Comparative immunogenicity and efficacy of 13-valent and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in reducing nasopharyngeal colonization: a randomized double-blind trial. Clin Infect Dis 57:952962.
43. Zuccotti G,, Mameli C,, Daprai L,, Garlaschi ML,, Dilillo D,, Bedogni G,, Faccini M,, Gramegna M,, Torresani E,, PneuMi Study G,, Ballerini E,, Benincaso A,, Bonvissuto M,, Bricalli D,, Brioschi M,, Calloni CS,, Camiletti MI,, Colella G,, De Angelis L,, Decarlis S,, Di Nello F,, Dozzi M,, Galli E,, Gandini V,, Giuliani MG,, Laviola F,, Loda B,, Macedoni M,, Mazzucchi E,, Metta MG,, Moscatiello A,, Nannini P,, Petruzzi M,, Picicco D,, Picciotti M,, Pisanelli S,, Porta N,, Ramponi G,, Redaelli F,, Rubini R,, Sala N,, Saitta V,, Scelza G,, Tiso RM,, Tomasetto M,, Torcoletti M,, Travaini M,, Valentini M,, Vessia C. 2014. Serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibilities of nasopharyngeal isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae from healthy children in the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine era. Vaccine 32:527534.
44. Demczuk WH,, Martin I,, Griffith A,, Lefebvre B,, McGeer A,, Lovgren M,, Tyrrell GJ,, Desai S,, Sherrard L,, Adam H,, Gilmour M,, Zhanel GG,, Toronto Bacterial Diseases Network,, Canadian Public Health Laboratory Network. 2013. Serotype distribution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in Canada after the introduction of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, 2010-2012. Can J Microbiol 59:778788.
45. Richter SS,, Heilmann KP,, Dohrn CL,, Riahi F,, Diekema DJ,, Doern GV. 2013. Pneumococcal serotypes before and after introduction of conjugate vaccines, United States, 1999-2011. Emerg Infect Dis 19:10741083.
46. Bochud PY,, Calandra T,, Francioli P. 1994. Bacteremia due to viridans streptococci in neutropenic patients: a review. Am J Med 97:256264.
47. Laupland KB,, Ross T,, Church DL,, Gregson DB. 2006. Population-based surveillance of invasive pyogenic streptococcal infection in a large Canadian region. Clin Microbiol Infect 12:224230.
48. Parkins MD,, Sibley CD,, Surette MG,, Rabin HR. 2008. The Streptococcus milleri group—an unrecognized cause of disease in cystic fibrosis: a case series and literature review. Pediatr Pulmonol 43:490497.
49. Ruoff KL,, Miller SI,, Garner CV,, Ferraro MJ,, Calderwood SB. 1989. Bacteremia with Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius: clinical correlates of more accurate identification of isolates. J Clin Microbiol 27:305308.
50. Corredoira JC,, Alonso MP,, Garcia JF,, Casariego E,, Coira A,, Rodriguez A,, Pita J,, Louzao C,, Pombo B,, Lopez MJ,, Varela J. 2005. Clinical characteristics and significance of Streptococcus salivarius bacteremia and Streptococcus bovis bacteremia: a prospective 16-year study. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 24:250255.
51. Smith DJ. 2002. Dental caries vaccines: prospects and concerns. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 13:335349.
52. Caufield PW,, Cutter GR,, Dasanayake AP. 1993. Initial acquisition of mutans streptococci by infants: evidence for a discrete window of infectivity. J Dent Res 72:3745.
53. Beck M,, Frodl R,, Funke G. 2008. Comprehensive study of strains previously designated Streptococcus bovis consecutively isolated from human blood cultures and emended description of Streptococcus gallolyticus and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli. J Clin Microbiol 46:29662972.
54. Gavin PJ,, Thomson RB,Jr,, Horng SJ,, Yogev R. 2003. Neonatal sepsis caused by Streptococcus bovis variant (biotype II/2): report of a case and review. J Clin Microbiol 41:34333435.
55. Klein RS,, Recco RA,, Catalano MT,, Edberg SC,, Casey JI,, Steigbigel NH. 1977. Association of Streptococcus bovis with carcinoma of the colon. N Engl J Med 297:800802.
56. Facklam R,, Elliott J,, Pigott N,, Franklin AR. 1995. Identification of Streptococcus porcinus from human sources. J Clin Microbiol 33:385388.
