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Abstract:

The contain the known human pathogens , , and as well as organisms such as and that have been only rarely associated with human infections. is currently divided into 18 serovars. Serovars A, B, Ba, and C can be isolated from patients with clinical trachoma, whereas D-K are urogenital serovars, and L1-3 cause lymphogranuloma venereum. causes infections of the upper and lower respiratory tracts such as sinusitis, pharyngitis, bronchitis, and pneumonia. can be readily transmitted to humans either by direct contact with infected birds or following inhalation of aerosols from nasal discharges and from infectious fecal or feather dust. Some strains previously designated as have been placed into several animal species such as , , , , and . This chapter covers specimen collection, specimen processing, isolation procedures, diagnostic assays, biosafety, identification procedures, and typing systems, as well as serological procedures, treatment, and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs). NAATs are recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the detection of in urogenital samples. Newly approved specimen types for these assays include vaginal swabs and urines. There are now five United States Food and Drug Administration-cleared NAAT assays that can be used for the diagnosis of .

Citation: Gaydos C, Essig A. 2015. *, p 1106-1121. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch63
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FIGURE 1

Identification of by staining intracytoplasmic inclusions with iodine (A) and FITC-conjugated monoclonal antibody directed at the MOMP (B). Transmission electron microscopy of a -infected cell shows an intracytoplasmic inclusion impressing the cell nucleus (C) and filled with EBs and RBs (D) at 60 h postinfection; the arrowhead shows a dividing RB. (E) Identification of culture-grown by fluorescence hybridization using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Simultaneous use of a Cy5-labeled probe that targets a chlamydial 16S rRNA sequence common to all members of the (blue) and a Cy3-labeled probe specific for (red). Due to the overlap of colors, appears purple in the composite image; host cells are counterstained by a 5( )-carboxyfluorescein-hydroxysuccinimide ester (FLUOS)-labeled eukaryotic probe (green). (F) IgG-MIF image (magnification, ×400) showing bright homogeneous fluorescence of EBs at a serum dilution of 1:512. (Photographs courtesy of Sonja Maier, Sven Poppert, and Ulrike Simnacher, Department of Medical Microbiology and Hygiene, University of Ulm; and Matthias Horn, Division of Microbial Ecology, University of Vienna.) doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch63.f1

Citation: Gaydos C, Essig A. 2015. *, p 1106-1121. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch63
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Ranges of sensitivity and specificity for diagnostic tests for in urogenital specimens

Citation: Gaydos C, Essig A. 2015. *, p 1106-1121. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch63

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