1887

Chapter 62 : and

MyBook is a cheap paperback edition of the original book and will be sold at uniform, low price.

Ebook: Choose a downloadable PDF or ePub file. Chapter is a downloadable PDF file. File must be downloaded within 48 hours of purchase

Buy this Chapter
Digital (?) $30.00

Preview this chapter:
Zoom in
Zoomout

and , Page 1 of 2

| /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch62-1.gif /docserver/preview/fulltext/10.1128/9781555817381/9781555817381.ch62-2.gif

Abstract:

Class , which includes organisms in the genera and , represents a unique group of cell wall-less prokaryotes that are obligate parasites of humans, animals, plants, or insects and represent the smallest known free-living microorganisms. There are at least 16 species that have been isolated from humans, several of which are proven causes of diseases that affect primarily the respiratory or urogenital tracts, where they reside on mucosal surfaces and sometimes invade deeper tissues. The most important pathogens of humans are , , , , and Diagnostic test methods include culture, serology, and molecular-based assays. The slow growth rates and the fastidious growth requirements for some species such as and limits the use of culture for patient management purposes. However, for rapidly growing species such as and spp., culture is used for detection in clinical specimens, but specialized media and techniques are required that are not widely used in many clinical laboratories. Molecular-based assays are becoming more commonly available for detection of and are gradually supplanting serology for primary diagnosis of respiratory infections with this organism. Various methods of molecular strain typing have been described for the most important mycoplasmas of humans, mainly for epidemiological purposes. Antimicrobial resistance to commonly used drugs can occur in all of the human mycoplasmas. Standardized methods and quality control parameters have now been described for antimicrobial susceptibility testing for human mycoplasmas, making it possible to identify clinically significant drug resistance.

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Highlighted Text: Show | Hide
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

Figures

Image of FIGURE 1
FIGURE 1

Fried-egg-type colonies of up to 110 μm in diameter. Magnification, ×132.doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch62.f1

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Spherical colonies of up to 100 μm in diameter. Magnification, ×126.doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch62.f2

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint
Image of FIGURE 3
FIGURE 3

Granular brown urease-positive colonies of species 15 to 60 μm in diameter from a vaginal specimen growing on A8 agar. Magnification, ×100. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch62.f3

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Permissions and Reprints Request Permissions
Download as Powerpoint