57. Bekal S,, Gaudreau C,, Laurence RA,, Simoneau E,, Raynal L. 2006. Streptococcus pseudoporcinus sp. nov., a novel species isolated from the genitourinary tract of women. J Clin Microbiol 44:25842586.
58. Stoner KA,, Rabe LK,, Austin MN,, Meyn LA,, Hillier SL. 2011. Incidence and epidemiology of Streptococcus pseudoporcinus in the genital tract. J Clin Microbiol 49:883886.
59. Facklam R,, Elliott J,, Shewmaker L,, Reingold A. 2005. Identification and characterization of sporadic isolates of Streptococcus iniae isolated from humans. J Clin Microbiol 43:933937.
60. Weinstein MR,, Litt M,, Kertesz DA,, Wyper P,, Rose D,, Coulter M,, McGeer A,, Facklam R,, Ostach C,, Willey BM,, Borczyk A,, Low DE. 1997. Invasive infections due to a fish pathogen, Streptococcus iniae. S. iniae Study Group. N Engl J Med 337:589594.
61. Lau SK,, Curreem SO,, Lin CC,, Fung AM,, Yuen KY,, Woo PC. 2013. Streptococcus hongkongensis sp. nov., isolated from a patient with an infected puncture wound and from a marine flatfish. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 63:25702576.
62. Martin DR,, Stanhope JM,, Finch LA. 1977. Delayed culture of group-A streptococci: an evaluation of variables in methods of examining throat swabs. J Med Microbiol 10:249253.
63. Uhl JR,, Adamson SC,, Vetter EA,, Schleck CD,, Harmsen WS,, Iverson LK,, Santrach PJ,, Henry NK,, Cockerill FR. 2003. Comparison of LightCycler PCR, rapid antigen immunoassay, and culture for detection of group A streptococci from throat swabs. J Clin Microbiol 41:242249.
64. Gerber MA,, Shulman ST. 2004. Rapid diagnosis of pharyngitis caused by group A streptococci. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:571580.
65. Bisno AL,, Gerber MA,, Gwaltney JM,Jr,, Kaplan EL,, Schwartz RH. 2002. Practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 35:113125.
66. Shulman ST,, Bisno AL,, Clegg HW,, Gerber MA,, Kaplan EL,, Lee G,, Martin JM,, Van Beneden C. 2012. Clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and management of group A streptococcal pharyngitis: 2012 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 55:12791282.
67. Chapin KC,, Blake P,, Wilson CD. 2002. Performance characteristics and utilization of rapid antigen test, DNA probe, and culture for detection of group a streptococci in an acute care clinic. J Clin Microbiol 40:42074210.
68. Peterson LR,, Thomson RB,Jr. 1999. Use of the clinical microbiology laboratory for the diagnosis and management of infectious diseases related to the oral cavity. Infect Dis Clin North Am 13:775795.
69. Thinkhamrop J,, Limpongsanurak S,, Festin MR,, Daly S,, Schuchat A,, Lumbiganon P,, Zell E,, Chipato T,, Win AA,, Perilla MJ,, Tolosa JE,, Whitney CG. 2003. Infections in international pregnancy study: performance of the optical immunoassay test for detection of group B streptococcus. J Clin Microbiol 41:52885290.
70. Gutierrez F,, Masia M,, Rodriguez JC,, Ayelo A,, Soldan B,, Cebrian L,, Mirete C,, Royo G,, Hidalgo AM. 2003. Evaluation of the immunochromatographic Binax NOW assay for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen in a prospective study of community-acquired pneumonia in Spain. Clin Infect Dis 36:286292.
71. Roson B,, Fernandez-Sabe N,, Carratala J,, Verdaguer R,, Dorca J,, Manresa F,, Gudiol F. 2004. Contribution of a urinary antigen assay (Binax NOW) to the early diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 38:222226.
72. Andreo F,, Prat C,, Ruiz-Manzano J,, Lores L,, Blanco S,, Cuesta MA,, Gimenez M,, Dominguez J. 2009. Persistence of Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen excretion after pneumococcal pneumonia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 28:197201.
73. Dowell SF,, Garman RL,, Liu G,, Levine OS,, Yang YH. 2001. Evaluation of Binax NOW, an assay for the detection of pneumococcal antigen in urine samples, performed among pediatric patients. Clin Infect Dis 32:824825.
