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Chapter 94 : Rabies Virus*

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Rabies Virus*, Page 1 of 2

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Abstract:

This chapter contains the latest information on taxonomy of the genus Since the previous edition, there are three new species, , , , and a proposed new lyssavirus, The genetic diversity within the genus has a significant impact on the success of postexposure prophylaxis with current biologics. A description of the morphology and structure of the agent, the structural proteins of diagnostic significance, and the epidemiology and transmission of the disease are also presented. Although rare in affluent countries, more than 55,000 human cases of rabies occur annually. A section on the clinical significance of disease describes signs and symptoms at different stages. Although the successful treatment of a teenager from Wisconsin in 2004 has broadened treatment options, specific rabies antiviral treatment does not exist, and prognosis remains poor. Electronic resources for physicians and public health professionalsare provided, including the most current information concerning rabies diagnosis, experimental treatment protocols and consultation. Rabies prevention, including pre- and postexposure prophylaxis, is discussed according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines for the United States. Presented are laboratory methods to confirm or rule out rabies in antemortem and postmortem humans and animals. Descriptions of the tests for detection of virus, antigen, antibodies, and nucleic acids and methods for virus (antigenic and genetic) typing are included. The interpretation of test results, sample requirements, and storage and transport conditions are mentioned. The information is provided to laboratory and public health professionals as a resource for information concerning rabies and other lyssaviruses.

Citation: Orciari L, Hanlon C, Franka R. 2015. Rabies Virus*, p 1633-1643. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch94
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FIGURE 1

Lyssavirus diversity was demonstrated by limited sequence analysis (400 nucleotides) of gene sequences performed using neighbor joining and maximum likelihood methods and bootstrap analysis of 1,000 trees. Full gene sequences were available for all lyssaviruses in GenBank, except for Lleida virus. Phylogroup 1 is composed of rabies viruses and closely related nonrabies lyssaviruses against which the currently available rabies biologics are effective. These biologics are, however, not effective with the divergent lyssaviruses in phylogroups II and III. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch94.f1

Citation: Orciari L, Hanlon C, Franka R. 2015. Rabies Virus*, p 1633-1643. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch94
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Image of FIGURE 2
FIGURE 2

Diagram of lyssavirus morphology and structural proteins. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch94.f2

Citation: Orciari L, Hanlon C, Franka R. 2015. Rabies Virus*, p 1633-1643. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch94
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FIGURE 3

Comparison of nonspecific histologic staining and antigen detection methods. doi:10.1128/9781555817381.ch94.f3

Citation: Orciari L, Hanlon C, Franka R. 2015. Rabies Virus*, p 1633-1643. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch94
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References

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Tables

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TABLE 1

Routine tests for rabies diagnosis

Citation: Orciari L, Hanlon C, Franka R. 2015. Rabies Virus*, p 1633-1643. In Jorgensen J, Pfaller M, Carroll K, Funke G, Landry M, Richter S, Warnock D (ed), Manual of Clinical Microbiology, Eleventh Edition. ASM Press, Washington, DC. doi: 10.1128/9781555817381.ch94

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