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Obligately anaerobic, Gram-negative rods of clinical relevance belong mainly to the phyla and . Anaerobes are detected typically in polymicrobial infections associated with mucosal surfaces close to the site where they reside; e.g., members of the group are often involved in intra-abdominal infections, with considerable morbidity and mortality. When Gram-negative anaerobes gain entrance to the bloodstream and trigger a systemic inflammatory response, this may result in sepsis or infective endocarditis, with a fatal outcome. Knowledge abou

t the resident microbiota and awareness of their role in disease permit clinicians to anticipate the likely infecting species at different body sites. Considering the current reports of considerable frequencies of anaerobic bacteremia and fusobacterial infections, especially -associated invasive diseases, and increasing rates of resistance of spp. to various antimicrobials, training for anaerobic techniques and introduction of advanced methods for the detection and precise identification of anaerobes are needed in clinical microbiology laboratories. New methods, such as matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis, are increasingly used, but novel Gram-negative anaerobes are rather poorly integrated into the databases. Also, most laboratories neither perform the accurate species-level identification of the isolated organism nor test the susceptibilities of anaerobic isolates. Without knowledge of the local susceptibility patterns, the choice of proper antimicrobial therapy can be hampered and make the treatment outcome of anaerobic infections less predictable.

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
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Recently classified or reclassified genera and species (from 2010 onwards) of non-spore-forming anaerobic Gram-negative rods isolated from humans

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
Generic image for table

Characteristics of genera representing Gram-negative anaerobic rods frequently isolated from clinical specimens

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
Generic image for table

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
Generic image for table

Common genera of anaerobic Gram-negative rods detected in human infections

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
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Identification scheme for group, , and organisms isolated from humans

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
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Some phenotypic characteristics of species of human origin

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
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Biochemical identification scheme for species

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
Generic image for table

Some phenotypic characteristics of species

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
Generic image for table

Some phenotypic characteristics of and species

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
Generic image for table

Biochemical identification of motile Gram-negative anaerobic rods

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54
Generic image for table

Antimicrobial activities of potential agents against common Gram-negative anaerobes

Citation: KÖnÖnen E, Conrads G, Nagy E. 2015. *, p 967-993. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch54

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