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Abstract:

is the causative agent of tularemia, an acute and fatal illness in animals and humans. Human infections caused by occur via arthropod bite, handling of infected animals, inhalation of infectious aerosols, and ingestion of contaminated food or water. is highly infectious, with only 10 organisms sufficient to cause illness, and has a notorious reputation for causing laboratory-acquired infections. Within the genus, is joined by 6 lesser-known species which are largely considered environmental species and nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens of humans. Whereas causes tularemia in animals and humans, and infect and cause death in fish and abalone, respectively. and are associated with salt or brackish water and are only infrequent causes of opportunistic infections in compromised individuals. was examined by multiple countries for its possible use as both an offensive and retaliatory biological weapon in the years leading up to and following World War II. In 2012, was classified as a Tier 1 agent, one of six bacterial agents considered to present the greatest risk of deliberate misuse with the most significant potential for mass casualties or devastating effects to the economy, critical infrastructure, or public confidence.

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M. 2015. , p 851-862. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch46
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Gram stain of . Magnification, ∼×810. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch46.f1

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M. 2015. , p 851-862. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch46
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FIGURE 2

on CA (A) and CHAB (B) after 72 and 48 h of growth, respectively. (Panel A is courtesy of the CDC Public Health Image Library [Larry Stauffer, Oregon State Public Health Laboratory].) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch46.f2

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M. 2015. , p 851-862. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch46
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FIGURE 3

DFA staining of a culture of . Magnification, ∼×490. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch46.f3

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M. 2015. , p 851-862. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch46
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Differentiation of from similar Gram-negative genera

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M. 2015. , p 851-862. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch46
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M. 2015. , p 851-862. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch46
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Epidemiology of spp. affecting humans

Citation: Petersen J, Schriefer M. 2015. , p 851-862. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch46

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