References

/content/book/10.1128/9781555817381.mcm11.ch62
1. Webster D,, Windsor H,, Ling C,, Windsor D,, Pitcher D. 2003. Chronic bronchitis in immunocompromised patients: association with a novel Mycoplasma species. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 22:530534.
2. Robertson JA,, Alfa M,, Boatman ES. 1983. Morphology of the cells and colonies of Mycoplasma hominis. Sex Transm Dis 10:232239.
3. Wilson MH,, Collier AM. 1976. Ultrastructural study of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in organ culture. J Bacteriol 125:332339.
4. Jensen JS,, Hansen HT,, Lind K. 1996. Isolation of Mycoplasma genitalium strains from the male urethra. J Clin Microbiol 34:286291.
5. Waites KB,, Balish MF,, Atkinson TP. 2008. New insights into the pathogenesis and detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Future Microbiol 3:635648.
6. Waites KB,, Talkington DF. 2004. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its role as a human pathogen. Clin Microbiol Rev 17:697728.
7. Kannan TR,, Baseman JB. 2006. ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin of Mycoplasma pneumoniae represents unique virulence determinant among bacterial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 103:67246729.
8. Techasaensiri C,, Tagliabue C,, Cagle M,, Iranpour P,, Katz K,, Kannan TR,, Coalson JJ,, Baseman JB,, Hardy RD. 2010. Variation in colonization, ADP-ribosylating and vacuolating cytotoxin, and pulmonary disease severity among Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 182:797804.
9. Hu PC,, Schaper U,, Collier AM,, Clyde WAJr,, Horikawa M,, Huang YS,, Barile MF. 1987. A Mycoplasma genitalium protein resembling the Mycoplasma pneumoniae attachment protein. Infect Immun 55:11261131.
10. Henrich B,, Feldmann RC,, Hadding U. 1993. Cytoadhesins of Mycoplasma hominis. Infect Immun 61:29452951.
11. Waites KB,, Katz B,, Schelonka RL. 2005. Mycoplasmas and ureaplasmas as neonatal pathogens. Clin Microbiol Rev 18:757789.
12. Taylor-Robinson D,, Lamont RF. 2011. Mycoplasmas in pregnancy. BJOG 118:164174.
13. Labbe AC,, Frost E,, Deslandes S,, Mendonca AP,, Alves AC,, Pepin J. 2002. Mycoplasma genitalium is not associated with adverse outcomes of pregnancy in Guinea-Bissau. Sex Transm Infect 78:289291.
14. Taylor-Robinson D,, Jensen JS. 2012. Mycoplasma genitalium: from Chrysalis to multicolored butterfly. Clin Microbiol Rev 24:498514.
15. Lo SC,, Hayes MM,, Wang RY,, Pierce PF,, Kotani H,, Shih JW. 1991. Newly discovered mycoplasma isolated from patients infected with HIV. Lancet 338:14151418.
16. Dallo SF,, Baseman JB. 2000. Intracellular DNA replication and long-term survival of pathogenic mycoplasmas. Microb Pathog 29:301309.
17. Kannan TR,, Hardy RD,, Coalson JJ,, Cavuoti DC,, Siegel JD,, Cagle M,, Musatovova O,, Herrera C,, Baseman JB. 2012. Fatal outcomes in family transmission of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Clin Infect Dis 54:225231.
18. Talkington DF,, Waites KB,, Schwartz SB,, Besser RE,. 2001. Emerging from obscurity: understanding pulmonary and extrapulmonary syndromes, pathogenesis, and epidemiology of human Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections, p 5784. In Scheld WM,, Craig WA,, Hughes JM, ed, Emerging Infections 5. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
19. Hahn DL. 2009. Macrolide therapy in asthma: limited treatment, long-term improvement. Eur Respir J 33:1239.
20. Martin RJ,, Kraft M,, Chu HW,, Berns EA,, Cassell GH. 2001. A link between chronic asthma and chronic infection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 107:595601.
21. Lo SC,, Wear DJ,, Green SL,, Jones PG,, Legier JF. 1993. Adult respiratory distress syndrome with or without systemic disease associated with infections due to Mycoplasma fermentans. Clin Infect Dis 17(Suppl 1):S259S263.
22. Ainsworth JG,, Clarke J,, Goldin R,, Taylor-Robinson D. 2000. Disseminated Mycoplasma fermentans in AIDS patients: several case reports. Int J STD AIDS 11:751755.
23. Ainsworth JG,, Clarke J,, Lipman M,, Mitchell D,, Taylor-Robinson D. 2000. Detection of Mycoplasma fermentans in broncho-alveolar lavage fluid specimens from AIDS patients with lower respiratory tract infection. HIV Med 1:219223.
24. Blanchard A,, Hamrick W,, Duffy L,, Baldus K,, Cassell GH. 1993. Use of the polymerase chain reaction for detection of Mycoplasma fermentans and Mycoplasma genitalium in the urogenital tract and amniotic fluid. Clin Infect Dis 17(Suppl 1):S272S279.
25. Hatchel JM,, Balish RS,, Duley ML,, Balish MF. 2006. Ultrastructure and gliding motility of Mycoplasma amphoriforme, a possible human respiratory pathogen. Microbiology 152:21812189.
26. Taylor-Robinson D. 1996. Infections due to species of Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma: an update. Clin Infect Dis 23:671682; quiz 683–674.
27. Xiao L,, Paralanov V,, Glass JI,, Duffy LB,, Robertson JA,, Cassell GH,, Chen Y,, Waites KB. 2011. Extensive horizontal gene transfer in ureaplasmas from humans questions the utility of serotyping for diagnostic purposes. J Clin Microbiol 49:28182826.