74. Mandell LA,, Bartlett JG,, Dowell SF,, File TM,Jr,, Musher DM,, Whitney C. 2003. Update of practice guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults. Clin Infect Dis 37:14051433.
75. Thomas JG. 1994. Routine CSF antigen detection for agents associated with bacterial meningitis: another point of view. Clin Microbiol Newsl 16:8995.
76. Mein J,, Lum G. 1999. CSF bacterial antigen detection tests offer no advantage over Gram’s stain in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Pathology 31:6769.
77. Moisi JC,, Saha SK,, Falade AG,, Njanpop-Lafourcade BM,, Oundo J,, Zaidi AK,, Afroj S,, Bakare RA,, Buss JK,, Lasi R,, Mueller J,, Odekanmi AA,, Sangare L,, Scott JA,, Knoll MD,, Levine OS,, Gessner BD. 2009. Enhanced diagnosis of pneumococcal meningitis with use of the Binax NOW immunochromatographic test of Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen: a multisite study. Clin Infect Dis 48(Suppl 2):S49S56.
78. Pokorski SJ,, Vetter EA,, Wollan PC,, Cockerill FR,III. 1994. Comparison of Gen-Probe Group A streptococcus Direct Test with culture for diagnosing streptococcal pharyngitis. J Clin Microbiol 32:14401443.
79. Anderson NW,, Buchan BW,, Mayne D,, Mortensen JE,, Mackey TL,, Ledeboer NA. 2013. Multicenter clinical evaluation of the Illumigene group A Streptococcus DNA amplification assay for detection of group A Streptococcus from pharyngeal swabs. J Clin Microbiol 51:14741477.
80. Bergeron MG,, Ke D,, Menard C,, Picard FJ,, Gagnon M,, Bernier M,, Ouellette M,, Roy PH,, Marcoux S,, Fraser WD. 2000. Rapid detection of group B streptococci in pregnant women at delivery. N Engl J Med 343:175179.
81. Davies HD,, Miller MA,, Faro S,, Gregson D,, Kehl SC,, Jordan JA. 2004. Multicenter study of a rapid molecular-based assay for the diagnosis of group B Streptococcus colonization in pregnant women. Clin Infect Dis 39:11291135.
82. Gavino M,, Wang E. 2007. A comparison of a new rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction system to traditional culture in determining group B streptococcus colonization. Am J Obstet Gynecol 197:388 e381384.
83. Messmer TO,, Sampson JS,, Stinson A,, Wong B,, Carlone GM,, Facklam RR. 2004. Comparison of four polymerase chain reaction assays for specificity in the identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 49:249254.
84. Carvalho Mda G,, Tondella ML,, McCaustland K,, Weidlich L,, McGee L,, Mayer LW,, Steigerwalt A,, Whaley M,, Facklam RR,, Fields B,, Carlone G,, Ades EW,, Dagan R,, Sampson JS. 2007. Evaluation and improvement of real-time PCR assays targeting lytA, ply, and psaA genes for detection of pneumococcal DNA. J Clin Microbiol 45:24602466.
85. Albrich WC,, Madhi SA,, Adrian PV,, van Niekerk N,, Mareletsi T,, Cutland C,, Wong M,, Khoosal M,, Karstaedt A,, Zhao P,, Deatly A,, Sidhu M,, Jansen KU,, Klugman KP. 2012. Use of a rapid test of pneumococcal colonization density to diagnose pneumococcal pneumonia. Clin Infect Dis 54:601609.
86. Denys GA,, Carey RB. 1992. Identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae with a DNA probe. J Clin Microbiol 30:27252727.
87. Murray PR,, Wold AD,, Schreck CA,, Washington JA, II. 1976. Effects of selective media and atmosphere of incubation on the isolation of group A streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 4:5456.
88. Bisno AL. 2001. Acute pharyngitis. N Engl J Med 344:205211.
89. Kellogg JA. 1990. Suitability of throat culture procedures for detection of group A streptococci and as reference standards for evaluation of streptococcal antigen detection kits. J Clin Microbiol 28:165169.
90. Kurzynski TA,, Meise CK. 1979. Evaluation of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim blood agar plates for recovery of group A streptococci from throat cultures. J Clin Microbiol 9:189193.
91. Welch DF,, Hensel D,, Pickett D,, Johnson S. 1991. Comparative evaluation of selective and nonselective culture techniques for isolation of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci. Am J Clin Pathol 95:587590.
