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Chapter 34 : Neisseria

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Neisseria, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The genus currently consists of 28 species, most of which are commensals of mucous membranes of humans and animals. The two species most commonly associated with disease are and , also termed meningococcus, is spread by large-droplet oropharyngeal secretions and rarely causes invasive meningococcal disease (IMD), in the form of meningitis and sepsis. On the other hand, , which is also named gonococcus, is spread by sexual contact and is the causal agent of gonorrhea. In many industrialized countries the incidences of IMD and gonorrhea have decreased over the last decades, with present rates of around 1/100,000 and over 30/100,000, respectively. Microscopic examination of samples remains a cornerstone of laboratory diagnosis, as specificities of detection of Gram-negative diplococci from cerebrospinal fluid and genital swabs are high for the confirmation of meningococcal meningitis and gonorrhea, respectively. Both species are exquisitely susceptible to extreme temperatures and desiccation, necessitating rapid transport of specimens to the laboratory for culture-based detection. Culture remains the standard approach for verifying the presence of spp. in human specimens and is the only method allowing antibiotic resistance testing. Nevertheless, molecular assays, notably nucleic acid amplification tests, are frequently employed for the diagnosis of IMD and gonorrhea, due to less stringent sampling requirements. Moreover, DNA sequence-based single- and multilocus approaches, as well as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry, are gaining acceptance as methods for species assignment within the genus .

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
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FIGURE 1

Gram stain of CSF from a patient with meningococcal meningitis. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch34.f1

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Colony morphology (left) and Gram stain (right) of ( ). The strain was isolated from a human periodontal pocket. It was characterized by nearly complete sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The species is noteworthy due to its rod-like morphology. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch34.f2

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Commercially available NAATs for detection of

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Characteristics of medically relevant species

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Molecular typing methods for

Citation: Elias J, Frosch M, Vogel U. 2015. Neisseria, p 635-651. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch34

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