28. Deguchi T,, Yoshida T,, Miyazawa T,, Yasuda M,, Tamaki M,, Ishiko H,, Maeda S. 2004. Association of Ureaplasma urealyticum (biovar 2) with nongonococcal urethritis. Sex Transm Dis 31:192195.
29. Povlsen K,, Bjornelius E,, Lidbrink P,, Lind I. 2002. Relationship of Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 2 to nongonococcal urethritis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 21:97101.
30. Falk L,, Fredlund H,, Jensen JS. 2004. Symptomatic urethritis is more prevalent in men infected with Mycoplasma genitalium than with Chlamydia trachomatis. Sex Transm Infect 80:289293.
31. Bjornelius E,, Jensen JS,, Lidbrink P. 2004. Conjunctivitis associated with Mycoplasma genitalium infection. Clin Infect Dis 39:e67e69.
32. Deguchi T,, Gilroy CB,, Taylor-Robinson D. 1996. Failure to detect Mycoplasma fermentans, Mycoplasma penetrans, or Mycoplasma pirum in the urethra of patients with acute nongonococcal urethritis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 15:169171.
33. Stamm WE,, Running K,, Hale J,, Holmes KK. 1983. Etiologic role of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in women with the acute urethral syndrome. Sex Transm Dis 10:318322.
34. Doble A,, Thomas BJ,, Furr PM,, Walker MM,, Harris JRW,, Witherow RO,, Taylor-Robinson D. 1989. A search for infectious agents in chronic abacterial prostatitis using ultrasound guided biopsy. Br J Urol 64:297301.
35. Krieger JN,, Riley DE,, Roberts MC,, Berger RE. 1996. Prokaryotic DNA sequences in patients with chronic idiopathic prostatitis. J Clin Microbiol 34:31203128.
36. Jalil N,, Doble A,, Gilchrist C,, Taylor-Robinson D. 1988. Infection of the epididymis by Ureaplasma urealyticum. Genitourin Med 64:367368.
37. Grenabo L,, Hedelin H,, Pettersson S. 1988. Urinary infection stones caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum: a review. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 53:4649.
38. Thomsen AC. 1978. Occurrence of mycoplasmas in urinary tracts of patients with acute pyelonephritis. J Clin Microbiol 8:8488.
39. Keane FE,, Thomas BJ,, Gilroy CB,, Renton A,, Taylor-Robinson D. 2000. The association of Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium with bacterial vaginosis: observations on heterosexual women and their male partners. Int J STD AIDS 11:356360.
40. Oakeshott P,, Aghaizu A,, Hay P,, Reid F,, Kerry S,, Atherton H,, Simms I,, Taylor-Robinson D,, Dohn B,, Jensen JS. 2010. Is Mycoplasma genitalium in women the “New Chlamydia?” A community-based prospective cohort study. Clin Infect Dis 51:11601166.
41. Manhart LE,, Critchlow CW,, Holmes KK,, Dutro SM,, Eschenbach DA,, Stevens CE,, Totten PA. 2003. Mucopurulent cervicitis and Mycoplasma genitalium. J Infect Dis 187:650657.
42. Miettinen A. 1987. Mycoplasma hominis in patients with pelvic inflammatory disease. Isr J Med Sci 23:713716.
43. Baczynska A,, Friis Svenstrup H,, Fedder J,, Birkelund S,, Christiansen G. 2005. The use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Mycoplasma hominis antibodies in infertile women serum samples. Hum Reprod 20:12771285.
44. Haggerty CL. 2008. Evidence for a role of Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease. Curr Opin Infect Dis 21:6569.
45. Falk L,, Fredlund H,, Jensen JS. 2005. Signs and symptoms of urethritis and cervicitis among women with or without Mycoplasma genitalium or Chlamydia trachomatis infection. Sex Transm Infect 81:7378.
46. Cohen CR,, Manhart LE,, Bukusi EA,, Astete S,, Brunham RC,, Holmes KK,, Sinei SK,, Bwayo JJ,, Totten PA. 2002. Association between Mycoplasma genitalium and acute endometritis. Lancet 359:765766.
47. Clausen HF,, Fedder J,, Drasbek M,, Nielsen PK,, Toft B,, Ingerslev HJ,, Birkelund S,, Christiansen G. 2001. Serological investigation of Mycoplasma genitalium in infertile women. Hum Reprod 16:18661874.
48. Cassell GH,, Davis RO,, Waites KB,, Brown MB,, Marriott PA,, Stagno S,, Davis JK. 1983. Isolation of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum from amniotic fluid at 16–20 weeks of gestation: potential effect on outcome of pregnancy. Sex Transm Dis 10:294302.
49. Chaim W,, Horowitz S,, David JB,, Ingel F,, Evinson B,, Mazor M. 2003. Ureaplasma urealyticum in the development of postpartum endometritis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 109:145148.
50. Novy MJ,, Duffy L,, Axthelm MK,, Sadowsky DW,, Witkin SS,, Gravett MG,, Cassell GH,, Waites KB. 2009. Ureaplasma parvum or Mycoplasma hominis as sole pathogens cause chorioamnionitis, preterm delivery, and fetal pneumonia in rhesus macaques. Reprod Sci 16:5670.
51. Lu GC,, Schwebke JR,, Duffy LB,, Cassell GH,, Hauth JC,, Andrews WW,, Goldenberg RL. 2001. Midtrimester vaginal Mycoplasma genitalium in women with subsequent spontaneous preterm birth. Am J Obstet Gynecol 185:163165.
52. Oakeshott P,, Hay P,, Taylor-Robinson D,, Hay S,, Dohn B,, Kerry S,, Jensen JS. 2004. Prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium in early pregnancy and relationship between its presence and pregnancy outcome. BJOG 111:14641467.
53. Schelonka RL,, Katz B,, Waites KB,, Benjamin DKJr. 2005. Critical appraisal of the role of Ureaplasma in the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia with metaanalytic techniques. Pediatr Infect Dis J 24:10331039.