92. Schrag S,, Gorwitz R,, Fultz-Butts K,, Schuchat A. 2002. Prevention of perinatal group B streptococcal disease. Revised guidelines from CDC. MMWR Recomm Rep 51:122.
93. Rosa-Fraile M,, Rodriguez-Granger J,, Cueto-Lopez M,, Sampedro A,, Gaye EB,, Haro JM,, Andreu A. 1999. Use of Granada medium to detect group B streptococcal colonization in pregnant women. J Clin Microbiol 37:26742677.
94. Votava M,, Tejkalova M,, Drabkova M,, Unzeitig V,, Braveny I. 2001. Use of GBS media for rapid detection of group B streptococci in vaginal and rectal swabs from women in labor. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 20:120122.
95. Block T,, Munson E,, Culver A,, Vaughan K,, Hryciuk JE. 2008. Comparison of carrot broth- and selective Todd-Hewitt broth-enhanced PCR protocols for real-time detection of Streptococcus agalactiae in prenatal vaginal/anorectal specimens. J Clin Microbiol 46:36153620.
96. Richter SS,, Heilmann KP,, Dohrn CL,, Riahi F,, Beekmann SE,, Doern GV. 2008. Accuracy of phenotypic methods for identification of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates included in surveillance programs. J Clin Microbiol 46:21842188.
97. Schulthess B,, Brodner K,, Bloemberg GV,, Zbinden R,, Bottger EC,, Hombach M. 2013. Identification of Gram-positive cocci by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry: comparison of different preparation methods and implementation of a practical algorithm for routine diagnostics. J Clin Microbiol 51:18341840.
98. Malhotra-Kumar S,, Wang S,, Lammens C,, Chapelle S,, Goossens H. 2003. Bacitracin-resistant clone of Streptococcus pyogenes isolated from pharyngitis patients in Belgium. J Clin Microbiol 41:52825284.
99. Mihaila-Amrouche L,, Bouvet A,, Loubinoux J. 2004. Clonal spread of emm type 28 isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes that are multiresistant to antibiotics. J Clin Microbiol 42:38443846.
100. Pires R,, Rolo D,, Mato R,, Feio de Almeida J,, Johansson C,, Henriques-Normark B,, Morais A,, Brito-Avo A,, Goncalo-Marques J,, Santos-Sanches I. 2009. Resistance to bacitracin in Streptococcus pyogenes from oropharyngeal colonization and noninvasive infections in Portugal was caused by two clones of distinct virulence genotypes. FEMS Microbiol Lett 296:235240.
101. Kirby R,, Ruoff KL. 1995. Cost-effective, clinically relevant method for rapid identification of beta-hemolytic streptococci and enterococci. J Clin Microbiol 33:11541157.
102. Ratner HB,, Weeks LS,, Stratton CW. 1986. Evaluation of spot CAMP test for identification of group B streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 24:296297.
103. Hwang MN,, Ederer GM. 1975. Rapid hippurate hydrolysis method for presumptive identification of group B streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 1:114115.
104. Beighton D,, Hardie JM,, Whiley RA. 1991. A scheme for the identification of viridans streptococci. J Med Microbiol 35:367372.
105. Kikuchi K,, Enari T,, Totsuka K,, Shimizu K. 1995. Comparison of phenotypic characteristics, DNA-DNA hybridization results, and results with a commercial rapid biochemical and enzymatic reaction system for identification of viridans group streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 33:12151222.
106. Gorm Jensen T,, Bossen Konradsen H,, Bruun B. 1999. Evaluation of the Rapid ID 32 Strep system. Clin Microbiol Infect 5:417423.
107. Haanpera M,, Jalava J,, Huovinen P,, Meurman O,, Rantakokko-Jalava K. 2007. Identification of alpha-hemolytic streptococci by pyrosequencing the 16S rRNA gene and by use of VITEK 2. J Clin Microbiol 45:762770.
108. Teles C,, Smith A,, Ramage G,, Lang S. 2011. Identification of clinically relevant viridans group streptococci by phenotypic and genotypic analysis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 30:243250.
109. Croxatto A,, Prod’hom G,, Greub G. 2012. Applications of MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry in clinical diagnostic microbiology. FEMS Microbiol Rev 36:380407.
