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Chapter 89 : Rhinoviruses

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Rhinoviruses, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are members of the family Previously a separate genus, HRVs have been reclassified into three separate species (A, B, C) within the genus. HRV culture isolates were originally classified into 99 serotypes based on neutralization with type-specific antisera. The wider use of molecular methods has led to the discovery of a novel group of HRVs, classified as species “C.” HRV infections are widespread year-round, with peaks in autumn and late spring in temperate zones. HRVs cause about two-thirds of cases of the common cold and thus are responsible for more episodes of human illness than any other infectious agent. Recently, with the use of molecular methods, more severe consequences of HRV infections have been recognized. HRV has been detected in lower respiratory tract infections in patients of all ages hospitalized with wheezing or pneumonia and in patients with chronic illnesses, cancer, immunosuppressive illnesses, transplants, and underlying pulmonary disease such as asthma. While nucleic acid amplification assays have revolutionized HRV detection, the interpretation of a positive result can be problematic. HRV can be detected in asymptomatic persons, can be shed for weeks after respiratory symptoms resolve, are prone to cause serial infections, and can occur as coinfections with other viruses or bacteria. Thus, interpretation in the individual case often relies on risk factors and recovery of other pathogens. Further research is needed to determine the impact of HRV detection on patient management and develop effective therapies.

Citation: Landry M, Lu X. 2015. Rhinoviruses, p 1551-1564. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch89
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Figures

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FIGURE 1

HRV genome structure. The genome consists one single open reading frame flanked by 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions (UTR). A small viral protein, VPg, is covalently linked to the 5′ UTR. VP, viral protein; IRES, internal ribosome entry site; cre, -acting replication element. Reproduced with permission from . doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch89.f1

Citation: Landry M, Lu X. 2015. Rhinoviruses, p 1551-1564. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch89
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

HRV CPE in human embryonic lung fibroblasts. (A) Uninfected cells; (B) early focus of rhinovirus CPE; (C) more advanced rhinovirus CPE. Magnification, ×100. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch89.f2

Citation: Landry M, Lu X. 2015. Rhinoviruses, p 1551-1564. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch89
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Tables

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TABLE 1

Commercial multiplex molecular assays for respiratory pathogens, including HRV

Citation: Landry M, Lu X. 2015. Rhinoviruses, p 1551-1564. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch89
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Comparison of diagnostic methods for rhinoviruses

Citation: Landry M, Lu X. 2015. Rhinoviruses, p 1551-1564. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch89

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