54. Rohner P,, Schnyder I,, Ninet B,, Schrenzel J,, Lew D,, Ramla T,, Garbino J,, Jacomo V. 2004. Severe Mycoplasma hominis infections in two renal transplant patients. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 23:203204.
55. Meyer RD,, Clough W. 1993. Extragenital Mycoplasma hominis infections in adults: emphasis on immunosuppression. Clin Infect Dis 17(Suppl 1):S243S249.
56. Johnson S,, Sidebottom D,, Bruckner F,, Collins D. 2000. Identification of Mycoplasma fermentans in synovial fluid samples from arthritis patients with inflammatory disease. J Clin Microbiol 38:9093.
57. Schaeverbeke T,, Gilroy CB,, Bebear C,, Dehais J,, Taylor-Robinson D. 1996. Mycoplasma fermentans, but not M. penetrans, detected by PCR assays in synovium from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other rheumatic disorders. J Clin Pathol 49:824828.
58. Schaeverbeke T,, Renaudin H,, Clerc M,, Lequen L,, Vernhes JP,, De Barbeyrac B,, Bannwarth B,, Bebear C,, Dehais J. 1997. Systematic detection of mycoplasmas by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures in 209 synovial fluid samples. Br J Rheumatol 36:310314.
59. Donta ST,, Engel CCJr,, Collins JF,, Baseman JB,, Dever LL,, Taylor T,, Boardman KD,, Kazis LE,, Martin SE,, Horney RA,, Wiseman AL,, Kernodle DS,, Smith RP,, Baltch AL,, Handanos C,, Catto B,, Montalvo L,, Everson M,, Blackburn W,, Thakore M,, Brown ST,, Lutwick L,, Norwood D,, Bernstein J,, Bacheller C,, Ribner B,, Church LW,, Wilson KH,, Guduru P,, Cooper R,, Lentino J,, Hamill RJ,, Gorin AB,, Gordan V,, Wagner D,, Robinson C,, DeJace P,, Greenfield R,, Beck L,, Bittner M,, Schumacher HR,, Silverblatt F,, Schmitt J,, Wong E,, Ryan MA,, Figueroa J,, Nice C,, Feussner JR. 2004. Benefits and harms of doxycycline treatment for Gulf War veterans’ illnesses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med 141:8594.
60. Soni S,, Alexander S,, Verlander N,, Saunders P,, Richardson D,, Fisher M,, Ison C. The prevalence of urethral and rectal Mycoplasma genitalium and its associations in men who have sex with men attending a genitourinary medicine clinic. Sex Transm Infect 86:2124.
61. Lusk MJ,, Konecny P,, Naing ZW,, Garden FL,, Cumming RG,, Rawlinson WD. Mycoplasma genitalium is associated with cervicitis and HIV infection in an urban Australian STI clinic population. Sex Transm Infect 87:107109.
62. Sasaki Y,, Honda M,, Makino M,, Sasaki T. 1993. Mycoplasmas stimulate replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 through selective activation of CD4+ T lymphocytes. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 9:775780.
63. Napierala Mavedzenge S,, Weiss HA. 2009. Association of Mycoplasma genitalium and HIV infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS 23:611620.
64. Jensen JS,, Bjornelius E,, Dohn B,, Lidbrink P. 2004. Comparison of first void urine and urogenital swab specimens for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium and Chlamydia trachomatis by polymerase chain reaction in patients attending a sexually transmitted disease clinic. Sex Transm Dis 31:499507.
65. Pratt BC. 1991. Recovery of Mycoplasma hominis from blood culture media. Med Lab Sci 48:350.
66. Waites KB,, Canupp KC. 2001. Evaluation of BacT/ALERT system for detection of Mycoplasma hominis in simulated blood cultures. J Clin Microbiol 39:43284331.
67. Waites KB,, Xiao L,, Paralanov V,, Viscardi RM,, Glass JI. 2012. Molecular methods for the detection of Mycoplasma and ureaplasma infections in humans: a paper from the 2011 William Beaumont Hospital Symposium on molecular pathology. J Mol Diagn 14:437450.
68. Loens K,, Goossens H,, Ieven M. 2010. Acute respiratory infection due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae: current status of diagnostic methods. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 29:10551069.
69. Daxboeck F,, Krause R,, Wenisch C. 2003. Laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Clin Microbiol Infect 9:263273.
70. Winchell JM,, Thurman KA,, Mitchell SL,, Thacker WL,, Fields BS. 2008. Evaluation of three real-time PCR assays for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in an outbreak investigation. J Clin Microbiol 46:31163118.
71. Dumke R,, Schurwanz N,, Lenz M,, Schuppler M,, Luck C,, Jacobs E. 2007. Sensitive detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in human respiratory tract samples by optimized real-time PCR approach. J Clin Microbiol 45:27262730.
72. Lodes MJ,, Suciu D,, Wilmoth JL,, Ross M,, Munro S,, Dix K,, Bernards K,, Stover AG,, Quintana M,, Iihoshi N,, Lyon WJ,, Danley DL,, McShea A. 2007. Identification of upper respiratory tract pathogens using electrochemical detection on an oligonucleotide microarray. PLoS ONE 2:e924.
73. Loens K,, Ieven M,, Ursi D,, Beck T,, Overdijk M,, Sillekens P,, Goossens H. 2003. Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification. J Clin Microbiol 41:44484450.
74. Templeton KE,, Scheltinga SA,, Graffelman AW,, Van Schie JM,, Crielaard JW,, Sillekens P,, Van Den Broek PJ,, Goossens H,, Beersma MF,, Claas EC. 2003. Comparison and evaluation of real-time PCR, real-time nucleic acid sequence-based amplification, conventional PCR, and serology for diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 41:43664371.
