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Chapter 29 : Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes

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Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The aerobic actinomycetes are aerobic Gram-positive rods, most of which exhibit branching on microscopic evaluation. These organisms have been noted to cause significant infections, most frequently in immunocompromised hosts. Because of the large number of species included in these genera, it has become increasingly difficult to identify members of this group to the species level. We present information on the taxonomy, clinical significance, methods of identification, and susceptibility testing of these organisms.

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
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FIGURE 1

Classification of genera of aerobic actinomycetes considered to be human pathogens, not including members of the family . Information from LPSN (http://www.bacterio.net/). doi:1128/9781555817381.ch29.f1

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Colonial morphology of type strains of various aerobic actinomycetes grown on Sabouraud dextrose agar (Emmons modification), unless otherwise noted. While appearances are typical for the species illustrated, the extent of possible colonial variation within a given species is not known. (A) at 21 days (smooth umbilicate colonies with no aerial hyphae); (B) at 10 days (ropy but smooth-surfaced colony with no aerial hyphae); (C) at 10 days (rugose colonies with some aerial hyphae); (D) at 10 days (umbilicate colonies; sparse aerial hyphae are present, but visible only on microscopic inspection of colonies); (E) at 25 days (with aerial hyphae present); (F) at 21 days (with aerial hyphae present); (G) at 7 days (rugose colony with sparse aerial hyphae present, visible only on careful microscopic inspection); (H) at 10 days (smooth colonies with no aerial hyphae); (I) at 10 days (irregular but smooth surface with no aerial hyphae); (J) at 10 days (smooth colonies with no aerial hyphae); (K) at 10 days (rough colonies with no aerial hyphae); (L) at 10 days (with dense powdery aerial hyphae covering most or all the surface of the colonies); (M) at 15 days on Middlebrook agar (rough colonies with no aerial hyphae); (N) at 15 days (smooth colonies with no aerial hyphae); (O) at 15 days (mucoid colonies).doi:1128/9781555817381.ch29.f2

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
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Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Microscopic morphology of various aerobic actinomycetes. All photomicrographs were taken at a ×1,000 magnification. (A) (Gram stain from Tween-albumin broth [TAB] at 4 days, with long, branching, relatively solidly staining rods; (B) (Gram stain from TAB at 4 days, with long beaded rods with some branching); (C) (Gram stain from TAB at 4 days, showing coryneform rods with no obvious branching); (D) (Gram stain from Sabouraud dextrose agar at 14 days in CO, with dense aggregates of cells of various sizes [note the chains of longitudinally and transversely dividing cells near the top]); (E) (Gram stain from TAB at 10 days, with long, beaded, branching rods [note that the beads generally do not abut one another]); (F) (modified acid-fast stain from horse blood agar at 2 to 3 days showing many coccal forms [it is mostly these that are modified acid-fast stain positive]); (G) (modified acid-fast stain from TAB at 25 days showing some long, branching forms that are modified acid-fast stain positive); (H) (Gram stain from TAB at 4 days showing coccobacilli and short coryneform rods without obvious branching); (I) (modified acid-fast stain from charcoal yeast extract [CYE] agar at 10 days, on which only a small percentage of the cells stain positive); (J) (modified acid-fast stain from Lowenstein-Jensen medium at 4 days showing thin rods, many of which stain positive); (K) direct Gram stain of sputum that grew a species (note the lacy network of long, thin, branching, beaded rods [courtesy of Daniel P. Fedorko]); (L) direct modified acid-fast stain of the same specimen as in panel K (the beads are purplish, but the intervening areas of the organism stain positive [courtesy of Daniel P. Fedorko]); (M) (Kinyoun stain from Middlebrook at 12 days); (N) (Gram stain from TAB at 7 days); (O) (Gram stain from TAB at 5 days). doi:1128/9781555817381.ch29.f3

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Morphologic characteristics of genera of aerobic actinomycetes

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Chemotaxonomic and lysozyme growth characteristics of genera of aerobic actinomycetes

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Species of aerobic actinomycetes other than species more frequently reported as human pathogens and GenBank accession numbers of type strain sequences

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Species of more frequently reported as human pathogens and GenBank accession numbers of type strain sequences

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Species of aerobic actinomycetes other than species infrequently reported or poorly documented as human pathogens and GenBank accession numbers of type strain sequences

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 6

Species of infrequently reported or poorly documented as human pathogens and GenBank accession numbers of type strain sequences

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29
Generic image for table
TABLE 7

Typing methods used for aerobic actinomycetes

Citation: Conville P, Witebsky F. 2015. Nocardia, Rhodococcus, Gordonia, Actinomadura, Streptomyces, and Other Aerobic Actinomycetes, p 504-535. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch29

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