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Chapter 35 : , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*

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, , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

The bacterial genera covered in this chapter are taxonomically diverse—they belong to the families , , , , , and —but common traits justify their discussion as a group. Most bacteria in this group are part of the microbiota of the nasopharynx and/or the oral cavity of animals and/or humans and are parasitic, with the only environmental genus being . Transmission from animals occurs by contact (e.g., bites and licking of wounds), from humans to humans by droplets (e.g., directly with spp. or via human bites with ). The epidemiology and clinical significance of the genera , , and , of the family ; the genera , , and , belonging to the HACEK group; and other less frequently encountered genera are discussed separately. The identification of most genera is difficult by phenotypic methods. Direct microscopy may identify the corresponding bacteria; e.g., the typical morphology of spindle-shaped cells in the Gram stain and the anamnestic history of a dog bite allow the presumptive identification of . Phenotypic key reactions as well as commercially available systems allow identification of the frequently encountered human isolates. If accurate identification of uncommon isolates is of concern, then molecular methods, e.g., 16S rRNA gene analysis, are necessary. The application of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry shows promising results and is discussed here. Finally, susceptibility testing according to CLSI and EUCAST is described, especially for .

Citation: Zbinden R. 2015. , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, p 652-666. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch35
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FIGURE 1

(a) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland).(b) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (c) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (d) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (e) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown in Trypticase soy broth (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). (f) . Gram stain of a 48-h culture grown on sheep blood agar (Institute of Medical Microbiology, University of Zurich). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch35.f1

Citation: Zbinden R. 2015. , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, p 652-666. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch35
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Biochemical reactions of and spp.

Citation: Zbinden R. 2015. , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, p 652-666. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Biochemical reactions of spp., and related species, and

Citation: Zbinden R. 2015. , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, p 652-666. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Biochemical reactions of some rod-shaped species of the and of the

Citation: Zbinden R. 2015. , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, p 652-666. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Differentiation between and rod-shaped species

Citation: Zbinden R. 2015. , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, p 652-666. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch35
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Biochemical reactions of human and “related” species

Citation: Zbinden R. 2015. , , , , , and Other Fastidious or Rarely Encountered Gram-Negative Rods*, p 652-666. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch35

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