75. Khanna M,, Fan J,, Pehler-Harrington K,, Waters C,, Douglass P,, Stallock J,, Kehl S,, Henrickson KJ. 2005. The pneumoplex assays, a multiplex PCR-enzyme hybridization assay that allows simultaneous detection of five organisms, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia (Chlamydophila) pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, and Bordetella pertussis, and its real-time counterpart. J Clin Microbiol 43:565571.
76. Dumke R,, Jacobs E. 2009. Comparison of commercial and in-house real-time PCR assays used for detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 47:441444.
77. Ginevra C,, Barranger C,, Ros A,, Mory O,, Stephan JL,, Freymuth F,, Joannes M,, Pozzetto B,, Grattard F. 2005. Development and evaluation of Chlamylege, a new commercial test allowing simultaneous detection and identification of Legionella, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in clinical respiratory specimens by multiplex PCR. J Clin Microbiol 43:32473254.
78. Ratliff A,, Duffy LB,, Waites KB. 2014. Comparison of illumigene Mycoplasma DNA amplification and culture for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 52:10601063.
79. Deguchi T,, Yoshida T,, Yokoi S,, Ito M,, Tamaki M,, Ishiko H,, Maeda S. 2002. Longitudinal quantitative detection by real-time PCR of Mycoplasma genitalium in first-pass urine of men with recurrent nongonococcal urethritis. J Clin Microbiol 40:38543856.
80. Hardick J,, Giles J,, Hardick A,, Hsieh YH,, Quinn T,, Gaydos C. 2006. Performance of the gen-probe transcription-mediated [corrected] amplification research assay compared to that of a multitarget real-time PCR for Mycoplasma genitalium detection. J Clin Microbiol 44:12361240.
81. Jensen JS,, Bjornelius E,, Dohn B,, Lidbrink P. 2004. Use of TaqMan 5′ nuclease real-time PCR for quantitative detection of Mycoplasma genitalium DNA in males with and without urethritis who were attendees at a sexually transmitted disease clinic. J Clin Microbiol 42:683692.
82. Jurstrand M,, Jensen JS,, Fredlund H,, Falk L,, Molling P. 2005. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in urogenital specimens by real-time PCR and by conventional PCR assay. J Med Microbiol 54:2329.
83. Svenstrup HF,, Jensen JS,, Bjornelius E,, Lidbrink P,, Birkelund S,, Christiansen G. 2005. Development of a quantitative real-time PCR assay for detection of Mycoplasma genitalium. J Clin Microbiol 43:31213128.
84. Yoshida T,, Deguchi T,, Ito M,, Maeda S,, Tamaki M,, Ishiko H. 2002. Quantitative detection of Mycoplasma genitalium from first-pass urine of men with urethritis and asymptomatic men by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 40:14511455.
85. Dupin N,, Bijaoui G,, Schwarzinger M,, Ernault P,, Gerhardt P,, Jdid R,, Hilab S,, Pantoja C,, Buffet M,, Escande JP,, Costa JM. 2003. Detection and quantification of Mycoplasma genitalium in male patients with urethritis. Clin Infect Dis 37:602605.
86. Baseman JB,, Cagle M,, Korte JE,, Herrera C,, Rasmussen WG,, Baseman JG,, Shain R,, Piper JM. 2004. Diagnostic assessment of Mycoplasma genitalium in culture-positive women. J Clin Microbiol 42:203211.
87. Schwebke JR,, Rompalo A,, Taylor S,, Sena AC,, Martin DH,, Lopez LM,, Lensing S,, Lee JY. 2011. Re-evaluating the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis: emphasizing emerging pathogens—a randomized clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis 52:163170.
88. Mena LA,, Mroczkowski TF,, Nsuami M,, Martin DH. 2009. A randomized comparison of azithromycin and doxycycline for the treatment of Mycoplasma genitalium-positive urethritis in men. Clin Infect Dis 48:16491654.
89. Grau O,, Kovacic R,, Griffais R,, Launay V,, Montagnier L. 1994. Development of PCR-based assays for the detection of two human mollicute species, Mycoplasma penetrans and M. hominis. Mol Cell Probes 8:139147.
90. Yoshida T,, Maeda S,, Deguchi T,, Miyazawa T,, Ishiko H. 2003. Rapid detection of Mycoplasma genitalium, Mycoplasma hominis, Ureaplasma parvum, and Ureaplasma urealyticum organisms in genitourinary samples by PCR-microtiter plate hybridization assay. J Clin Microbiol 41:18501855.
91. Mygind T,, Birkelund S,, Christiansen G. 1998. DNA sequencing reveals limited heterogeneity in the 16S rRNA gene from the rrnB operon among five Mycoplasma hominis isolates. Int J Syst Bacteriol 48(Part 3):10671071.
92. Baczynska A,, Svenstrup HF,, Fedder J,, Birkelund S,, Christiansen G. 2004. Development of real-time PCR for detection of Mycoplasma hominis. BMC Microbiol 4:35.
93. Menard JP,, Fenollar F,, Henry M,, Bretelle F,, Raoult D. 2008. Molecular quantification of Gardnerella vaginalis and Atopobium vaginae loads to predict bacterial vaginosis. Clin Infect Dis 47:3343.
94. Ferandon C,, Peuchant O,, Janis C,, Benard A,, Renaudin H,, Pereyre S,, Bebear C. 2011. Development of a real-time PCR targeting the yidC gene for the detection of Mycoplasma hominis and comparison with quantitative culture. Clin Microbiol Infect 17:155159.
