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Chapter 93 : Gastroenteritis Viruses*

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Gastroenteritis Viruses*, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most common illnesses in humans resulting in a substantial burden to public health worldwide. Severe disease leading to hospitalizations, increased morbidity, and even death is observed among infants, children, elderly, and immunocompromised persons. Viruses are the predominant cause of gastroenteritis and include rotaviruses, noroviruses, sapoviruses, astroviruses, and adenovirus types 40 and 41. Laboratory testing is required for a reliable diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis, since the specific etiology of disease can be difficult to distinguish on the basis of clinical features alone. Recent advances in technology have resulted in the development of newer diagnostic assays that offer great promise for accurate detection of gastrointestinal viral infections. This chapter emphasizes the fundamental characteristics and clinical importance of viruses that cause gastroenteritis and highlights the laboratory methods that can be used to make a rapid and definitive diagnosis for the greatest impact on the care and management of ill patients and the prevention and control of hospital-acquired infections and community outbreaks due to enteric viruses.

Citation: Pang X, Hodinka R. 2015. Gastroenteritis Viruses*, p 1617-1632. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch93
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FIGURE 1

Electron micrographs of the major gastroenteritis viruses. (A) rotavirus, (B) noroviruses, (C) sapovirus, (D) astrovirus, (E) adenoviruses. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch93.f1

Citation: Pang X, Hodinka R. 2015. Gastroenteritis Viruses*, p 1617-1632. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch93
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Tables

Generic image for table
TABLE 1

Taxonomy and virologic properties of the major gastroenteritis viruses

Citation: Pang X, Hodinka R. 2015. Gastroenteritis Viruses*, p 1617-1632. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch93
Generic image for table
TABLE 2

Transmission and epidemiology of the major gastroenteritis viruses

Citation: Pang X, Hodinka R. 2015. Gastroenteritis Viruses*, p 1617-1632. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch93
Generic image for table
TABLE 3

Selected clinical features of the major gastroenteritis viruses

Citation: Pang X, Hodinka R. 2015. Gastroenteritis Viruses*, p 1617-1632. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch93
Generic image for table
TABLE 4

Selected commercial antigen-detection tests available for diagnosis of viral gastroenteritis

Citation: Pang X, Hodinka R. 2015. Gastroenteritis Viruses*, p 1617-1632. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch93
Generic image for table
TABLE 5

Selected molecular assays for detection of the major viruses known to cause gastroenteritis

Citation: Pang X, Hodinka R. 2015. Gastroenteritis Viruses*, p 1617-1632. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch93

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