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Chapter 51 : , , , , ,

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Abstract:

This chapter describes a group of bacteria that consists of obligately anaerobic non-spore-forming cocci. This group has undergone extensive taxonomic changes during the last decades, including the addition of new genera and species. These bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and can cause various infections involving all areas of the human body. The focus of this chapter is the description of the taxa that are recovered from human clinical materials thought to be medically relevant in terms of their taxonomy, clinical significance, isolation, and identification in clinical settings.

Citation: Song Y, Finegold S. 2015. , , , , , , p 909-919. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch51
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FIGURE 1

Flowchart with key characteristics for identification and differentiation of GPAC. , SPS test was done using an SPS disk (5% SPS; Anaerobe Systems, Morgan Hill, CA). All GPAC are sensitive to SPS except for , which gives a zone of inhibition of ≥12 mm around an SPS disk. also exhibits a zone of inhibition with SPS; however, the zone is usually <12 mm. R, no zone or zone of inhibition is <12 mm; S, zone of inhibition is ≥12 mm. , All the enzymatic tests were done using Rapid ID 32A systems (API bioMérieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. β-GAL, β-galactosidase; α-GLU, α-glucosidase; β-GUR, β-glucuronidase; ArgA, arginine arylamidase (AMD); ProA, proline AMD; PheA, phenylalanine AMD; PyrA, pyroglutamyl AMD; GGA, glutamyl glutamic acid AMD; ALP, alkaline phosphatase. , glucose fermentation tests were performed using prereduced, anaerobically sterilized peptone-yeast-glucose (PYG) broth (Anaerobe Systems). A pH of ≤5.5 in the PYG tubes was interpreted as positive and ≥5.9 as negative fermentation. , described by D. A. Murdoch ( ). doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch51.f1

Citation: Song Y, Finegold S. 2015. , , , , , , p 909-919. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch51
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Changes in classification since the last edition of this of GPAC species isolated from human clinical specimens

Citation: Song Y, Finegold S. 2015. , , , , , , p 909-919. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Differential characteristics of , , , , and

Citation: Song Y, Finegold S. 2015. , , , , , , p 909-919. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch51
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Characteristics of genera of Gram-negative cocci

Citation: Song Y, Finegold S. 2015. , , , , , , p 909-919. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch51

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