95. Kong F,, Zhu X,, Wang W,, Zhou X,, Gordon S,, Gilbert GL. 1999. Comparative analysis and serovar-specific identification of multiple-banded antigen genes of Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar 1. J Clin Microbiol 37:538543.
96. Robertson JA,, Vekris A,, Bebear C,, Stemke GW. 1993. Polymerase chain reaction using 16S rRNA gene sequences distinguishes the two biovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum. J Clin Microbiol 31:824830.
97. Harasawa R,, Kanamoto Y. 1999. Differentiation of two biovars of Ureaplasma urealyticum based on the 16S–23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. J Clin Microbiol 37:41354138.
98. Blanchard A. 1990. Ureaplasma urealyticum urease genes; use of a UGA tryptophan codon. Mol Microbiol 4:669676.
99. Kong F,, Ma Z,, James G,, Gordon S,, Gilbert GL. 2000. Species identification and subtyping of Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum using PCR-based assays. J Clin Microbiol 38:11751179.
100. Povlsen K,, Jensen JS,, Lind I. 1998. Detection of Ureaplasma urealyticum by PCR and biovar determination by liquid hybridization. J Clin Microbiol 36:32113216.
101. Kong F,, Ma Z,, James G,, Gordon S,, Gilbert GL. 2000. Molecular genotyping of human Ureaplasma species based on multiple-banded antigen (MBA) gene sequences. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50(Part 5):19211929.
102. Teng LJ,, Zheng X,, Glass JI,, Watson HL,, Tsai J,, Cassell GH. 1994. Ureaplasma urealyticum biovar specificity and diversity are encoded in multiple-banded antigen gene. J Clin Microbiol 32:14641469.
103. Teng LJ,, Ho SW,, Ho HN,, Liaw SJ,, Lai HC,, Luh KT. 1995. Rapid detection and biovar differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum in clinical specimens by PCR. J Formos Med Assoc 94:396400.
104. Yi J,, Yoon BH,, Kim EC. 2005. Detection and biovar discrimination of Ureaplasma urealyticum by real-time PCR. Mol Cell Probes 19:255260.
105. Xiao L,, Glass JI,, Paralanov V,, Yooseph S,, Cassell GH,, Duffy LB,, Waites KB. 2010. Detection and characterization of human Ureaplasma species and serovars by real-time PCR. J Clin Microbiol 48:27152723.
106. Cao X,, Jiang Z,, Wang Y,, Gong R,, Zhang C. 2007. Two multiplex real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction systems for simultaneous detecting and serotyping of Ureaplasma parvum. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 59:109111.
107. Cao X,, Wang Y,, Hu X,, Qing H,, Wang H. 2007. Real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays for quantitative detection and differentiation of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 57:373378.
108. Mallard K,, Schopfer K,, Bodmer T. 2005. Development of real-time PCR for the differential detection and quantification of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Ureaplasma parvum. J Microbiol Methods 60:1319.
109. Reznikov M,, Blackmore TK,, Finlay-Jones JJ,, Gordon DL. 1995. Comparison of nasopharyngeal aspirates and throat swab specimens in a polymerase chain reaction-based test for Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 14:5861.
110. Waites KB, Bebear CM, Robertson JA, Talkington DF, Kenny GE. 2001. Cumitech 34, Laboratory Diagnosis of Mycoplasmal Infections. Coordinating editor, F. S. Nolte. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC.
111. Abele-Horn M,, Blendinger C,, Becher C,, Emmerling P,, Ruckdeschel G. 1996. Evaluation of commercial kits for quantitative identification and tests on antibiotic susceptibility of genital mycoplasmas. Zentralbl Bakteriol 284:540549.
112. Clegg A,, Passey M,, Yoannes M,, Michael A. 1997. High rates of genital mycoplasma infection in the highlands of Papua New Guinea determined both by culture and by a commercial detection kit. J Clin Microbiol 35:197200.
113. Pereyre S,, Tardy F,, Renaudin H,, Cauvin E,, Del Pra Netto Machado L,, Tricot A,, Benoit F,, Treilles M,, Bebear C. 2013. Identification and subtyping of clinically relevant human and ruminant mycoplasmas by use of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry. J Clin Microbiol 51:33143323.
114. Moser SA,, Mayfield CA,, Duffy LB,, Waites KB. 2006. Genotypic characterization of Ureaplasma species by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. J Microbiol Methods 67:606610.
115. Robertson JA,, Pyle LE,, Stemke GW,, Finch LR. 1990. Human ureaplasmas show diverse genome sizes by pulsed-field electrophoresis. Nucleic Acids Res 18:14511455.
116. Xiao L,, Crabb DM,, Moser SA,, Duffy LB,, Glass JI,, Paralanov V,, Waites KB. 2011. Genotypic characterization of Ureaplasma serovars from clinical isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. J Clin Microbiol 49:33253328.
117. Cousin-Allery A,, Charron A,, de Barbeyrac B,, Fremy G,, Skov Jensen J,, Renaudin H,, Bebear C. 2000. Molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae strains by PCR-based methods and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Application to French and Danish isolates. Epidemiol Infect 124:103111.
118. Degrange S,, Cazanave C,, Charron A,, Renaudin H,, Bebear C,, Bebear CM. 2009. Development of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for molecular typing of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. J Clin Microbiol 47:914923.
