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Chapter 43 : , , , , , , , ,

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Abstract:

Species in the genera , , , , , , , , and are unusual human pathogens that are infrequently encountered in the clinical microbiology laboratory. However, the incidence of human infection due to some of these species has increased in recent years. Further, the taxonomy of these genera has been expanded, with several new species being described. and members of the complex are important opportunistic pathogens in persons with cystic fibrosis and chronic granulomatous disease, while causes significant human infection in Southeast Asia and northern Australia. is an important nosocomial pathogen and, together with certain , , and species, is also encountered in respiratory specimens from persons with cystic fibrosis. Historically, commercial phenotypic identification systems have performed rather poorly in identifying many of these species. Genetic-based identification methods have provided alternatives to traditional phenotypic analyses. More recently, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time-of-flight mass spectrometry has shown excellent potential for reliable identification, which should continue to improve as libraries of reference spectra expand. A variety of genotyping systems provide for reliable strain typing of most of these species and have enabled a greater appreciation of the epidemiology and natural history of human infection. This group of species is also characterized by limited susceptibility to many currently available antimicrobials. Treatment of human infection is often empiric and relies on combined antimicrobial therapy.

Citation: Lipuma J, Currie B, Peacock S, Vandamme P. 2015. , , , , , , , , , p 791-812. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch43
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FIGURE 1

(a) Gram stain of in a blood culture; (b) Gram stain of from a colony on blood agar. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch43.f1

Citation: Lipuma J, Currie B, Peacock S, Vandamme P. 2015. , , , , , , , , , p 791-812. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch43
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

(a) colonies on MacConkey agar; (b) colonies on blood agar; (c) colonies on Ashdown medium agar. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch43.f2

Citation: Lipuma J, Currie B, Peacock S, Vandamme P. 2015. , , , , , , , , , p 791-812. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch43
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Characteristics of the complex, , and spp.

Citation: Lipuma J, Currie B, Peacock S, Vandamme P. 2015. , , , , , , , , , p 791-812. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch43
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Characteristics of , , and

Citation: Lipuma J, Currie B, Peacock S, Vandamme P. 2015. , , , , , , , , , p 791-812. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch43
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Characteristics of and spp.

Citation: Lipuma J, Currie B, Peacock S, Vandamme P. 2015. , , , , , , , , , p 791-812. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch43
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Characteristics of , , , , and spp. found in clinical specimens

Citation: Lipuma J, Currie B, Peacock S, Vandamme P. 2015. , , , , , , , , , p 791-812. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch43

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