110. Dubois D,, Segonds C,, Prere MF,, Marty N,, Oswald E. 2013. Identification of clinical Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates among other alpha and nonhemolytic streptococci by use of the Vitek MS matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry system. J Clin Microbiol 51:18611867.
111. Branda JA,, Markham RP,, Garner CD,, Rychert JA,, Ferraro MJ. 2013. Performance of the Vitek MS v2.0 system in distinguishing Streptococcus pneumoniae from nonpneumococcal species of the Streptococcus mitis group. J Clin Microbiol 51:30793082.
112. Wojewoda CM,, Sercia L,, Navas M,, Tuohy M,, Wilson D,, Hall GS,, Procop GW,, Richter SS. 2013. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants. J Clin Microbiol 51:20722076.
113. Altun O,, Almuhayawi M,, Ullberg M,, Ozenci V. 2013. Clinical evaluation of the FilmArray blood culture identification panel in identification of bacteria and yeasts from positive blood culture bottles. J Clin Microbiol 51:41304136.
114. Poyart C,, Quesne G,, Coulon S,, Berche P,, Trieu-Cuot P. 1998. Identification of streptococci to species level by sequencing the gene encoding the manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase. J Clin Microbiol 36:4147.
115. Whiley RA,, Hall LM,, Hardie JM,, Beighton D. 1999. A study of small-colony, beta-haemolytic, Lancefield group C streptococci within the anginosus group: description of Streptococcus constellatus subsp. pharyngis subsp. nov., associated with the human throat and pharyngitis. Int J Syst Bacteriol 49(Part 4):14431449.
116. Summanen PH,, Rowlinson MC,, Wooton J,, Finegold SM. 2009. Evaluation of genotypic and phenotypic methods for differentiation of the members of the Anginosus group streptococci. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 28:11231128.
117. Whiley RA,, Fraser H,, Hardie JM,, Beighton D. 1990. Phenotypic differentiation of Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus anginosus strains within the “Streptococcus milleri group”. J Clin Microbiol 28:14971501.
118. Chuard C,, Reller LB. 1998. Bile-esculin test for presumptive identification of enterococci and streptococci: effects of bile concentration, inoculation technique, and incubation time. J Clin Microbiol 36:11351136.
119. West PW,, Foster HA,, Electricwala Q,, Alex A. 1996. Comparison of five methods for the determination of arginine hydrolysis by viridans streptococci. J Med Microbiol 45:501504.
120. Homer KA,, Denbow L,, Whiley RA,, Beighton D. 1993. Chondroitin sulfate depolymerase and hyaluronidase activities of viridans streptococci determined by a sensitive spectrophotometric assay. J Clin Microbiol 31:16481651.
121. Maiden MC. 2006. Multilocus sequence typing of bacteria. Annu Rev Microbiol 60:561588.
122. Austrian R. 1976. The quellung reaction, a neglected microbiologic technique. Mt Sinai J Med 43:699709.
123. Slotved HC,, Kaltoft M,, Skovsted IC,, Kerrn MB,, Espersen F. 2004. Simple, rapid latex agglutination test for serotyping of pneumococci (Pneumotest-Latex). J Clin Microbiol 42:25182522.
124. Massire C,, Gertz RE,Jr,, Svoboda P,, Levert K,, Reed MS,, Pohl J,, Kreft R,, Li F,, White N,, Ranken R,, Blyn LB,, Ecker DJ,, Sampath R,, Beall B. 2012. Concurrent serotyping and genotyping of pneumococci by use of PCR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol 50:20182025.
125. Kong F,, Brown M,, Sabananthan A,, Zeng X,, Gilbert GL. 2006. Multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot hybridization assay to identify 23 Streptococcus pneumoniae polysaccharide vaccine serotypes. J Clin Microbiol 44:18871891.
126. da Gloria Carvalho M,, Pimenta FC,, Jackson D,, Roundtree A,, Ahmad Y,, Millar EV,, O’Brien KL,, Whitney CG,, Cohen AL,, Beall BW. 2010. Revisiting pneumococcal carriage by use of broth enrichment and PCR techniques for enhanced detection of carriage and serotypes. J Clin Microbiol 48:16111618.
127. Lefevre JC,, Faucon G,, Sicard AM,, Gasc AM. 1993. DNA fingerprinting of Streptococcus pneumoniae strains by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 31:27242728.