119. Dorigo-Zetsma JW,, Dankert J,, Zaat SA. 2000. Genotyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae clinical isolates reveals eight P1 subtypes within two genomic groups. J Clin Microbiol 38:965970.
120. Dumke R,, Catrein I,, Pirkil E,, Herrmann R,, Jacobs E. 2003. Subtyping of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates based on extended genome sequencing and on expression profiles. Int J Med Microbiol 292:513525.
121. Sasaki T,, Kenri T,, Okazaki N,, Iseki M,, Yamashita R,, Shintani M,, Sasaki Y,, Yayoshi M. 1996. Epidemiological study of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in Japan based on PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism of the P1 cytadhesin gene. J Clin Microbiol 34:447449.
122. Alexander TS,, Gray LD,, Kraft JA,, Leland DS,, Nikaido MT,, Willis DH. 1996. Performance of Meridian ImmunoCard Mycoplasma test in a multicenter clinical trial. J Clin Microbiol 34:11801183.
123. Echevarria JM,, Leon P,, Balfagon P,, Lopez JA,, Fernandez MV. 1990. Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection by microparticle agglutination and antibody-capture enzyme-immunoassay. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 9:217220.
124. Lieberman D,, Horowitz S,, Horovitz O,, Schlaeffer F,, Porath A. 1995. Microparticle agglutination versus antibody-capture enzyme immunoassay for diagnosis of community-acquired Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 14:577584.
125. Ozaki T,, Nishimura N,, Ahn J,, Watanabe N,, Muto T,, Saito A,, Koyama N,, Nakane K,, Funahashi K. 2007. Utility of a rapid diagnosis kit for Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia in children, and the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. J Infect Chemother 13:204207.
126. Thacker WL,, Talkington DF. 2000. Analysis of complement fixation and commercial enzyme immunoassays for detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in human serum. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 7:778780.
127. Aubert G,, Pozzetto B,, Gaudin OG,, Hafid J,, Mbida AD,, Ros A. 1992. Evaluation of five commercial tests: complement fixation, microparticle agglutination, indirect immunofluorescence, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and latex agglutination, in comparison to immunoblotting for Mycoplasma pneumoniae serology. Ann Biol Clin (Paris) 50:593597.
128. Barker CE,, Sillis M,, Wreghitt TG. 1990. Evaluation of Serodia Myco II particle agglutination test for detecting Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibody: comparison with mu-capture ELISA and indirect immunofluorescence. J Clin Pathol 43:163165.
129. Beersma MF,, Dirven K,, van Dam AP,, Templeton KE,, Claas EC,, Goossens H. 2005. Evaluation of 12 commercial tests and the complement fixation test for Mycoplasma pneumoniae-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies, with PCR used as the “gold standard.” J Clin Microbiol 43:22772285.
130. Talkington DF,, Shott S,, Fallon MT,, Schwartz SB,, Thacker WL. 2004. Analysis of eight commercial enzyme immunoassay tests for detection of antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in human serum. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol 11:862867.
131. Thacker WL,, Talkington DF. 1995. Comparison of two rapid commercial tests with complement fixation for serologic diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. J Clin Microbiol 33:12121214.
132. Csango PA,, Pedersen JE,, Hess RD. 2004. Comparison of four Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM-, IgG- and IgA-specific enzyme immunoassays in blood donors and patients. Clin Microbiol Infect 10:10941098.
133. Brown MB,, Cassell H,, McCormack WM,, Davis JK. 1987. Measurement of antibody to Mycoplasma hominis by an enzyme-linked immunoassay and detection of class-specific antibody responses in women with postpartum fever. Am J Obstet Gynecol 156:701708.
134. Brown MB,, Cassell GH,, Taylor-Robinson D,, Shepard MC. 1983. Measurement of antibody to Ureaplasma urealyticum by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and detection of antibody responses in patients with nongonococcal urethritis. J Clin Microbiol 17:288295.
135. Lo SC,, Wang RY,, Grandinetti T,, Zou N,, Haley CL,, Hayes MM,, Wear DJ,, Shih JW. 2003. Mycoplasma hominis lipid-associated membrane protein antigens for effective detection of M. hominis-specific antibodies in humans. Clin Infect Dis 36:12461253.
136. Furr PM,, Taylor-Robinson D. 1984. Microimmunofluorescence technique for detection of antibody to Mycoplasma genitalium. J Clin Pathol 37:10721074.
137. Taylor-Robinson D. 1989. Genital mycoplasma infections. Clin Lab Med 9:501523.
138. Moller BR,, Taylor-Robinson D,, Furr PM. 1984. Serological evidence implicating Mycoplasma genitalium in pelvic inflammatory disease. Lancet i:11021103.
139. Kenny GE,, Cartwright FD,, Roberts MC. 1986. Agar dilution method for determination of antibiotic susceptibility of Ureaplasma urealyticum. Pediatr Infect Dis 5:S332S334.
140. Waites KB,, Crabb DM,, Duffy LB,, Cassell GH. 1997. Evaluation of the Etest for detection of tetracycline resistance in Mycoplasma hominis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 27:117122.
141. Waites KB,, Canupp KC,, Kenny GE. 1999. In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hominis to six fluoroquinolones as determined by E test. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43:25712573.
142. Dosa E,, Nagy E,, Falk W,, Szoke I,, Ballies U. 1999. Evaluation of the Etest for susceptibility testing of Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma urealyticum. J Antimicrob Chemother 43:575578.
143. CLSI. 2011. Methods for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing of Human Mycoplasmas; Approved Guideline. CLSI Document M43–A. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
144. Bebear C,, Pereyre S,, Peuchant O. 2011. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics. Future Microbiol 6:423431.
145. Li X,, Atkinson TP,, Hagood J,, Makris C,, Duffy LB,, Waites KB. 2009. Emerging macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children: detection and characterization of resistant isolates. Pediatr Infect Dis J 28:693696.
146. Atkinson TP,, Boppana S,, Theos A,, Clements LS,, Xiao L,, Waites K. 2011. Stevens-Johnson syndrome in a boy with macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Pediatrics 127:e16051609.
147. Wolff BJ,, Thacker WL,, Schwartz SB,, Winchell JM. 2008. Detection of macrolide resistance in Mycoplasma pneumoniae by real-time PCR and high resolution melt analysis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52:35423549.
148. Peuchant O,, Menard A,, Renaudin H,, Morozumi M,, Ubukata K,, Bebear CM,, Pereyre S. 2009. Increased macrolide resistance of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in France directly detected in clinical specimens by real-time PCR and melting curve analysis. J Antimicrob Chemother 64:5258.
149. Xiao L,, Crabb DM,, Duffy LB,, Paralanov V,, Glass JI,, Hamilos DL,, Waites KB. 2011. Mutations in ribosomal proteins and ribosomal RNA confer macrolide resistance in human Ureaplasma spp. Int J Antimicrob Agents 37:377379.
150. Beeton ML,, Chalker VJ,, Maxwell NC,, Kotecha S,, Spiller OB. 2009. Concurrent titration and determination of antibiotic resistance in ureaplasma species with identification of novel point mutations in genes associated with resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 53:20202027.
151. Jensen JS,, Bradshaw CS,, Tabrizi SN,, Fairley CK,, Hamasuna R. 2008. Azithromycin treatment failure in Mycoplasma genitalium-positive patients with nongonococcal urethritis is associated with induced macrolide resistance. Clin Infect Dis 47:15461553.
152. Duffy L,, Glass J,, Hall G,, Avery R,, Rackley R,, Peterson S,, Waites K. 2006. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Ureaplasma parvum in the United States. J Clin Microbiol 44:15901591.
153. Xiao L,, Crabb DM,, Duffy LB,, Paralanov V,, Glass JI,, Waites KB. 2012. Chromosomal mutations responsible for fluoroquinolone resistance in Ureaplasma species in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 56:27802783.
154. Beeton ML,, Chalker VJ,, Kotecha S,, Spiller OB. 2009. Comparison of full gyrA, gyrB, parC and parE gene sequences between all Ureaplasma parvum and Ureaplasma urealyticum serovars to separate true fluoroquinolone antibiotic resistance mutations from non-resistance polymorphism. J Antimicrob Chemother 64:529538.
155. Shimada Y,, Deguchi T,, Nakane K,, Masue T,, Yasuda M,, Yokoi S,, Ito S,, Nakano M,, Ito S,, Ishiko H. Emergence of clinical strains of Mycoplasma genitalium harbouring alterations in ParC associated with fluoroquinolone resistance. Int J Antimicrob Agents 36:255258.
156. Bebear CM,, Renaudin H,, Charron A,, Clerc M,, Pereyre S,, Bebear C. 2003. DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV mutations in clinical isolates of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma hominis resistant to fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 47:33233325.
157. Waites KB. 2008. Mycoplasma, p 1145–1156. In Schlossberg D (ed), Clinical Infectious Disease. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
158. Tully JG,, Taylor-Robinson D,, Rose DL,, Cole RM,, Bove JM. 1983. Mycoplasma genitalium, a new species from the human urogenital tract. Int J Syst Bacteriol 33:387396.

Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Classification and some distinguishing features of mycoplasmas (class )

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Primary sites of colonization, metabolism, and pathogenicity of mollicutes of human origin

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Examples of test kits for detection of serum antibodies to sold in the United States

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

MIC ranges of various antimicrobials for , , , , and spp.

Citation: Waites K, Taylor-Robinson D. 2015. and , p 1088-1105. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch62

This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Please check the format of the address you have entered.
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error