128. Enright MC,, Spratt BG. 1999. Multilocus sequence typing. Trends Microbiol 7:482487.
129. Benson JA,, Flores AE,, Baker CJ,, Hillier SL,, Ferrieri P. 2002. Improved methods for typing nontypeable isolates of group B streptococci. Int J Med Microbiol 292:3742.
130. Kong F,, Gowan S,, Martin D,, James G,, Gilbert GL. 2002. Serotype identification of group B streptococci by PCR and sequencing. J Clin Microbiol 40:216226.
131. Poyart C,, Tazi A,, Reglier-Poupet H,, Billoet A,, Tavares N,, Raymond J,, Trieu-Cuot P. 2007. Multiplex PCR assay for rapid and accurate capsular typing of group B streptococci. J Clin Microbiol 45:19851988.
132. Jones N,, Bohnsack JF,, Takahashi S,, Oliver KA,, Chan MS,, Kunst F,, Glaser P,, Rusniok C,, Crook DW,, Harding RM,, Bisharat N,, Spratt BG. 2003. Multilocus sequence typing system for group B streptococcus. J Clin Microbiol 41:25302536.
133. Benson JA,, Ferrieri P. 2001. Rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis method for group B streptococcus isolates. J Clin Microbiol 39:30063008.
134. Johnson DR,, Kaplan EL. 1993. A review of the correlation of T-agglutination patterns and M-protein typing and opacity factor production in the identification of group A streptococci. J Med Microbiol 38:311315.
135. Mora M,, Bensi G,, Capo S,, Falugi F,, Zingaretti C,, Manetti AG,, Maggi T,, Taddei AR,, Grandi G,, Telford JL. 2005. Group A Streptococcus produce pilus-like structures containing protective antigens and Lancefield T antigens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:1564115646.
136. Fischetti VA. 1989. Streptococcal M protein: molecular design and biological behavior. Clin Microbiol Rev 2:285314.
137. Facklam RF,, Martin DR,, Lovgren M,, Johnson DR,, Efstratiou A,, Thompson TA,, Gowan S,, Kriz P,, Tyrrell GJ,, Kaplan E,, Beall B. 2002. Extension of the Lancefield classification for group A streptococci by addition of 22 new M protein gene sequence types from clinical isolates: emm103 to emm124. Clin Infect Dis 34:2838.
138. Enright MC,, Spratt BG,, Kalia A,, Cross JH,, Bessen DE. 2001. Multilocus sequence typing of Streptococcus pyogenes and the relationships between emm type and clone. Infect Immun 69:24162427.
139. Beall B,, Facklam RR,, Elliott JA,, Franklin AR,, Hoenes T,, Jackson D,, Laclaire L,, Thompson T,, Viswanathan R. 1998. Streptococcal emm types associated with T-agglutination types and the use of conserved emm gene restriction fragment patterns for subtyping group A streptococci. J Med Microbiol 47:893898.
140. Musser JM,, Kapur V,, Szeto J,, Pan X,, Swanson DS,, Martin DR. 1995. Genetic diversity and relationships among Streptococcus pyogenes strains expressing serotype M1 protein: recent intercontinental spread of a subclone causing episodes of invasive disease. Infect Immun 63:9941003.
141. Shet A,, Kaplan EL. 2002. Clinical use and interpretation of group A streptococcal antibody tests: a practical approach for the pediatrician or primary care physician. Pediatr Infect Dis J 21:420426; quiz 427430.
142. Ayoub EM,, Nelson B,, Shulman ST,, Barrett DJ,, Campbell JD,, Armstrong G,, Lovejoy J,, Angoff GH,, Rockenmacher S. 2003. Group A streptococcal antibodies in subjects with or without rheumatic fever in areas with high or low incidences of rheumatic fever. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 10:886890.
143. Kaplan EL,, Rothermel CD,, Johnson DR. 1998. Antistreptolysin O and anti-deoxyribonuclease B titers: normal values for children ages 2 to 12 in the United States. Pediatrics 101:8688.
144. Gerber MA,, Wright LL,, Randolph MF. 1987. Streptozyme test for antibodies to group A streptococcal antigens. Pediatr Infect Dis J 6:3640.
145. Dahesh S,, Hensler ME,, Van Sorge NM,, Gertz RE,Jr,, Schrag S,, Nizet V,, Beall BW. 2008. Point mutation in the group B streptococcal pbp2x gene conferring decreased susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:29152918.
146. Kimura K,, Suzuki S,, Wachino J,, Kurokawa H,, Yamane K,, Shibata N,, Nagano N,, Kato H,, Shibayama K,, Arakawa Y. 2008. First molecular characterization of group B streptococci with reduced penicillin susceptibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:28902897.
147. Desjardins M,, Delgaty KL,, Ramotar K,, Seetaram C,, Toye B. 2004. Prevalence and mechanisms of erythromycin resistance in group A and group B Streptococcus: implications for reporting susceptibility results. J Clin Microbiol 42:56205623.
148. Murdoch DR,, Reller LB. 2001. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of group B streptococci isolated from patients with invasive disease: 10-year perspective. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 45:36233624.
149. Gygax SE,, Schuyler JA,, Kimmel LE,, Trama JP,, Mordechai E,, Adelson ME. 2006. Erythromycin and clindamycin resistance in group B streptococcal clinical isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 50:18751877.
150. Villasenor-Sierra A,, Katahira E,, Jaramillo-Valdivia AN,, Barajas-Garcia Mde L,, Bryant A,, Morfin-Otero R,, Marquez-Diaz F,, Tinoco JC,, Sanchez-Corona J,, Stevens DL. 2012. Phenotypes and genotypes of erythromycin-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from invasive and non-invasive infections from Mexico and the USA during 1999-2010. Int J Infect Dis 16:e178e181.
151. Park C,, Nichols M,, Schrag SJ. 2014. Two cases of invasive vancomycin-resistant group B streptococcus infection. N Engl J Med 370:885886.
152. Weinstein MP,, Klugman KP,, Jones RN. 2009. Rationale for revised penicillin susceptibility breakpoints versus Streptococcus pneumoniae: coping with antimicrobial susceptibility in an era of resistance. Clin Infect Dis 48:15961600.
153. Mandell LA,, Wunderink RG,, Anzueto A,, Bartlett JG,, Campbell GD,, Dean NC,, Dowell SF,, File TM,Jr,, Musher DM,, Niederman MS,, Torres A,, Whitney CG. 2007. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis 44 Suppl 2:S27S72.
154. Doern GV,, Ferraro MJ,, Brueggemann AB,, Ruoff KL. 1996. Emergence of high rates of antimicrobial resistance among viridans group streptococci in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40:891894.
155. Thornsberry C,, Sahm DF,, Kelly LJ,, Critchley IA,, Jones ME,, Evangelista AT,, Karlowsky JA. 2002. Regional trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinical isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis in the United States: results from the TRUST Surveillance Program, 1999-2000. Clin Infect Dis 34(Suppl 1):S4S16.
156. Davidson R,, Cavalcanti R,, Brunton JL,, Bast DJ,, de Azavedo JC,, Kibsey P,, Fleming C,, Low DE. 2002. Resistance to levofloxacin and failure of treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia. N Engl J Med 346:747750.
157. Poyart C,, Pierre C,, Quesne G,, Pron B,, Berche P,, Trieu-Cuot P. 1997. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in the genus Streptococcus: characterization of a vanB transferable determinant in Streptococcus bovis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 41:2429.
158. Skoff TH,, Farley MM,, Petit S,, Craig AS,, Schaffner W,, Gershman K,, Harrison LH,, Lynfield R,, Mohle-Boetani J,, Zansky S,, Albanese BA,, Stefonek K,, Zell ER,, Jackson D,, Thompson T,, Schrag SJ. 2009. Increasing burden of invasive group B streptococcal disease in nonpregnant adults, 1990-2007. Clin Infect Dis 49:8592.
159. van’t Wout JW,, Bijlmer HA. 2005. Bacteremia due to Streptococcus gallolyticus, or the perils of revised nomenclature in bacteriology. Clin Infect Dis 40:10701071.
160. Facklam RR,, Washington II JA,. 1991. Streptococcus and related catalase-negative gram-postiive cocci, p 238257. In Balows A,, Hausler WA, Jr,, Herrmann KL,, Isenberg HD,, Shadomy HJ (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, 5th ed. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Phenotypic characteristics of beta-hemolytic streptococci

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2015. Streptococcus, p 383-402. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch22
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Phenotypic characteristics of major streptococcal groups

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2015. Streptococcus, p 383-402. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch22
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Phenotypic characteristics of streptococcal species from the group

Citation: Spellerberg B, Brandt C. 2015. Streptococcus, p 383-402. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch22

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error